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Full text of "The Florist and Horticultural Journal"

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Ex LiBHIS 

The Pennsylvania 

Horticultural Society 



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in 2011 witii funding from 

LYRASIS IVIembers and Sloan Foundation 



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THE 




AND 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL, 

A MONTHLY MAGAZINE OF 

Horticulture, Agriculttire, Botany, Agricultural 
Chemistry, Entomology, &c. 

H. C. HANSON, 

ED IT OK, 

WITH THE FOLLOWING CONTKIBUTOBS I 



RoBKRT E. Rogers, M. D. Professor of Chem- 
istry in the Med. Dept. Univ. of Penn. 

S. S. Haldeman, A.M.J Prof, of Nat.Histoty in 
Univ. of Penn. 

Dr. W. D. Brinckle, Vice President <)f the 
Penn. Hort. Soc, late President of the Ame- 
rican Pomological Congress. 



John Cassin, late Corr.'Sec. of the Academy 
of Nat. Sci., of Philada., &6. 
Prof. W. B. Rogers, of the University of Va. 
W. D. Brackenkidge, Washington, D.C. 
Messrs. R. BmsT, Philada.; Louis Menand,- 
Albany ; Wm. Saunders", Baltimore j Wm. 
Chorlton, New York; Thomas Meehan, 
Philada., and others. 



VOLUME 11. 



PHILADELPHIA: 
1853. 



■J, 



2 9 i8 

ppHofl 



THE FLORIST 

Km HORTICULTUEAL JOURML. 

Vol. II] PiiiladelpJiia, January, 1853. [No. 1. 

CAMELLIA— MES. COPE. 

ETY:\r.— Camelli, an Italian .Jesuit, or accordins: to others, G. Camellus, a Mora- 
viiin Jesuit, a traveller ia Asia, and author of a history of plants of the island 

of Lucon. 

Ternsfrcpmiaceo; § Camellieje. — Monodelphia-Polyandria. 

CHARAC. GENER.— Co/ya'.v bracteoIati-5-9-phylli /o/zo/fs 2 3-seriatlm imbri- 
catis, interiorilius sensim majoribus deciduis. CurnllcE pctalah-1 hvpoo;vna imbri- 
ca'a, interiora majora. Stamina plurima hypogina phiriseriata sxpe iniis petalis 
adhxrentia basi plus minus interse cohcerentia, jVnmcntis subnlatis, (mtheri.i in- 
cumbentibus hiloculaiibus ohlongis, cnnnectii'O crassiiisculo, locvlin longitudinali- 
tfT dehiscentibus. Ovarium liberum 3-5-loculare. Ovula in loc\ilis 4-5, angulo 
cuntrali altfrnatim inserta pendula. S/j//?/? 3-5-fidus ; stigmalihus capitellalis. 
Capsuld 3-5-locularis indeliiscens loculicide 3-5-vaIvis, valvis medio septiferis, nj;? 
centrali persisiente fijciebus seminifero. Se.mina in loculis aborlii solitaria raritis 
gvinina inversa, testa nucamenlacea, umbilico apicali inipresso. Embrytmis exal- 
buminosi cotylccJone.s crasss cwrnosae inKquale?, rudicuhi brevissima supera. 

Frutices sempervirentes Jlsia austraiis jihigam orierUaJ.evi incoientefi ob Imlissi- 
7!i'/m. Jiorum decorem magnix advnis/arvm stziiliis merito celelrnicE, foliis alternis 
jietin/.aiis conaci'ia nitidis integcrriwis^ gi'tnmis magnis perulis distiche imbricatis 
/ecn,s,floribus axillaribus U terminalibxis speciosissimis nlbis roseis v. pvrpureis. 

ClIARACT. SPEC. — E typo communi CJajoo^ica, varietas in horto Sher- 
■viroodiano enaia. 

The term florist flower, so often used amongst horticultural people, 
needs explanation to readers genGniUj : It is applied to hybrids, or 
varieties of any flower obtained by crossing, in contradistinction to 
species. Tlie florist flower is a mule, incapable, as all other hybrids 
are, of reproducing itself by seed, or at least of continuing the same 
for any length of time. The flne and numberless varieties of Dah- 
lia, of Camellia, of Fuchsia, Carnation, Verbena, &c., are the most 
familiar examples. 

It is, in a great measure, to these abortions that we are indebted 
for the choicest beauties of our crirdons and greenhouses. The Dah- 
lia, from a tawdry, illshaped flower, has become beautiful in form 
and color. The single red Camellia is one of the parents of the 
splendid varieties with which we are familiar. Compare tho. first 
Fuchsias which w^ere known to us, the coccinea and globosa, with 
the size and coloring of Fair Rosamond and Don Giovainii, and 
what an advance has been made ! 
1 



THE FLORIST, AND 



There are some fastlVioii.'^ anil hypercritical people ■who condemn 
these varieties as departures from nature — as an interlercnce of art ; 
to these we have a most opportune reply. In the appendix, Avritten 
hy a scholar of Trinity, Cambridge, to the " Account of the British 
colonization of New Zealand, the writer says, " There may he those 
who would look with apprehension on any intermixture of foreign- 
ers with the native race, from its supposed tendency to obliterate a 
peculiar and interesting variety of the human species * * * 
This feeling is natural and amiable, but it partakes of the gentle 
prejudice of Perdita, in expressing her distaste for the "piedness" or 
variegated character of carnations and other flowei-s, which she ac- 
knowledges to be the fairest of the season, i)ut refuses to admit into 
her garden. PolLxencs, to whom her conversation is addressed, in- 
quires — 

Wherefore, gentle maiden, 
Do you neglect them ? 

Perdita. For I have heard it said, 
There is an art, which, in their piedness, shares 
With great creating nature. 

Polixcncs. Say there be. 
Yet nature is made better by no mean, 
But nature makes that mean ; so, o'er that art 
"Which you say adds to nature, is an art 
That nature makes. You see, sweet maid, we many 
A gentler scion to the wildest stock. 
And make conceive a bark of baser kind 
By bud of noble race ; this is an art 
Which does mend nature, chan£re it rather; but 
The art itself is nature. Winter's Talc, Act IV. Sc^ne 3. 

• * • God has so fashioned man as to empower man to fashion 
nature ; and so to fashion nature as to draw from her hidden ele- 
ments forms of far greater beauty and utility tlian in her present 
state of impcrlection are offered to us by nature herself. It would 
be dilhcult to select a fmit, a grain or a vegetable which has not 
been raised to its present value by artificial means ; and wherever 
we turn we are reminded of the wonders Avhich are effected in the 
floral kingdom by modern horticulture." '\^'ho would prefer the 
common crab to the j.ipiun or belleileur ; the insignificant fruit of 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 



the amjgdalus to the delicious peach ? or any of the farinaceous 
grasses to the flour of wheat ? Yet these have all dejjarted from 
their original species, and have arrived at their jDresent state of use- 
fulness and pleasantness by human care. The perfection to which 
the hybridization of flowers may arrive can hardly be guessed at ; 
the varieties of some plants are already beyond calculation; but 
there are many which ai'e abandoned or neglected, as the}' are sur- 
passed or improved upon, so that the numbers will always be kept 
within certain bounds; besides, the widening of the gardening woild 
increases the field, as the increasing extent of country brought under 
the influence of civilization affords room for the increase of the hu- 
man race. Wliat is produced iti Europe is admired, is the fashion, 
" struts its liour," and is passed over to us; by the time it is intro- 
duced to the remotest points of our country it is old in our neighbor- 
hood, and is readj^ to be pushed aside for the next novelty. This is 
not true however, of all varieties: the double white Camellia which 
was introduced into England from China, where hybridization seems 
to have origlniited, nearly a century ago, is still the most fixvor- 
ite of its genus; so with others which have become standard favor- 
ites 

The flower of which we give a representation In this present num- 
ber, is one of those hybrids of the Camellia which have gained for 
Philadelphia a great leputatlon in the horticultural Avorld. It was 
obtained from seed by Mr. Jolm Sherwood, who has been the suc- 
cessful raiser of manj" fine seedlings, and 1)y him dedicated to the 
late Mi's. Cope. It is certainl}- a flower which will take its place In 
the very first rank, among the productions of both the old and the 
new world. Our picture, which was faithfully and skilfully drawn 
from nature liy Mrs. Russell Smith, is of a rather immature flower, 
the full-blown one appealing to nuich greater advantage as regaids 
form, the imbrication of the petals being more perfect ; the coloi' Is 
unsurpassed In delicacy, and resembles In tone and markings the 
varieties Duchess of Orleans, (of Avhich it Isdiflicult to obtain a good 
flower, on account of its inability to expand,) and Loav's Alexina, 
which Is Inferior to oin- flower In dellracy. We can predict for it a 
continued favor. The stock is in the possession of Messrs. Buist, of 
Rosedale, and Kitchie, of Kensington. h r.H. 



THE FLORIST, AND 



HISTORY AND MANAGEMENT OF THE CAMELLIA. 

The Camellia, according to Loudon, was named by the Father of 
Botany, Linnaeus, in honor of George Joseph Kamel or Camellus, a 
Jesuit. There is a Ijeautiful fitness in the name for such a beautiful 
plant. The Jesuit is considered by the body of men -ivhose cause 
he upholds, their ornament and their pride — the Camellia is 
considered by the admirers of flowers as one of their choicest objects 
of admiration. It is a native of Japan and China, though more 
common in the former than in the latter. There it grows to a very 
lofty tree, and is planted everywhere in their gardens for ornament 
— and in their groves and walks for shade and shelter. It must be 
a beautiful sight to see an avenue of Camellias as large as silver ma- 
ples, with their deep glossy foliage and fioAvers of eveiy hue, from 
the purest' Avhite to the richest crimson. Stiil though we may envy 
the Japanese the magnificence of their specimens, Ave may Avell be 
proud of the innumerable fine and splendid varieties which our su- 
perior sliill in horticulture has produced. In China it is also exten- 
sively cultivated, and most of the varieties originally in cultivation 
w^ere imported from there. The date of its introduction to England 
is recorded as 1739, and I presume that for a long time afterwards 
the number of varieties was very limited. In one of the most po- 
pular histories of gardening, published in 1800, I find, in a history 
and description of the plant, the mere notice that " There are varie- 
ties of it in cultivation with single red and purple floAvers, with 
double red and purple floAvers, Avith single Avhite floAvers, and double 
Avhite flowers;" from Avhich comparatiA'ely brief notice I conclude 
that there Avere very feAV varieties, and these little known or cared 
for at that time. Most of those introduced from China at that time 
were receiv^ed between that period and 1820, after Avhich many fine 
seedlings Avere let out by the English nurserymen. About this pe- 
riod, Chandler, of Vauxhall, near London, began to establish himself 
as the greatest groAver and raiser of new kinds of the age ; he pub- 
lished figures of his ncAv kinds as they appeared ; one of the first 
was eximia, and so great has been the change, so rapid the improve- 
ment, that it is very rarely indeed that we can find a plant in any 
collection. I have met lately with one single plant in an extensiA^e 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 



Philadelphia collection, but it was like gazing for an instant on the 
Daguerrotype of a long lost friend. About ] 824 the imhricata was 
introduced by the Dutch nurserymen from China, and it is more 
than probable that the singular, and to this day unequalled beauty 
of this variety gave to Camellia growing the increased impulse which 
commenced a few years after. Since 1840 new varieties have 
sprung up like mushrooms, both in rapidity and the multitudinous 
nature of their various forms. Lo'w in England, Van Houtte in Bel- 
gium, and many of the Paris nm'serjmien, seem to have placed 
Chandler completely in the shade, and have for some years been the 
ruling spirits of Camellia development. 

In our own country the spirit of improvement has been still more 
siu'prising ; our seedlings have obtained a reputation even in the old 
world almost as great as their old Chinese prototypes; and by means 
principally of this plant the names of our nurserj-raen are as fiimil- 
iar as household words. This is the case with Boll, Hogg and Dun- 
lap of New York ; Smith, Buist, Ritchie and Dick, of Philadelphia, 
and Feast of Baltimore — all of whom have an European reputation 
amongst Camellia raisers of the highest eminence. "We cannot, per- 
haps, boast of giving to the over six hundred varieties which make 
up the total of European collections, the greater portion of its num- 
ber; but we can point to some of our varieties as being among the 
brightest stars in their floral firmament ; their verj- "Rpjnc des Ca7nel- 
lias;" — the Duchess of Orleans — with all the regal dignit}' attached 
to its name, is in danger of being superceded by a plain "citizen." A 
specimen bloom of a seedling, by Mr. John Sherwood, and named 
Mrs. Cope, was exhil)ited at the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society's 
rooms, in the early part of this season, and gave i'uil promise of 
bearing the character I luive just sketched out for it. 

Having thus given a brief outline of the historj- of the Camellia, 
I proceed to treat similarly of its cultivation. 

Soil. — There are many opinions as to the best soil for Camellias; 
some, especially the French gardeners, go in strongly for loam — 
others, chietly German, will lie perfectly well satisfied with a brown 
hazelly loam ; others, again, mostly British, require a " mixture of 
peat, loam and sand." The probability is, that in the hands of a 
good gardener, in a house, and in good conditions, any of the 
mentioned soils is as good as another. Climate has much to do 



6 THE FLORIST, AND 



with the choice of a plant. A dry and hot climate is very hard on 
plants grown in jaeat, or undecomposed leaf mould. The constant 
supply of water necessary to replace that loss by evaporation, joined 
to the dry heat, to which the soil is alternately exposed, causes 
the vegetable matter in it to decompose very rapidly, during which- 
an acid is produced which sours the soil, and probably acts very 
iujuriously. Thus it follows, 'that a soil which is adapted to a 
Camellia in one country, or circumstances, is not by any means fit 
for all. But the principle of the thing being understood, the reader 
will vary his soils to suit his locality, or the conditions under which 
he is called upon to grow his plants. I have found my Camellias 
to thrive best in a soil having for its basis a bi-own hazelly loam, in 
this I put about a fourth part of turfy peat, or if this is not at hand, 
about the same quantity of well decomposed sandy leaf mould, at 
least three years old. Whatever proportions of any soil be adopted, 
nothing rich or rank should be amongst them, as rich manures of 
every kind have been found highly injurious. 

Potting. — A subject which usually receives much minute attention 
from writers, but which is not of so much importance as the soil and 
after management. While the plant makes fine luxuriant shoots it 
requires no potting, unless the pots should become crowded by roots. 
When there is a tendency of the growth to become weaker than 
it has formerly been, and the pot is at the same time well filled with 
roots, it is advantageous to re-pot them. The best time in my 
estimation for this operation is, when the flowering is nearly over, 
and the new growth about to commence. I have always found them 
do well shifting by at this period. Many have a settled habit of 
" going over " their plants regularly the ■ " first week in February ;" 
more frequently because the time has arrived, than because the 
plants really require it. When the reason or principles of an opera- 
tion are understood, its position in gardening becomes a branch of 
science ; then times and seasons follow from the wants and require- 
ments of the plant, rather than the day or month of the year. — 
The importance of draining all plants well is so generally understood, 
that it is scarcely necessary to observe that the Camellia is no 
exception. A portion of charcoal, with the potsherds used for 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 



draining, is very useful ; tlie roots love to adhere to it, probably on 
account of the moisture charcoal absorbs. The material for 
drainage is frequently thrown in too carelessly ; flat pieces falling 
on the hole, and rendering the passage out of the water impossible. 
A large hollow piece should be chosen to cover the hole ; then a 
few large ones placed aiouud it ; a quantity of pieces broken much 
smaller then being placed over, the whole covered lightly with 
moss to prevent the soil from getting amongst the sherds ; this 
forms a good drainage. In placing the plants in tlae new pot, no 
person will bury the stem deeper in the soil than it was before. — 
We now come to the general management. 

The House. — The best as-pect for this, is like the best soil for 
them, a much debated subject. In a late volume of the " Companion 
to the Flower Garden," I observe that one writer insists on the ad- 
vantages his plants derived from being placed in a shady situation 
on a northern aspect in summer, while another describes tbe luxu- 
riant and healthy specimens he got by placing them in the full sun, 
under a south wall ! In America this latter mode would never do. 
In a well constructed house a northern aspect is perhaps as good as 
any ; it admits a large amomit of light, while it prevents the plants 
from having their leaves scorched by a sudden burst of sun in win- 
ter or early spring. Arrangements should be made for keeping the 
house above .30"-" or 40° in the seA'erest weather; a common well 
made tlue will be effectual where the house is small, but wherever 
the size of the house will warrant it, hot water pipes are much bet- 
ter, as the best constructed flue will allow injurious gases to escape 
at times, more especially where anthracite is used as fuel. 

Fall axd Winter Maxagejiext. — I prefer to have my plants all 
housed before the thermometer falls often below 40°. A Camellia 
properly hardened will bear a much greater degree of cold than this ; 
but as Cobbet would say, "the above is my plan," and it does well. 
After they arc housed I give them all the air possible, so long as I 
can keep the temperature from falling below what I have fixed; I 
thin out the flower buds according to the strength of the plants, ne- 
ver, hoNvever, leaving more than one at the point of a shoot. I give 
them no more water at this time than will keep the soil bai-ely moist 
and the buds just swelling ; caution is required in this, as, if the soil 



8 THE FLORIST, AND 

become quite dry the buds will drop. As the buds swell the wateF 
must be increased, and when the tiowers are expanding they will 
require a pretty free^ supply. As they cease flowering and com- 
mence to grow, I keep the atmosphere moister by throwing water 
about on the paths and stages, and by giving the plants an occasion- 
al syringing in the mornings preceding a fine warm day; whenever 
warm enough I give air by the top saslies only, deeming the open- 
ing of doors and side sashes as admitting currents of air highly in- 
jurious to the young Avood. If, as they show, some grow stronger 
than others on the same tree, thereby spoiling any desired propor- 
tion, I pinch them back half way — -I invariably find that pinching 
back a growing shoot weakens it, Avhile the other unjDinched ofT 
shoots are strengthened thereby. As soon as the Aveather out of 
doors ceases to be changeable, I make prejiarations for 

Summer axdFall Manageaient. — Here again "doctors differ/' — 
many preferring to keep them housed all summer, giving them an 
abundance of air, and keeping them shaded ; others advocating their 
being "turned out of house," if not home, " about the first of May,"" 
under some shady tree or some such situation. The first contend 
that by housing their plants, they protect theni from the heavy 
summer rains which often injure them, especially if the drainage get 
defective. The other party contending that when the plants are out 
of doors, insects do not attack them so freely, and w^hen they do at 
all, they are more easily cleaned and kejat clean. As the full benefit 
of the air is no doubt of the highest importance to the perfection of 
Camellia growing, I prefer to have the plants out in summer under 
an awning made for them, Avith all the sides open ; this, Avhile it af- 
fords them all the air possible, prevents the he^avy rains from injur- 
ing them, while they are easily cleaned when infested by insects. 

Insects. — The most injmious are the scale and red spider — lime 
water syringed over the plants will easily kill the former ; the latter 
more troublesome pest requires constant Avatching; the best thing, I 
believe, for destroying them is soapsuds — many excellent cultivators 
around Philadelphia use it, Avhile others equally good object to it, on 
the ground that it stops up the pores Avhich abound on the under sur- 
face of the leaf; but I haA^e never found it injurious, and presume 
that the thin membrane-like coat, which adheres to the plant after 
the washing, cracks and peels off Avhen it dries soon after. 

A Philadelphia Gardkxer. 



nORTICULTUIlAL JOURNAL. 



For the Florist, and Horticultural Journal. 

ELVASTON CASTLE, 

The sciit of the Earl of ILmington, near Derby, is the mo^;t cele- 
l)rated place ia Europe for its profusion of e\'ei"gi'een trees and 
shrubs of every class — if there exists a hardy evergreen, it is enough, 
it is soon dejiosited within the domain of this noted modern plantei'. 
When 1 visited it in 1831, to see my youthful friend, Mr. Barron, 
Avho had tlien entered as gaixlcner, I noted the place only for its 
long level avenues of lindens and chestnuts that had apparently « 
stood the blasts of the past contui'y. A noted landscape j^lanter was 
invited jjy the granflfather of the late Earl to improve the grounds, 
but considered them so tame and level that nothing could be done. 
There Avere then half a dozen cedars of Lebanon planted, -which 
Were the only evergreen trees of character on the place. The late 
Mr. Loudouj in his garden statistics about 1829-'30, did not even 
notice it. The house is of the plainest character, Avith all the ap- 
jiendages of the establishment hi conjunction with it ; and strange 
to say, the 2:)arish church in juxtaposition — a plain sheet of water 
and ancient flowei- garden, with hedges of yew and laurelj formed 
the picturesque of this now noted spot, in the aboA'e }ear. How 
clianged the scene — the cool, collected and ingenious talent of the 
giirdener, backed by the Earl's wealth and will, with a detei-mina- 
tion to produce what he had so long desired, has resulted in so short 
<i period Avith what no other has yet iichieved, even Avith nature in 
all its grandeur at tlieir coniniand. The Avholc has licen produced 
flo quietly and pl■i^•ately that comparatively few have j'ct realised a 
nolitaiy A'iew, unless tiiken from the toj) of tlic chftrch, as was done 
by our lamented friend Mr. DoAvning, or on a fcAv specitd occasions 
granted by his lordship. The sequel feeljly shoAvs Avhat twenty 
years have done — the Avhole feature of the place is decidedly Evioi!- 
<iREKX ; so that the grand avenue of lindens giA'es way to roAVs of 
Deodar cedars, Douglas fir, and Austrian pi)ie, till you approaeii 
Avithin half a mile of the mansion, Avherc there is an enclosure by 
a ha-ha or siuik fence, withiu Avhich you enter by massive ,i:il( led 
iron gates; on the right the coluinn is co\ered Avith the siher ivy, 
and on the left the lodge is embeilded in mantles of tiie green. — 
2 



10 THE FLORIST, AND 



So striking a contrast could not be overlooked. You are now with- 
in the paddpck, in a serpentine approach planted on right and left 
with variegated holly, backed -^vith cember pine, whose sombre shade 
formed a striking contrast with the pale variegations of the holly. 
The next turning opened on beds of heather, beautifully in bloom, 
interspersed Math boxwood and sheltered by towering specimens 
of Douglas fir and cedars of Lebanon, whose tops are grafted with. 
Deodars, the dark green of the former contrasting with the soft 
green of the latter — you could not resist the impression of the trees 
being covered with sea green silken mantlets. Another turning 
places the winter garden on the left, and brings you up in front of 
the mansion, from which you have a full view of the Winter Gar- 
den and Mount of Pleasure, that has no equal in Victoria's domin- 
ions, or perhaps any other country — a covered walk of several hun- 
dred yards. You cross its portals, and figure to 3-our mind's eye 
an old bushy j-ew tree that had been growing for centuries before its 
removal to its present site eighteen j'cars ago, forming now -a beau- 
tiful artistically dipt arbour, fourteen feet square and eighteen high, 
perfect every' inch, not a branch nor twig out of jolace, surmounted 
by two peacocks formed on the top of each other, and over them 
cast two rings, all formed with the shears, and perhaps cost as much 
as any of the architectural churches of Philadelphia. The Irish 
yew stands in regimental phalanx about eight feet high, grafted 
with the Taxus aurea formed into crowns, and shining in the sun as 
if burnished with gold, the Swedish and Irish juniper forming boun- 
dries of various tints of green and worked up into masses, creating 
by contrast of color and disposition of dwarfer variegations of fo- 
liage, habit and form. The prevailing character of the forms were 
to produce a parterre with colors so contrasted as to strike the eye, 
producing an impression surpassing any floral arrangement which 
was readily accomplished with every imaginable shade. For ex- 
ample — take a half-circle or crescent, and plant the disc with dark 
upright sombre yew or juniper, and the concave with variegated 
plants such as Vinca, thyme or Santolina, and you have at once a 
winter bouquet. 

To enter into a detail would however far outstrip my time and 
the patience of your readers ; we give the outline, and leave them 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 11 

to form the picture. The gildmg of the statuary, the elaborate work 
of the baskets surrounding some cherished novelty, the feathered 
declivity of the embankments, the terraces and slopes, the i^lains and 
the mounts— all exhibit an artistic skill fascinating in the extreme. 
What is this surrounded with such beautiful wickerwork ? " Libo- 
cedrus chilensis, a great acquisition." — It looks like a^autiful sil- 
ver Thuja. " yes ; you may call it Thuja chiliensis." There is 
another exquisite jalant, " That is Biota aurea ;" Ah ! very like a 
Thuja, too ? " Yes, Thuja aurea." There, you see, I have got 
fixed in a lybranth of names and art. What peculiar shaped pine 
is that ? " A Douglas Fir." Ah, you have been using the knife on 
it ? " Yes ; and on many others freely. I exjsloded the idea that 
evergreens will not bear pruning ; do it at the proper time, and ju- 
diciously, they are with few exceptions, perfectly under control." I 
thought Douglas fir an exception, and was onl}' handsome from seed? 
" Of all the magnificent specimens on the place there are only about 
half a dozen seedlings !" Make a note of that. 

From the east front of the house the east avenue extends ten 
miles in a straight uninterrupted view, which is not used as an en- 
trance but merely as a prospect; a walk of about thii't}- feet wide 
extends half a mile, or as, far as the ha-ha ; within this space tlie 
majestic horse chestnut has been replaced hy Araucaria imbricata, 
Cryptoraeriajaponica, Taxodium sempervirens, Deodars, Cedars of 
Lebanon, and Picea pinsapo, disposed with a gracefully waved out- 
line. As you enter this amazing vista you have on your right and 
left specimens of Picea nobilis, each ten feet high, and about the 
largest in England, and grown from cuttings planted when three 
inches high, of the most symmetrical form and without a fault, sui-- 
passing in beauty the fiir-famed Araucaria excelsa. Onward are 
beautiful trees of Araucaria imbricata, thirty feet high, planted on 
mounds, and clothed to tlie bottom with then- distinct and unique 
foliage and habit. These trees have been sixteen years planted, so 
that their average growth has been nearly two feet. Next came 
the Cryptoineria, with its graceful airy form nnd pendulous branch- 
lets contrasting with the stiff habit and upright mean of the ai'iiu- 
caria. How grand ! how expansive — what will it attain ? — Shall I 
see it again in twenty years? To the left of this pnispcci ond m- 



12 THE FLORIST, AND 

tirel}' unobserved, is the tame sheet of "watci- of 1831, now a magi- 
cal lake interspersed Avitli islands, peninsulas, promontorys and 
steeps of the most verdant grass — artificial rockwork, pallisades and 
geological formations, all having been brouglit many Biiles to 
adorn this secluded spot, to which you are gentty drawn by the mu- 
sical whisf%ings of a secluded waterfall. In your search jou cast 
your eye on the vista of Spondon, the chui-ch with itstoweringspire 
three miles across the lake, forms the termination of this picturesque 
view ; at your feet is a beautiful boat with its golden oars, in which 
we paddled from island to island, viewing and comparing the growth 
of trees, the formation of artificial rocks, and the design of the plan- 
ter, where the towering Douglas and Norway firs were flanked 
by our hemlock spruce, which makes an agreeable tree for rocky 
and water scenes, its delicate foliage and drooping branches kissing 
the ripple of the silver lake, adding new charms to the scene, in be- 
holding one of our most common trees luxuriating in those fairy 
isles with native splendour. Those trees were not planted on low 
mud islands, but on high artificial hills, nearly every foot of which 
had cost a shilling to the spirited owner, whose great delight was to 
employ the poor to raise the objects of his fancy. His sole pleasure 
was planning, planting and replanting — cost was rarely estimated, 
the question was, can it be done ? On the margins and inlets of this 
romantic sheet of Avater great eftect was produced by the shades of 
foliage, the Austrian, Corsicau and Norway pines gave dark shades, 
the Silver, Bhotan and Sabin give light shades ; the Khutrow, cem- 
brian and insignis giving the green shades, Avith an occasional 3'ew 
whose history went baciv into other centuries, gave a tone of ancient 
and niodern grandeur that must l^e seen to be fully realized. 

On the south of the lake and ver}^ near the mansion, is formed a 
grotto and fountain, where all the gems of dwarf trees, lava and 
rocks are collected and rather systematically arranged, which appears 
to have been the prevq,iling taste of his lordsliip. How wonderful 
are the productions of the vegetable kingdom ! and they can only be 
compared in collections thus brought together. We have been ad- 
iniring the rapid groAvth of many of the firs and pines, frequently 
exceedingly five feet in one season. What are we now to say of 
|;hoso miniature, less than Tom Thumb ciiFairs, of those clanbrasil. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 



pigmy and Hudson firs, some of which were twenty years old, and 
had not attained the height of as many inches. The A'iew from this 
l^oint across the hike was on the artificial ruins of an old castle com- 
joosed of rocks, pieces of buildings, tufa and limestone fomiations, 
covered with ivy and wild flowers, all erected withm fom-teen years, 
and appeared as having stood for ages on a spot that was a low mea- 
dow at my last visit. All the walks in the vicinity of this lake and 
indeed for miles, were asphalted, composed of four parts gravel and 
one part quick-Ume and gas tar sufficient to make the whole the 
consistency of mortar, Avhich was heated on jjlates built for the pur- 
pose and laid do^vn whilst hot, about two inches thick, and become 
as hard as marl^le. So much was I absorbed with what I could 
liarel}' realise to be real, that 10} of the night found me under the 
soft silver beams of the moon, with nature's cravmgs, still enjoying 
those magical scenes where I saw but yesterda}-, comparatively, the 
imiddy pool skirting the held of the mower. I retired to rest, but 
found none for my excited imagination ; the early dawn (2 J o'cl'k) 
found me solitary and alone amidst the golden-crowned yews of the 
winter garden — not altogether alone, I find, for there comes that si- 
lent watchman of the night, who has trod the path for seventeen 
yeai's, amongst those, to him no doubt, monotonous scenes. 

The thorough secret of the successful growth of all I have seen, 
consists in a comjilete system of under-draining ; the groimd Ijeing 
,so level the main drain had to be extended 1 2 miles in a direct line. 
All the leading trees were 2)lanted on mounds of earth — no tree was 
too large to remove and none too small to plant ; every power and 
facility was on the spot ; all fibrous roots were sacredly protected ; 
dui'ing removal copious waterings were given ; stays of strong No. 8 
wire were fixed from the giound to various parts of the tree, to pre- 
vent its being displaced alter planting ; evergreens were successfully 
moved at all times, but preference given just before their growth. 
Even a yew that Jiad stood 300 years, was successfully brought 
from a distance, and the second year after removal made a luxuriant 
growth ; another striking fact Avas, to plant the best that could be 
got ; from tliree inches to three feet high, were the general height of 
all those now unique specimens of rare evergreens. Seedlings, 
cuttings, layers or grafts, all Avere alike acceptable ; if they were 
not of the proper form, the knife Avas freely applied ; a\ here the 



14 THE FLORIST, AND 

roots had been confined in pots before planting they were washed 
from the old soil, the roots carefully extended, fresh soil placed 
amongst them, freely watered a few times, and success was the result. 
The most critical judges cannot now decide whether they were 
seedlings or not. I will now close with one word more : The 
whole art and energy has not been fully and entirely directed during 
the time to the one grand achivement of a Pine tree evergreen — 
pleasure ground and winter garden. There is a fruit and vegetable 
garden with graperies, peach houses, forcing houses, pine pits, hot 
and cold walls, and all their accompaniments kept in corresponding 
order, flourishing and fruitful ; but these are every day affairs. — 
The aehievments in the grounds and the plantmg, their growth and 
keeping in the short space of twenty years, has no precedent in 
modern landscape gardening. R. buist 



HORTICULTURAL SOCIETIES. 

Messrs. Editors: — Under this title! have read many articles in 
the " Florist," and other Horticultural papers ; every one giving his 
own views and opinions, but none it appears to me seem to have 
taken the subject into earnest consideration. 

Horticultural magazines publish articles about Horticultural So- 
cieties, horticulture, floriculture, strawberries, rural taste and its 
mission, landscape gardening, cultivation of Indian corn, &c., and 
of everything, even of Scoundrel the 1st, or Napoleon III, as you 
please, the kinsman of that great man, who, in 1812, in a fit of 
genius, forgot his army on the banks of the Muskawa, probably to 
make hygiene experiments on the salubrity and healthfulness of 
sleeping in the snow, on pillows of ice, eating horse-flesh, when it 
could be got — but ofteuer refreshing himself with that compound of 
azote and oxygen, which natural philosophers call air — air at a 
temperature of 28^ below zero, Fah. (don't you think, Messrs. Ed- 
itors, this a very substantial food ? one does not want ice cream 
after such a meal,) — or taking cool baths in the Beresina. See 
what it is to be a man of genius ! He Avanted only wings to be a 
real genius of the air ; although he could fly without them ; as this 
greatest man of the age perform the grea^teBt flight on record.— 



HORTICaLTUPvAL JOURNAL. 15 

He flew (-iOOO ages contemplated him,) from the pyramid of Cheops 
across the Mediterranean to the Paddiest nation in the world. 

I crave indulgence, Messrs. Editors, for making this digression on 
such small things as great men, but if Dr. Lindley indulges himself 
in talking politics in his Gardeners' Chronicle, we may perhaps also 
do so in this free country, when discussing horticulture, -yvhich makes 
laurels to grow to crown the head of human butchers, generally 
called Heroes. 

I was saj'ing that horticultural magazines write on gardening, 
botany, &c.; some few of the public read these writings with as much 
attention as we generally read the advertisements of sales of second 
hand clothing or furniture. Horticultural societies are daily estab- 
lished, one-tenth of the members attend the meetings and sham* 
exhibitions of these societies, where the jsrettiest and most interesting 
productions are certainly not those of the vegetable kingdom. 

While I am in the vein, will you permit me to take for my sub- 
ject your own Horticultural Society, as being the oldest and most 
important in the Union ? You do not say jes. Well, let us see, 
let us be men, let us acknowledge our own infirmities. I said at the 
commencement of this, that horticulture and horticultural societies 
are not considered earnestly either by amateurs or by gardeners, 
with the exception of a few of each party ; this indiflerence to those 
institutions so useful to both, arises from many very different causes. 
The indifference of amateurs comes principall}^ from the disap- 
pointment they often experience in their gardeners ; the indifference 
of some of the last comes simply from their own indifference — but 
some, and these are the minority iu number, but the majorit}^ in 
taleiits, are indifferent, oi' rather, to be just, are dissatisfied, per- 
haps disgusted, to see that their employers are never satisfied at 
whatever they do — want to have their own way about everthing, 
and yet make the gardeners responsible avIicii things do not turn 
out well ; or if satisfied, do not express their satisfaction for fear 
their gardeners sliould think too nuieh of themselves, and might 
ask a little ad\'ancc in wages, which in tliis case would be very 
natural, having the sentiment of their own worth ; they are dissatis- 
fied and become indifferent when they see that good jslants, difficult 
to cultivate and well grown get no norc encomiums or better awards 



16 THE I^LOrjST.AND 

of premiums than mere trash ; and sometimes worse than that, na 
mention, no notice taken at all of then- plants. In the year that is 
just past, we have seen something of that sort, but it is of no use 
to 23articularise. They become dissatisfied, demoralized, when they 
see that, besides getting no ^^I'emiums or mean ones, they get na' 
credit, no publicity being given to the awards of prizes,- exept in a 
few of the political papers; the two or three horticultural magazines 
they subscribe to, and Avhich ought to jMblish all the proceedings of 
horticultural societies, never mention a word of such, or if they do, 
it is in such a partial way, that it is still worse. Editors and pro- 
prietors of these magazines seem not to comprehend that theii^ 
interests are connected with the success and prosperity of horticultural 
societies, the ptosperity of gardeners, nUfserymen, — of all, in fine, 
who are engaged in horticultural pursuits, all are linked together.- 
This is entirely lost sight of; you are the first, in j'our last two 
numbers, who seem to have understood the importance of giving a 
large publicity to every branch of horticulture. In my opinion^ 
your "monthly tour of inspection," which I would call "horticultural 
review^," will do more towards the diffusion of taste for horticulture 
than all the exhiljitions alone. But if magazines (and we will have 
a ries^Jectable number of them,) and horticultural societies, would 
join together and lay aside their little jealousies and many other 
things- not worth mentioning, in a few years we would begin to see 
some of those wonders of the old world that I am anxious to see in' 
the new one ; that is to say the wonders of gardeners'' skill. I am 
also desirous of seeing one day, a large Central Horticultural Society, 
or Horticultural Congress, composed of all the local societies, that 
in twenty-four hours could meet in one given place, New York for 
instance ; but this is perhaps too much for the present, and before 
establishing a new society we must try to reform the defects of old 
ones. Let us begin. Will you allow me to speaik of your society ? 
You do not answer ; so I take your silence for consent ; but first, a 
few words in the shaipe of exordium. Besides my being fond of 
flowers, as my nante implies, I am very fond of talking. 1 say so 
here to prevent some of my friends, the gardeners, telling me that 
I have too much tongue for a lover of flowers ; real love whatever 
be its ol^ject, speaks more with the eyes and heart than with the 
tongue. I believe that too^xit the object of tay love,, of ffly talk. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 17 

I mean, could not understand the eloquence of my eyes or heart, so 
I must express myself more signiiicantl}^ 

Now my exordium is over, and I still scratch my ear to know 
how to come to the point. It is a delicate matter, interfering with 
other people's private affairs; but I think this is not a private affair, 
it is an affair of the Horticultural public, so I have the right to rum- 
mage it, and as I must begin with something, I will ask j'ou, first : 
Who were the members of your committee of arrangement at your 
last September exhibition — they were not gardeners assuredly ? but, 
if they were, I congratulate them upon the fine distribution of the 
articles exhibited. When I entered the Floral room, of course 
nobody was there but the managers, as I thought; there was no 
croAvd to prevent ni}^ looking at the objects closely, nor to distract 
nly attention. But this was all in vain. Everything waa so nmch 
mixed, pell-mell, that I could not find the plants that were for com- 
petition, except a lot of antediluvian specimens — 'I suppose the 
" hop-poles" of the " working gardener" — Avhich stood by the door 
of the Hall — which plants, I suppose, had been once bushy ; they 
must have been contemporaries of Wm. Penn's elm. 

How many times I sighed for the Ericas of Chiswick, three or 
four feet across, when looking at these venerable, but not very ad- 
mirable productions of the 1 7th century, if not older ; for I must 
tell you, that when I sailed from Dutchified Albany, I had the con- 
viction, whatever the " working gardener" had said, that I should 
see some fine plants, if not of Ericas, at least some specimens simi- 
lar; but, alas! 

Now I want all your indulgence, for I am going to abuse all 
liberty of lieing indisci-cet. I am going to ask you, who are the 
members of your executive committee? — -are there any scicnitifio 
men camongst them? — arc they young men nr old ones? — it does 
not matter, if they have young ideas. You will not speak, I sec — ■ 
you are offended at my inquiries; if so, I am very sorry; but you 
will permit mo to tell you, it is a poor wny of reforming abuses, il" 
you will not point them out. I am launched now and 1 will give 
you my opinion. 

I think a society like yours, in a city like Philadelphia, ought 
to have, as much as po^tiiblc, scicnLific lueu lur oilictrb:, vi, if Hot 



18 THE FLORIST, AND 

scientific, very zealous for the advancement of science, (for j'ou must 
not be too much dazzled with scientific men, tliey are often great 
humbugs,) especially the more active men. Secretaries, Chairmen 
of Committees, &c. Such a society ought not to be overruled by 
the Gerontocracy.* We are in an age of progress, and }'ou must 
not retrograde or be stationary, but advance, march with the age ; 
for are you not Americans in Pennsylvania I Will you allow the 
old country ideas of Europe to rule you? I do not believe it. You 
ought not to retrograde, but it is what I think you have been doing 
since a few years. I saw Philadelphia for the first time some 12 or 
13 years ago, and I think there were more good plants to be seen 
then in public or private collections than at present. Your society 
may possibly have saved money since then, but it has not advanced 
the science of Gardening or Botany ; it has neither diffused the 
taste for exotic plants or native plants. Philarvensis and others 
will have a good deal to say before they convince people that the 
Hemlock, Spruce and White Pine are as handsome trees as any coni- 
fer£e from Australia or other places. It will be a long time before 
people will believe tltat Andromeda Mcxicana and A. arbor ea, Ascle- 
pias tuherosa, Cypripedium spectahiU, Cornus florida, Acer mont ana. aud 
A. stricta, Epigaa repens, Lycopodium dendroideum, Osmunda specta- 
hilis, Adiantum pedutum, ^c, are as handsome as any exotics of the 
same genera. Show a tree for elegance that Avill surpass a hand- 
some hemlock, a nobler deciduous tree than Liriodendron tulipifera, 
a handsomer perennial than Asclcpias tuherosa or Aquilcgia canaden- 
sis, or shrub than Azalea calendidacca, a prettier fern than Botry- 
chium fumariodes, or Adiantum pedafum, and, to close the list of these 
native gems, (for Philarvensis and others sui generis, but "wild 
things" for most other people,) a prettier miniature of a plant than 
Physera chrysophthalma; but I forget that I am going too far, I am 
travelling out of my subject, so I will come at once to the perora- 
tion of my epistle, which my readers have been longing for. 

I hope before long to hear of some notable changes iri your society, 

and to see in the Florist, that , gardener to , exhibited 

Phenocoma prolifera, Aphilexis hmnilis, Pultenea ericoides, Emboth- 
rium or Telopea speciosissima, ^t., three or four feet high, and about 

*J think you call lliis in Engli-,h "Old Fogyism." 



HOrtTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 19 

as many across, and Mrs. ■ , or Miss exhibited a beautiful 

coUectioa of natives, among which we noticed FolygaJa paucifolia, 
Crotolaria saggitatis, §-c. anthoi'hilus. 

[Our correspondent is very severe upon the Society : we know 
it is not eutirel}- pei'fect, but take it for all in all, we get along pretty 
well. The committee into whose hands the arrangement of the an- 
nual exhibition was committed, labored under several difficulties — 
the most prominent of which was the promiscuous arrangement of 
the contributions of plants — these have been mixed together with- 
out regard to any system, with the single exception of size. The 
plants for competition were not sufficientlj' set out, and unless to those 
familiar with the arrangements, no plants could be found. On one 
side of the room were placed the best Achimenes, and second best 
were on the other side of the room, mixed up with a general col- 
lection of plants. Nothing was distinctly visible except the large 
desigiis and the specimens of Mandtia glabra. Until this confused 
want of arrangcm-7it is abandoned, the objections will remain. — 
Nevertheless, we doubt if our friend has ever seen in this countr}^ 
more good plants at any one time than were gathered at our last 
fall exhibition, and we think we can promise him that. If he comes 
again, next September, he will see something that will very nearly 
satisfy him. — Ed.'] 



THE PANSY. 



There Is not, perhaps, a greater favorite In the whole category of 
Flora's extensive field than the Pansy. Whether it be known by 
the local appellations of Juhnnj'-Jump-Ups, Heartsease, or Cull-me- 
Sweet, it is still the same universally admired pet, particularly with 
the fair sex. It matters not if the peculiar construction which may 
be put upon the sweet words made us6 of in designating it has any 
inlluence over the mind, there are charms enough belonging to Its 
external appearance that are sutficicnt to Aved the admiration of all 
flower lovers. An emblem of modest lieauty and graceful loveli- 
ness : we are reminded of the fairest daughters of K\ p, and well do 
the ladles acknowledge the compliment which natnrc lias paid to 



20 THE FLORIST, AND 

them, for it would be a difficult matter to find one who would not 
contract the ruby Up at the sight of a fragrant " Pensee." 

Notwithstanding the many attractions which it inherits, we seU 
dom see its beautiful proportions aiid bright and varied colors iu 
perfection, or even the cultivation rightly understood ; still this is 
simple and inexpensive, and can be accomplished with httle trouble. 

The Pansy, although so generally admired, is only a naturalized 
republican. The species of Viola, tricolor and lutea, have each 
contributed to make up the amalgamation of the different classes of 
colors which it exhibits. Viola tricolor, in its native state, is found 
in cultivated fields and hedge rows, and V. lutea generslly on the 
sides of elevated hijls. Often have I been enchained to the spot 
by the sight of this lovely gift of Flora, while botanizing in alpine 
districts, and oftener has its aurean splendor and modest effulgence 
captivated the senses of many a botanist, and made him forget the 
world and its dizzy throng. The singular natural beauty of the 
Pansy, has long since brought it under the changing operations of 
the hybridizing florist, and the all important (with him) standards 
of form, color, and size, have been established in outline and tex- 
ture, till perfection has mqunted the last pinnacle ; but this standard 
of excellence is not seen in the long horse-jaw formed flowers and 
muddy colors that we generally meet with. It consists of a well 
formed, smooth and circular outline ; the joetals thick, firm, flat, 
and each overlapping the other, so as not to show the divisions. — • 
Whatever the colors they should be clear, bright, and well defined. 
If belted, the margin ought to be even and not run into the ground 
color of the centre, which centre should be of a uniform shade. — 
The size of the flower is but of secondary consideration, but, to be 
up to the standard, ought not to be less than two inches in diameter, 
(I have occasionally had them three inches) and supported upon a 
footstalk, elevated above the foliage. The eyes should be either a 
well defined blotch upon the base of each of the three lower petals, 
or finely feathered. The blotch is generally acknowledged as best, 
but when prettily pencilled it does not disqualify as an exhibition 
flower. 

It appears somewhat strange that there are so many ladies who 
seem so enthusiastically fond of flowers, and yet so few attempts are 
ijjade by thew tq Qultivate and improve these mirrors of themselves. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 21 

Surely there must be a screw loose somewhere. Is it that they con- 
sider the matter as beneath the dignity of " Woman's Rights," or 
does it proceed from ignorance how to proceed ? Let us hope, 
though possessing knowledge generally, that the latter is the cause 
in this case ; and shame be to him or her who do know and wiU not 
assist in this much to be desired education. Would that we could 
induce our " Fairies" to shun the parched atmosj^here of dry stoves, 
and their accompaniments, consumption and imbecility, by becoming 
florists and observers of nature's vegetable laws ; when, instead of 
the sickly hue of the falling leaf, we should see their lovely cheeks 
blush as a " summer's rose," and their movements show truly " the 
elastic tread of woman." The cultivation and improvement of the 
Pansy offers a wide scope, and is particularly adapted to the fair 
sex, and if the following directions are followed, gratification will 
be the result, 

In order to improve the flowers of the next generation, the surest 
way is to hybridize between two of the best qualities, and both 
flowers should be of the same class or markings ; for instance, one 
may be large but not well formed or dull in color, and the other 
possess good form with bright and distinct markings, but small in 
size ; take the pollen off the anthers, (the little ring surrounding the 
point in the centre of the flower,) of the small one with a camel's 
hair pencil, and dust it over the stigma, or little point of the other 
flower, which will cause the pollen to adhere and secm-e the cross ; 
afterwards mark the flowers operated on by tjdng a j)iece of thread 
round the stalk, and remove at the same time all others but those 
impregnated on the same plant ; cover over for two or three days 
with a small net, sufficiently open to admit sun and air, but close 
enough to keep out beos or flies. The same results may be more 
imperfectly gained by simply choosing seed from the best flowers, 
but the extra trouble becomes a pleasing operation and will amply 
repay by the greater certainty ensured, 

As a winter and early spring display is desirable, the seed should 
be sown about tlie beginning of August, in a moderately rich ground, 
and shaded situation, protected from violent storms of rain, and to- 
wards the middle of September the young plants should be removed 
into a frame, freely exposed to the sun, and placed about four inches 



22 THE FLORIST, AND 

apart in a good loam, encircled with rotted stable manure. Leave 
oif the sashes till towards the middle of November, and when frosty 
nights occur put them on, giving plenty of air through the day. — ■ 
As severe weather comes on, line round the outside with eight or 
ten inches of mould, littery dung, or a thatching of clean straw. — 
In fine days continue to give plenty of air, but avoid cutting winds, 
and cover at nights with straw mats, or other material, to keep out 
the frost. When the soil becomes dry, give a good soaking of water, 
choosing a fair morning for the operation, but through the winter it 
is better to be too dry than over moist, and if any warm showers 
should occur take advantage of them by drawing down the sashes. 
If the above is attended to, there will be a good blow of flowers 
through the winter, and in March and April the plants will be 
covered. It is advised to plant four inches apart, which will be 
enough till the first flowers show, when all of bad quahty may be 
removed, and leave the better ones sufficiently apart for future 
growth. 

The above is intended for winter and early spring bloommg, and 
entails a little extra exertion ; but the Pansy is very hardy, and will 
stand the winters with no moi^e protection than a covering of cedar 
or other like branches, to keep off alternate thaAv and freezing, 
caused by the bright sun immediately folio vfing frost. In this case 
the bed should be well enriched with a dressing of good rotted ma- 
nure, and planted as recommended above, and if a shaded spot is cho- 
sen the plants will continue to bloom most of the summer, and on to 
the winter following. 

When a good variety is obtained, it is desirable to retain it, which 
may be done by planting out in a well enriched, damj) and shady 
place before the heat of summer comes on, and the tops or flowering 
shoots cut off" at the same time; here let it remain till fall, when it 
can be taken up, and will admit of being divided into single shoots, 
each having roots at the base, which in their turn make equally 
large plants ; slips also, or side shoots taken off" early in the spring or 
in the fall, and planted in a shaded place, will strike root. In the 
heat of summer cuttings generally damp off", Avhatever care is taken 
of them. 

By the above practice I have succeeded well with this little gem, 
and have several seedlings equal in quality to the European show 



HORTICQLTURAL JOURNAL. 23 

flowers, and feel convinced that with care and perseverance we can 
in a few years rival their standard ; only plant a portion of stock in 
a damp and somewhat shady yet open situation, and the Pansy is as 
much at home and as easily grown as it is in Britain. 

Wm, Chorlton, New Brighton, S. I. 



In making a boW to the public at our entrance upon the new vol- 
ume, it is with confidence of being about to use our utmost exertions 
to deserve the approval of all under whose notice we may come. Om- 
advantages are great. We are here hi the midst of horticulturists 
of every shade, having as references the fine collections of our ama- 
teurs and nurserymen ; the proceedings and library (the best in the 
country) of the Penns3-lvania Horticultural Society, and the assist- 
ance of many friends, both scientific and practical. We bring to our 
work enthusiastic admiration for everything pertaining to horticul- 
ture, an excellent knowledge of the best plants in cultivation, a fair 
amount of botanical and other loiowledge requisite for carrying on 
a horticultural journal, and a determination to make our magazine 
one of the first, if not the very first, in the country. 

The too much neglected science of botany, especially that relat- 
ing to our own Flora, we will do our utmost to diffuse a love for ; — 
we intend, as far as we can, to note the flowering of the plants in- 
digenous to this neighborhood as they appear. In this we are pro- 
mised the assistance of a scientific gentleman — one of the hestplan- 
tagnostes of this city. 

Our first plate is entirely a Philadelphia production — obtained 
from seed here, named in honor of the wife of our greatest amateur' 
horticulturist, painted by Mrs. Smith, and lithographed and colored! 
by Duval — we challenge the United States to produce its superior f 
We would have commenced the volume with one of the plates or- 
dered from Europe, but the}' did not arrive in time. We shall pre- 
sent to our readers, as far as we are able, an interesting variety of 
subjects ; and we hope to figure among otlicr jilants all the best 
American varieties of the diflferent florist's flowers. 

The new introductions to this and other cities will bo noted and 
described ; and as we think that more plants are imported here than 



24 THE FLORIST, ANC 

to any other place, we shall have the greater oisportunities. During 
the past year many rare and fine plants were introduced. The 
Amherstia nobilis, brought out by F. Lennig, Esq., is the only one 
in the countrj^, and probably will be alone for several years. The 
introductions of our other amateurs and nurserymen have been 
choice and extensive. We hope during the present year to record 
still more extensive importations ; four or five new places have beefi 
commenced in this neighborhood, all of which will add their quota 
to the general display. The future of American horticulture, bril- 
lialit as it is, is nowhere more so than here. 

The pomological department of our journal will be attended to by 
sevefal able contributors, so tliat it will receive its fare share of our 
time and space. As the number printed is limited, persons wishing 
the complete volume will do well to subscribe early. Our terms are 
low, much more so in proportion than those of any other publication 
of the kind. All subscri^Dtiohs must be in advance. 



CALENDAR OF OPERATIONS FOR JANUARY. 

FRUIT. 

The commencement of a new volume seems a suitable occasion 
for making a few observations explanatory of our intentioff with re- 
gard to the nature and intended application' of these monthly re- 
marks under the above head. In the first j)lace they will be, as far 
as possible, practical. We have no desire to take up sjDace with 
mere theoretical speculations of doubtful practical application. At 
the same time we will endeavor to direct attention to the funda- 
mental principles upon which the various j^ractical operations are 
founded, for it is only througli a recognisance of these laws that we 
are enabled to trace either failure or success to their proper cause, 
see the rationale of our operations, and proceed with certainty in 
their execution. The fruit grower has many incidents to contend 
against, such as unsuitable soil, ungenial climate ;' insects and ver- 
min of various kinds are constantly counteracting his best of efforts 
— the latter formidable enemies requiring close observation in study- 
ing their nature and habits in order to adopt means for their exter- 
mination. A large field for observation and experiment is before 
him. Much information litis yet to be learned with regard to the 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 25 

individual iDeculiarities of various kinds of fruit trees — the soil and 
situation most suitable for them — their exemption from diseases — 
their constitutional hardiness iu withstanding extreme and sudden 
clianges of temperature, — how they are influenced by early and late, 
winter and summer pruning ; all this, and much moi'e requiring 
observation, and well aiitheuticated experiment, before an ultimate 
decision can be arrived at, avoiding as far as possible the frequent 
occurrence of mistaking a consequence for a cause. We hope to 
see much valuable information of this kind in the " Florist," from 
experienced cultivators. These we do not pretend to instruct. Our 
aim will be to assist begirtners, and that numerous class of amateurs 
who laudably prefer to spend their leisure in attending to the vari- 
ous practical operations of horticulttire ; and as the interest taken 
in thesei matters will generally be m proportion to the amount of 
success, we hope to be able to suggest an occasional idea which will 
assist in the enjoyment of one of the most agreeable and pleasant 
pursuits. For 

"Th^sp are arts pursued without a crime, 
That leave no itain upon the wing of time." 

SiTt: Fon Fruit Trees. — ^The situation irt which a tree is placed 
iutluences in a great degree its welfare and productiveness. What 
are ciilled early situations are not commendable, since it is not de- 
sirable to have them early into flower, thereby increasing the liabil- 
ity of losing the crop by late frosts. A somewhat exposed situation 
on a northern slope is preferable to a southern or sheltered spot. — ■ 
Early growth should be avoided if possible, as an early development 
of blossom is almost sure of being caught by spring frosts while 
the tree is unprotected with foliage. Apricot trees, more especially, 
should Ije planted where the sun will not reach them before mid- 
day. They are easily excited in spring, hence we often find them 
producing regular, good crops in city yards where they are shaded 
by I)uildiiigs, while iu more exposed and v.'arm {ilaces they as often 
fail. 

Plums. — Much discoui-agement has been experienced in the cul- 
ture of this fruit, on account of its destruction l)y the ("inrdiio, or 
Plum Weevil, and many remedies have been suggested and fried, 
the most of them being only partially successful. Our ro.Tson for 
alluding to tins at the present time is to make the lomark that we 
4 



26 THE FLORIST, AND 

know a raiser of this fruit who annually secures good crops, and is 
seldom troubled with a visit from this insect enemy. The only 
precautionary measure he adopts is a frequent stirring of the sur- 
face soil round his trees during winter, forking it over occasionally 
that the frost may kill the larvae, slightly sprinkling the ground 
with salt after each operation. The remedy is easily applied and 
worthy of trial. 

Grapes, out of doors. — Towards the end of this month and be- 
ginning of next, is the favorite time, with many, for pruning their 
grape vines, although November is decidedly preferable for reasons 
St ited in a former number. Every one has his own way of doing 
tills : some jorefer the close spurrmg system, others the renewal 
mode, more a combination of both, and a large majority cut away 
in the no-sj'stem style. The long cane or renewal system we con- 
sider best for native grapes, if not for foreign sorts also. The spur- 
ring method is the most simple, but not the most scientific. To 
carry it out fully and profitably, the plants must be maintained in 
a high state of cultivation, and even then will be short lived. A 
somewhat rigorous summer stojoping is constantly necessary, which 
tends to impair and weaken the vital energies of the jolant. Young 
can"-; should be trained in annually to take the place of older ones 
whi;;h are to be cut out. These young rods produce better fruit 
and keep the plant in an active, healthy, root-making condition, 
an 1 by judicious management dm'ing growth, the crop can receive 
all the benefit desirable from close stopping, without checking the 
extension and increase of roots. The young, vigorous unpruned 
shoots will maintain a proper balance between root and foliage. 

s. B. 

lu order to arrange the business of the "Florist" properly, the 
last Nos. appeared in rapid succession. The readers will therefore 
remembsr, that the last calendar was intended for the present 
month. But as it Ls probable that the new arrangements of the 
Florist may prevent its usual punctual appearance on the first of the 
month, and that to the many new subscribers to the new series, the 
last calendar will not be available, I make a few further remarks 
for January, intending them to be applicable to a portion of the . 
month of February also. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 27 

Flower Garden. — At every opportunity work connected ^\ith 
this department should be forwarded. If the lawn be thin from 
constant moM'ings, a thin dressing of rich compost may be sown 
over it. Soot, whenever it can be obtained, is excellent for this 
purpose. Guano, mixed in proportion about one-sixth with sandy 
loam, is also very effectual. Whatever alterations and improve- 
ments are to be made, should be at once decided on, and arrange- 
ments made for starting everything at the very first opportunity. 
Our seasons follow each other in such rapid succession that without 
much care and forethought, we are apt to find them gone without 
the accomplishment of our intentions. Get manure in readiness 
Avherever the beds or shrubberies are poor. I dislike the old prac- 
tice of putting it on while frosty. There is little time saved by it. 
It prevents the ground thawing or drying fit for operations, as soon 
as it otherwise would. It is well to be in advance, but it is better, 
sometimes, as the Frenchman said, " to wait awhile that we may 
get done the sooner." It is a good plan to make a rough sketch of 
the beds in a Flower carden, and Avhere flowers are grown in 
ma.sses, mark on paper what flower is to fill any given bed. The 
harmony of color can then be better seen at a glance, and any- 
thing incongruous can be remedied in time. If there isnotenouch 
of anything on hand, tliere will be time, in most cases, to propo- 
gate a few more. This will tend much to expedite work at the 
proper season. 

In the hist number I gave a list of hardy plants. I need only 
observe here that most of them can be had in the trade in Phila- 
delpliia, as the remark has been made to me that our mu'serymeu 
do not keep these things. All pruning should be done as speedily 
as possible ; the earlier it is done the stronger the plants will slioot, 
and the contrary when it is deferred till the bursting of the buds. 

Green House. — Towards the end of the month, liefore the plants, 
generally, are about to make a good giowth, they should Ijc 1o< ked 
over, and those badly drained, and tho.se which require rej^ofting, 
attended to. One of the main things to be attended to in all kinds 
of plants is good drainage. Whatever proportions of soil 1 e n.«ed 
for eaidi respective kind of plant, the}^ should each be thoroughly 
decomposed and mixed together. In potting, the plant shoidd never 



28 THE FLORIST, AND 

be placed deeper in the soil tjian it wag befoi'e, and if the rcots te 
very fibrous, the soil must be pressed pretty firm. 

Amaryllis, and indeed bylbs of this class generally, are not so 
much grown in our country as they deserve to be. Where they 
are, and have been kept dry through the winter, many of them will 
show signs of growing soon. When that is the case, they should 
be repotted. 3andy fresh loam is the best for them ; if manure 
be used, it should be thoroughly decayed, and where cow-dung can 
be obtained, it should have the preference. Many repot their 

Japan Lillie^ now, biat it is a great error. They are very nearly 
hardy, and hate artificial treatment above all things. They should 
be kept all the Avinter dry in a cool place, and when they show 
signs of growing through the old soil, sha.ken out and potted ui 
rather firnx sandy loam; all the light and air possible should be given 
to them, except exposure to the full raj-s of the sun. When allowed 
to corne along thus naturally, without any early potting, or forcing, 
they succeed admirably. 

Hot House.— rAs the days increase in length the temperature 
may be allowed to rise a little, and the plants receive more water 
and encouragement to grow. Many things will require repotting, 
as in this department some one or other will require that operation 
all the A^ear round ; frequent repottings are very beneficial to stove 
plants — the fresh air and gases which are submitted to the roots, do- 
ing no doubt as much good as the new soil itself. As fast as any 
specimens get too large, they should be gradually dried off, cut down 
and repotted 9,3 described in former calendars. Where this operation 
has been gone ihrough once, it "v^^ould be better in some cases to 
raise yoijng plants and throw the old ones away. Torenia asiatica 
generally does best raised every year from cuttings ; if a stock has 
not been got ready it is time to begin, they stril^e root in a few weeks; 
Orchidece Avill require rather more ft-equent sj'ringings, otherwise 
there need be little change as yet. 

Vegetable Garpen —^Cucumbers in England are the "first and last" 
of a gardener's thoughts; here they are growing into disrepute — 
nevertheless there are many who will be thinking of starting them 
soon. Where there is fresh stable dung at command, it may be got 
ready by the end of the month, b}' frequent turning and mixing. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 29 



r ^ 

whereby the rank heat will be moderated and the most violent fer- 
mentation avoided. When the heat in the frame has subsided to 
about 75*^, if plants cannot be procured the seed may be sown ; ne- 
ver allow the heat to rise above 90'-' without giving air, and for the 
first few weeks guard against injury from steam by leaving a slight 
amount of air continually on. There is little art in raising early 
cucumbers, the main thing is to keep the temperature from 75*^ to 
85°, with all the air possible, without allowing the temperature to 
fall below that ; the least check will throw the crop back a week or 
more. 

Mushrooms are yearly coming into greater request ; the excellent 
directions given in the last number by Mr. Hammil, are well worthy 
the perusal of all interested in the subject, and will render further 
directions unnecessary here. The prmcipal attention will be re- 
quired for Spring Salads, nothing being more desirable in early 
spring ; a little heat will do wonders in forwarding them ; the great- 
est damper arises fi'om the possibility of their getting too much — 
from 45 to 55° will bring forward Radishes, and Lettuce, Horn Car- 
rots, &c., in first rate style. 

Ice Houses. — .1 have already in a former calendar, given the prin- 
ciples on which the proper keeping of ice depends; a correspondent 
differs in some resjjects from me, and as the season has afforded few 
an opportunity as _yet of filling their houses, it will not be out of 
place to give his ideas, merely premising that I keep my ice well on 
the principles I had laid down. He says, " I differ from you on the 
importance of packing ice in large pieces. ^Alien the ice is broken 
small, the water from the melting ice runs between the spaces, and 
freezing there, forms the whole mass into one solid lump ; but when 
it is packed in large pieces, the spaces never close up, and the air 
permeates continually between them." Much may be said on both 
sides of tliis question ; having given ni}' friends reason for differing, 
I leave it there, t. j. 



Pennsylvania Horticultural Society. 

The stated meeting was held on Tuesday evening, 18th instant. 
Although at this season we do not generally see plants exhibited, 



30 THE FLORIST, AND 

yet Mr. Thomas Meelian exhibited a good collection in flower, con- 
sisting of Begonia incarnata, two sps. Tillandsia, Ixora incamata. 
Daphne indica, Cyclamen persicum, Goldfussia asophylla, Plumbago 
rosea, Siphocampylos bicolor, Pentas carnea, Primula sinensis fim- 
briata, a Cineraria, &c. Also, two plants shown for the first time, 
Beloperone Amherstii, and Raphiolepis indica, in fine bloom. Mr. 
Buist showed an Astrapea Wallichii about one foot high, in bloom, 
Thomas Meehan and T. Megrahn showed each a design and basket, 
and B. Gullissahand bouquet. Apples were exhibited by Samuel 
Ott and T. Megrahn, and Pears by J. B. Baxter and J. B. Guion. — 
The premiums were as follows : 

Plants in Pots — For the best collection, to Thomas Meehan ; spe- 
cial to the same, for Raphiolepis indica. 

For the best design to T. Megrahn ; 2d to T. Meehan ; best bas- 
ket to T. Meehan; 2d to T. Megrahn; best hand bouquet to B. 
GuUiss. 

Apples — For the best to Saml. Ott; 2d to T. Megrahn. 

Pears — Best to Isaac B. Baxter; 2d to J. B. Guion. 

Vegetables — Best to T. Megrahn. 

Preserved Fraits and Vegetables were exhibited by Dr. Frombar- 
gar, which were very fine ; we tasted Peaches nine years old. Cher- 
ries nine years old, and Tomatoes two and three years old, which re- 
tained their appearance and flavor excellently. Seeds of a new Pea 
were presented from Mr. A. H. Hurst, of Conn., and a box of Cali- 
fornia seeds from Mr. C. A.Shelton, of Sacramento. 

After the adjournment of the stated meeting the annual meeting 
took place, and the usual election was held for officers, which result- 
ed in the re-election of all the present off cers ; there were two can- 
didates for Recording Secretaiy voted for. 



NEW PLANTS, 

Flowered at Springbrook for the first time. — No 2. 

Jatropha panduraefolia — An euphorbiaceous plant, with flow- 
ers in clusters, each about the size and shape of Euphorbia jacquin- 
oeflora. The leaves, as expressed by its specific name, are " fiddle 
shaped," and in themselves beautiful. It was imported last summer 



. HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 31 

from Messrs. Lee of the Hammersmith nurseries, by Mr. Cope. Its 
only ftiult seemed to be a tendency to grow " long legged." It 
will take some art to get a good specimen of it ; the flo'Hers are of 
a deep crimson color, and they come out continually as the plant 
grows ; I consider it well worth growing ; it does well with me ra- 
ther " under-potted," in a soil composed of turfy peat with a little 
loam, and in a stove at a temperature of 75*^, exposed to the full 
sun. 

BouvARDiA j.ETANTHA — 'A great addition to this pretty famil}' of 
plants. The imlividnal llowei's are similar to the old B. triphylla, 
but the habit and inflorescence are very peculiar ; the leaves are 
large, roundish, and very rough, and the flowers come out in large 
panicles at the end of the 30ung shoots. After the first set of flow- 
ers are faded fresh ones come out from the next buds beneath ; my 
plant has been thus in a successive state of flowerhig for two months, 
without the appearance of ceasing yet. It was obtained from the 
original imported by Messrs. Hogg, of New York, last spring ; it did 
not stop growing till some of the shoots were three feet long ; but I 
believe another specimen has flowered in one of our Philadelphia 
collections m a much dwarfer state. It thrives well with me in a 
soil composed of burnt loam and sharp sand, in a shady part of a 
light greenhouse ; it has been flowering in a diy stove with the Ja- 
tropha. 

SiPHOCAMPYi.us MICROSTOMA — A Lobeliaceous plant of much beauty. 
The flowers are twice the size of the old S. bicolor, and of a rich 
jiurplish crimson; tlicv do not come out in the axils of each leaf sin- 
gly, as in the old species, but are collected into heads. The plant 
is not such a strong grower ; ours was imported last season by Mr. 
Cope, from Messrs. Loddlges, of London, and does well in a compost 
of burnt loam, sharp sand, and a little peat. It is growing and 
blooming freely in a hght stove at a temperatiu'eof 70'^ 

ANGRfficUM Bii.OHUM — An orchideous plant, imported by Mr. Cope 
last season, from Messrs. Loddiges. It flowered latelj' in our orchid- 
eous house. It is by no means a show_y kind, each flower being 
about half an inch across, of a pure waxy white, and having a tail 
about two inches in length ; the flowers are in short spikes but a few 
inches in length. The lover of beauty will be pleased with it, not- 
withstanding the small growth of the plant and its want of showiness. 



32 THE FLORIST, AND 

It does well with us in a pot, growing amongst moss and old fibrous 
roots. 

Franciscea Eximia. — This plant was imported last jear by Mr. 
Cope, from Messrs. Low, of the Clapton Nurseries, London. — 
Though I have succeeded in flowering it, I have not been able to 
grow it to my satisfaction. 



One of our subscribers in New York State, who seems to be very 
fond of heaths and New Holland plants, but who seems to be scep- 
tical as to the capability of gardeners to grow them here, writes us : 

" I offer to any one who will exhibit six good plaints of Ericas, 
hot four feet by five, but only 18 inches or 2 feet high, and bushy 
in proportion, in short plants that Avill bid fair to become " Chis- 
Wick specimens," Ten Dollars, and for Boronia serrulata and Hovea 
Celsii, 3 feet high and as much through, as some say they have 
Seen fhem in England, Fifteen dollars. $25 for the eight plants 
shall be paid to any exhibitor at any exhibition in I'hilaidelphia, 
New York City or State, Baltimore, Albany, Rochester, Boston, &c. 
The' Ericas must be such sorts as E. Neillii, Cavendishii, retorta 
inajor, Irbyana, Cerinthioides odorata, Venlricosa siiperba, Banksiana 
alba^ Andromeda3-flora, oblata, &:c. 



TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

Communications received from P. S/ Carolau, Sav.;' Lnke Seely, 
Rushville; Ed. Ohio Farmer; J. McDonald, Pensacola, Fla.; M. 
l)Oogue, Watertown, Mass.; Geo. L. Brown, Mobile, Ala.; Samuel 
Jordon, East Stoughton, M^iss.; Jas. Stevenson, Waterbury, Conn.; 
P. Develin, Mobile, Ala.; Jno. B. Gfarrett, Montgomery, Ala. 

We should like to hear from all our correspondents who have 
names to send, as early as convenient. 



We have been unavoidably detained, otvingto delay in getting out 
our plate, but we have' vanity enough to think that We will be found 
worth waiting for. 

Erratum. — Page 18, for Phjs&ra chrysopthahia read Physurus 
chrysoptliolmus. 




ACHIMENES LONGIFLORA ALBA 



On Stone at- iJtc Sclwol of Design 



. THE FLORIST 

Am HORTICULTURAL JQURML . 

Vol. II.] PJiiladelphia, February, 1853. [No. 2. 

ACHIMENES LONGIFLORA VAR. ALBA. 

Gegneriaceffi-Gesneriae — ■Didynaniia'-Aiigiospcrfflia. 

GEN. CHAR. — Calycis tubus ovario adnalus, limhus 5-partitiis, lobis lanceo- 
latis. Corolla liil)uloso-infunclibuli(ormi,s basi hincstepe gibb.i, limbo plnno 5-fido, 
lohis su!)requalibu:! subrotundis. Stdinina -i, didynarna, antheris non cohcerenlibus. 
Rudimeiituin stum, quinfi corollce bsisi interne impositum. JVeiturium, giandulo- 
sum aiiiiuliire tenue. Sti/li/s in stigma vix {ncrassatiim obliquum aut subhilobnm 
abeuns. Capsula semlbilocularis bivalvis, placentis parietalibus subsessilibus. — 
Herbae jimcriamm trectm villosce. Folia opposita nut tenialo-verticillnta petiolulu 
(lentata. YiidiccWi unijlori axiHares. Coroilss cocmieco avt purpurcce, DC. 

CHAR. SPEC. — A. foliis 3-4 riatim vei-ticillatis, ovalis, oblongisve, grosse ser- 
ratis, cauleque villosis; pndicellis tinilloris calyce brevioribns ; calycis laciniis lan- 
ceo!atis erectis, coioIIe tubo 4-plo. brevioribus; corolla;! limbo ampio patente. — 
Benlh. 

A. longjflora. DC. 

Var. alba. Corollis albis, fauce annulo carmirieo, e quo vittce fi in limbum radi- 
ant piota. 

A. lonffifiora alha. Haas. 

A. Jaureguia. VVarsc. 

T*he beautiful llower whicli wd figure this month, is a fiatm-al 
variety of the ^ipecies loiigitloraj a single specimen of which, among 
thousands of lilac and purple' ones, was discovered in 1847, by the 
celebrated collector, Warscewicz, near an extinct Volcano in the 
neighborhood of Guatemala. 

He transported this specimen to the gardens of Mr. Klee, Prtta- 
sian consul there, and-sent a drawing to Mr; Fk. Ilaage, of Belgium, 
made by a ladjr named Jauregiiia, whose name he wished it to bear, 
and in 1849 he sent all the stock to the same person. 

Painting can hardly reproduce the be'autifiil efiect of these flo^^^ers; 
although not in itself a ))rllliant color, the ]ni re white, relieved by a 
star of carmine, makes this Achimenes one of the most distinct 
varieties. 

This plant is now generally to be faund in large collections iu 
this country ; and we have no doubt, that with its congeners, longi- 
flora major, longillora latifolia, gloxinioetlora, will soon be in the 
possession of every one who has a stove or a warm grecnlHinse. — 
The specimens shown here hi,4 fall will have, we hope, the cllcvt of 



34 THE FLORIST, AND 

exciting competition in others ; and we think this variety indispen- 
sable to a good exhibition of this attractive genus. h, c. h. 

CULTIVATION. 

To a lover of Horticulture, it is highly interesting to watch its 
progress. The number of new tiowers yearly added to our collec- 
tions is surprising. It would surprise old Gerarde or Parkinson, of 
the old world, or the more recent Bartram or Marshall of our own. 
The stock of novelties seems inexhaustible, as it indeed will prove 
to be. The introduction of new plants is a source of the highest 
pleasure. It is second to no other Horticultural jjursuit in interest, 
except perhaps hybridization. The latter originates entirely new 
forms. The laws of reproduction are so arranged by the skilful 
operator as ia reality to form a new kind. The act becomes, in 
fact, a species of creative agency, through the instrumeutalitj- of 
man, highly flattering to hi» mental jDowera. It elevates him to a 
high position amongst organic nature, alike gratitying to his intel- 
lect and his pride. He in some degree decides on what forms of 
being shall or shall not exist. The introducer of new plants does 
not become the agent in the cretition of new forms, but by causing 
them to exist where they never did before, they produce pleasur- 
able feelings, little inferior to those originating froiri successful 
hybridization. Besides, the most beautiful tlcwer will wear}- by an 
unending sameness, and the love of variety natural to the human 
mind; and the almost universal desire to possess that which is pre- 
cious from its rarity, is together the main-spring of that pleasure 
the sight of a new flower gives to the florist, or the delight he ex- 
periences in being the introducer or possessor' of it. 

The Achimenes has been one of those families of plants that 
have progressed in numters, variety and beauty very recently and 
rapidly, and has afforded a greater fund of enjoyment both to the 
introducer and hybridizer than most others. Fifteen years ago its 
very name was unknown ; although one species had been in culti- 
vation long before. That Adam of the trilje too, was no disgrace 
to its posterit3^ The rich, luxurious Pansy, of the present day, 
may blush when its descent is traced from the thin lanky-jawed 
Viola tricolor of the English corn-fleld ; and the genteelly scented 
and royally marked Carnation look with scorn and contempt on its 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 35 



old progenitor, as it is found in the old walls of Rochester Castle, 
iu the Engli.sh county of Kent. The beautii'ul Ci/rilla pulcheUa, 
now Achimmes coccinca, was worth}- to be at the head of such a 
noble race. In richness and elegance it has not indeed been sur- 
passed by any that have followed it. The name, CyrilJa, was 
changed on account of its being disco"s'ered that it had been previ- 
ously appropiiated by Linnaeus to a Carolinian plant, the beautiful 
small evergreen tree, hardy in Philadelphia, Cyrilla Carolinicma. — 
The first introduction was probably A. ■pedumulata, about 1839 or 
'40. It did not become much known however till the next year ; 
the A. loiigi flora, and the A. graniiflora appeared in that following, 
when everything in the shape of an Achimenes was eagerly sought 
after. The numlaer of kinds in cultivation now probably exceeds 
one hundred, and one would almost imagine that their native forests, 
in Bi-azil, Mexico and New Grenada, had been by this time com- 
pletely ransacked ; but " the cr\^ is still they come," and assisted 
by hybridization, thej'e is no prospect of a dearth of novelty in the 
tribe for many jears hence. 

A good soil for the Achimenes, is a compost of turfy loam, leaf- 
mould, and sand in about ecpial parts. A close, compact soil, will 
not grow them well. Where turfy peat can be obtained it is prefer- 
able to loam ; broken charcoal, in lumps about the size of marbles, 
has a ver}- beneficial effect when mixed with the soil, Ijoth in keep- 
ing the soil loose and open, and in affoitling a constant supjily of 
moisture, without a sujoerabundance. Drainage is vci-y important, 
as, though it is almost impossible to give them too much moisture, 
dampness, or stagnant water is very injurious or even fatal to them. 
Having got the soil in readiness, the " bulbs" may be started at ar.y 
time when a moist heat of 70° can be commanded; most garden- 
ers start them about March or April. It is often an oliject of com- 
petition to have the finest plant from a single bulb. In that ca!-e 
one of the finest selected can lie placed in the centre of a three 
inch pot, l;)ut for effect the best plan is to put in three bulbs of about 
equal size in a four inch pot, at e;|u il distances from the centre. They 
should be placed about half an inch Ijcneath the soil, and kept just 
moist, until tlic sliootsa]ipoar above, when watc)' nmy be gni Innllv in- 
creased. They are real lovers of tlu' syriimv. whirli iii;i\ be given 



36 THE FLORIST, AND 

every evening till they begin to flower, when it may be discontinued, 
and the plants kept every way rather dryer. While growing they 
love a light, airy, yet warm situation, but are better shaded from the 
full rays of the sun . As they go out of bloom, water should he 
withheld in proportion ; when entirely so, altogether. Then place 
the pots in a dry place, rather warm if convenient, and keep thejn 
dry until the starting period arrives. They propagate readily by 
the bulbs — one j^lant producing, after a season's growth, a dozen or 
more. Where it is desired to propagate any given kind extensively, 
and the flowering is consequently not so much an object ; the plant 
can be ke'pt in a close, moist, and shady house. This will cause 
Biost of the species to throw out small bylbs in the axils of thi^ 
leaves in great quantity instead of flowers. Some kinds, as A. pn- 
dunculata, will not bloom at all this way, producing only the small 
bulbs. The bulbs of this variety, by the way, have a mucflagin^ 
ous substance adhering to them, which, when a quantity is held 
together in the hand, causes them to roll over, as if they were of 
the nature of a sensitive plant. Man}^ Avriters, (doubtless following 
one another,) haA^e indeed described them as having the "sensi^ 
five" property. Hybridization is easily accomplished in this genus, 
Longiflora is a good maternal parent. Indeed, any that seed freely 
are to be chosen. The spotted or party-colored kinds are best to 
obtain the pollen from. Two self-colored kinds rarely make a good 
cross, as the progeny are a shade between the two colors, and, as I 
have repeatedly found, less beautiful. The seed, when ripe, should 
be saved till sj^ring, when it may be sown in very fine saady peat, 
in well drained pots or jjans, and placed in a moist heat of 70° or 
80°. They must be covered very slightly with soil, and not at all 
if they can be placed in a situation where they can be shaded from 
the suns rays, so as not to dry up while they can be kept moist 
without saturation. 

Mr. Robertson, gardener to H. Ingersoll, Esq., exhibited the fin- 
est Achimenes last fall ever seen at our societ}^, but, according to 
Mr. Buist's late account of the Chiswick exhibition, we have these 
to beat yet. A Philadelphia gardener. 



Received a supplement to R. Buist's Catalogue of stove, gTeen- 
hou; e and hardy plants. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 



HEATH CULTURE. 

I am glad to see the attention of your correspondents directed to 
the culture of this beautiful exotic. Of a certainty there is no class 
of flowering plants more worthy of cultivation, combining, as they 
do, flowers of dazzling brilliancy and unsurpassed diversity of foli- 
age to a degree unknown in any other tribe of plants. It is there- 
fore a matter of astonishment that they are not the most prominent 
feature in all greenhouses. To say that they cannot be grown here 
is an apology which, I am certain, experience will prove untenable. 
The true reason undoubtedly is, that they have never been fairly 
tried. We are too much inclined to rmi into extremes. The Ca- 
mellia is a good illustration of this fact. Truly it is a noble plant, 
either with or without flowers ; still I think it is often cultivated to 
the exclusion of other plants equally beautiful and decidedly more 
interesting. It is a valuable winter flower, but in a collection of 
heaths we have flowers every month in the 3'ear. In a nosegay or 
gmall bouquet, a few sprigs of heather, (there is a volume of pasto- 
ral poetr}^ in the najne,) imparts a charm to which the Camellia can 
lay no claim. And I have olsserved tliat when procurable they are 
preferred for this purpose before any other flower. 

We are told that the difficulty lies in unsuitable climate and want 
of proper soil ; or rather, there are a series of undefinable obstacles 
in the way, summed up in the sentence, " They can't be grown 
here." I have no douljt that when the Peach was first introduced, 
some one, " more learned than the rest," predicted its failure ; but 
peaches are plentiful and so will heaths be. " But we have no good 
peat to grow them in.'" True. Nevertheless, there is plenty of 
soil in America in which the heath will luxuriate better than it ever 
will do in peat. It is part of the Horticultural faith in England that 
Azaleas, Kalmias, Rhododendrons, Heaths, &c., require a peaty soil. 
Indeed it is heresy to say otherwise. I wish some of these " Ame- 
rican Nurserymen " you alluded too in a late number, could accom- 
pany us into the woods and see the Knlmias groAving on strong clay. 
The fact is, none of these plants incline to root deep. Their small 
fibrous roots ramify on the surface in the debris of decayed leaves 
and vegetalilc matter, and before we commence the extended culti- 



38 THE FLORIST, AND 

vation of the Heath, let vis have a suitable pot, that is, wide and 
shallow, 12 inches in diameter and 6 deep; larger and smaller sizes 
of course, but in proportion to the above ; and, with loamy soil in- 
stead of peat, America will soon be as fixmed for large Cape Heaths, 
as she is already in the production of big water lilies. 

This savours much, you will say, of exaggeration, but I believe 
it to be truth. Heaths grow much more luxuriant here than they 
do in England. The protracted mild weather of Autumn, and the 
bright winters, keep them constantly pn the move. They do not 
like much heat, or rather, they dislike aridity. With suitable hu- 
midity in the air they seem to stand well enough during summer. 
Some few years ago a dozen or so of young heaths of various sorts 
came under my care, and not having any j^eat to put them in, I 
potted them in loam. Being well aware that much more depended 
on the physical than the chemical properties of the soil, I selected 
the turfy and least decomposed portions and mixed it largely with 
charcoal, the better to secure porosity. I question if ever heaths 
made a finer growth than these. They tripled their size in twelve 
mouths. They were not removed out of the green-house at any 
season. During summer they occupied the front shelves, no air 
being admitted at this part of the house, and were at least once a 
day watered overhead through a syringe, the house kept shaded, 
damp, and comparatively cool, frequently 10 degrees below the ex- 
ternal temperature. 

In an article on the culture of Heaths, which I sent to the " Hor- 
ticulturist," in 1849, among other remarks on soil is the following : 
"A good substitute for peat will be found in turves from old pas- 
tures, cut thin, collected in dry weather, and piled in a heap two 
or three months before using, so that the vegetation on it may be 
slightly decomposed. Both in its chemical and mechanical proper- 
ties, such a soil is nearly all that can be wished. In preparing it, 
however, it is better to chop it up rather fine, securing a proper 
mechanical texture by the admixture of coarse sand, broken char- 
coal ; or even a few rubbly pebbles or broken potsherds I have used 
to advantage in keeping the soil open, to allow free admission for 
atmospheric gases — an essential point to be kept in view in the 



HORTICaLTURAL JOURNAL. 39 

cultivation of plants, more ^larticularly those in pots, for they are 
then entirely dependent on the cultivator for those conditions they 
receive in then- natural habitats. Such a soil as here recommended, 
kept sufficiently open by any of the above mentioned ingredients, 
is easily penetrated by air, thereb}^ increasing its temperature, and 
facilitating the decomposition of organic matter; during which pro- 
cess various healthful gases are supplied to plants. In a soil thus 
conditioned, experience has convinced me that all kinds of green 
house plants can be grown to great j)erfection, if properlj^ managed 
in other respects." 

Further experience has tended to corroborate these views. I sel- 
dom make anj^ distinction in soils unless for experiment. Heaths, 
Geraniums, Azaleas, Achimenes, Epacris, all jiotted out of the same 
pile. Rotted turves, charcoal and sand suits every purpose. 

In a small house, constructed as described by yom' corresj^ondent 
at page 326, last volume, the Heath could be easily managed. In- 
stead of plunging the pots in ashes, I would prefer the bottom of 
the jDit made water tight, and a few inches of water kept in it dur- 
ing summer. This could be cheaply constnicted : a paving of bricks 
laid in cement would answer every purpose. Many other plants 
besides Heaths would here find a congenial summer residence. Of 
course the pots would be elevated above the Avater. In this way 
I am confident the Heath could be gi'own to great perfection. Even 
in a mixed green-house, I have at the present time some plants in 
pure loamy soil in the most robust health. The above remarks, 
therefore, are not theoretical, but the result of observation in prac- 
tice. WM. SAUNDERS. 

Baltimore, Jan., 1853, 



Messrs. Editors : — I have just perused the last two numbers of 
the " Florist," Avhich have made such an impression on my mind 
that I shall not be able to sleep until I have communicated to jou 
my reflections, and congratulated you ujion the new discovery of 
" Experiment." Ah ! we have at least the hope, " perhaps," to see 
another Chiswick. It is really comforting. A Chiswick, in a north 
or north-east aspect, between four brick walls, four feet six inches 



iO THE FLORIST, AND 

high in the back, &c. How pretty that will look ! above all when 
one will be poking his nose through those miniature holes, 6 or 8 
inches above ground. But don't you think chilly Boreas will also 
try to poke his whistle in those holes, es|)ecially from November to 
April ? Oh ! but Experiment will not open them during that time. 
Then they will be of no use. There is another thing that puzzles 
me exceedingly ; it is, how those Chiswick Heaths, 4 feet high by 
4 or 5 across, will stand in that space, 30 inches high or thereabouts ? 
I hope I shall live to see these plants, 4 feet high, in a conservatory 
two and a half; — it will be really miraculous. 

Your lover of Heaths is a man with whom we can talk reason. 
i do not know if he has corns, but he gets along pretty smartly — 
only, before beginning his heath gossip, he ought to have headed 
it with the quotation on page 328 : "Quot homines tot scntentia." — 
Heathologists are lilve Pomologists about the' qualities of Pears-^ 
every one claiming the pre-eminence for the new sorts which he 
has just fruited for the first time. However, 1 feel obliged to say, 
that we Heath-growers do not agree as well as Pomologists. Every 
one of lis has his own saying about the way of growing thein, and 
will not admit that they may be wrong. The flict is, that we do 
not grow any at all, which is the reason of every one being right/ 
One says it is too hot in this country ; another, it is too cold ; ano- 
ther says there is no good pesi in this country, no proper place to 
grow them in — they want shade — no, they want the full exposure 
to the sun. Kept in doors all the time is the only way ; they do 
best north, in Albany for instance; Albany gardeners say Montreal 
is the place ; in Montreal, Quebec is the right spot — perhaps Baf- 
fins* Bay or Behrings' Straits would be better. I think the polar 
night would be good shading for them, they would not be; aj)t to 
grow spindling or get miklCTved, and would be more likely to grow 
to a size to fit the enclosures of brick walls. Perhaps an ice-house 
or an Artesian well would be good for them ? We do not know. 

"America is not too hot for Heaths." I indorse this sentence, and we 
will see, if we live long enough ; so take care Chiswick, or we will 
beat you — with the tongue if in no other way; we shall beat you 
without peat, that sine qua non of almost all European cultivators and 
writers. To grow plants without it, seems to be a horticultural 
heresy. I thought so too ; but I heard lately a gardener say that 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 41 



h it I hearJ lately a gardener' say, that he could show some New 
Holland plants, such as, Polygala, Calothamnus, Acacia, &c., grow 
in a soil in which he would defy Sir* Humphry Dcivy, Gay Lussac, 
or Leibig hirasslf to find peat, any more than in his night-cap : — 
Do you believe it 1 I do. Anthophilus. 



FRUIT TREES, 

Mr. Editor :— If you will permit me to lay a plain approval of a 
few select fruits, before your readers, perhaps some of them may 
be benelited thereby. The writer has to his great loss, planted 
many sorts of Pears, Avhich he has tiow to graft over again after 
they come into bearing. The very complimentary manner which 
nurserymen and book-makers have in setting off their descriptions, 
makes green-horns pay double, or plant twice. I am sensible that 
Pears that are very fine to some, are only so-so to others — all de- 
pends upon the qualifications of the judges. Ten years ago, the 
Bloodijood Pear might be highlv esteemed bv some, and the Summer 
Bonchretien admired by others ; whilst the Bartlett was looked 
upon as unsurpassable. Now a-days the two first are not worth 
culture, and the last is classed amongst the best. Unfortunately 
for us our fine native kinds have been set aside or neglected, becafUse 
they are natives, and Napoleon, Flemish Beauty, Beuri-e Capiau- 
mont and some other foreign soi-ts sought for, that after trial prove 
worthless. Fimit growers are much indebted to your fellow^citizen. 
Dr. Brinckle, who has brnught into just repute many of our estefetoed 
native fruits. I write this almost under the shade of a native Lodge 
Pear, whose towering head is at least thirty feet high, and its fruit 
is sold in Philadelphia market at 50 cents a half peck, and I heard 
a neighbor fanner say, that it brought that price twenty years ago. 
That tree is worth an acre of wheat, and does not cost orte-tenth of 
the labor. I have said more than I intended, bait now for' my list. 
Some other of your many readers may correct it and da better, 
which I will be happy to see. The following 17 sorts art-? named 
as they ripen, and will be in eating from Jul}' to I'V'bnuu} — they 
can be had of any good, nursery men : 
6 



42 THE FLOKIST AND 



Summer Butter, medium size, pear shape, 

Tyson, under medium size, 

Rostiezer, do do do 

Stienmetz's Catliarine, beautiful long fruit, nearly medium size, 

Ott, very similar to the Seckle, 

Bartlett, large long fruit, yellow when ripe, sells in Philadelphia 

market at six cents each, 
Washington, medium size, long shape, 
Seckel, under medium size, 

Louise Bonne de Jersey, long large fruit, color of the Seckel,. 
Fondante d' Automne, large round fruit, 
Van Mons Leon Le Clerc, large long fruit, 
Lodge, brownish yellow, medium size, 

Kingsessing, half round or nearly round, above medium size, 
Duchesse d' Angouleme, very large, frequently weighs eighteen 

ounces, very good for either kitchen or table — October, 
Vicar of Winkfield, November, large long fruit, great bearer. 
Beurre d' Aremberg, very large, yellow when ripe in December 

and January, 
Jaminette, round, greenish yellow when ripe in January and 

February, medium size. 

Another very important item to purchasers, is to procure good 
roots with their trees, the size of the trees in my estimation is of 
minor importance compared with the durancy of the article. The 
Pear flourishes best on a rich loam, with a dry bottom. Spent 
ashes, bone dust and charcoal in equal proportions, giving each tree 
half a peck of the mixture, will greatly promote their growth. — 
The soil eight feet in diameter and eighteen inches deep, should be 
well prepared, by digging, or thorough subsoil plowing, giving a 
very liberal supply of decayed barn-yard or street manure ; these 
articles can be used at once, though we deem it advisable to work 
the ground one year previous to planting, and have it in perfect 
order — the trees will repay the labor in five years ; obtain them if 
2D0ssible on the xingers Quince stock, and they will produce fruit the 
second year after planting. After the tree is securely planted, cover 
the soil with Utter of any kind. Tan has been much mentioned for 
this purpose, and on light sandy soil is very advantageous, but on 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 43 



haavy soils has been injurious, not on!}'' to trees but to strawberry 
bec^s. 

No\y, sir, if these rough notes are of any use to you or your 
readers, you will liear from me again, on some other fruits. 

Chester, January, 1853. g. t. 



PRIZES IN HORTICULTURAL SOCIETIES. 

la the different horticultural and floricultural societies in Ens;- 
land, we continually notice premiums in cups and in money oflered 
by private individuals, for the best collections or for single varieties 
of their several favorites. Nurserymen offer jiremiums for new 
seidlings of show tiowers ; and we all Icnow what prices are asked 
anl obtained for some of these acquisitions. 

Different societies are formed there for the encouragement and 
exhibition of different flowers, as Hollyhock, Pansy, Chrysanthe- 
mum and Dahlia societies. 

We should like to see private prizes offered here, (under the di- 
rection of the different societies.) for any object which may tend 
to improve either the growth or variety of our plants, or to in- 
crease the knowledge of and love for botanical science. 

We re-publish an offer from our last number, made by a respon- 
sible party, giving to any one who will exhibit six good plants of 
Ericas, of certain sorts named, or like sorts, eighteen inches or two 
feet high and bushy in proportion, Ten dollars, and for Boron '.a ser- 
rulata and Hovm Cdsii, two feet high (erroneousl3^ printed 3 feet) 
and as much through, Fifteen dollars — $-25 for the eight plants — 
open to all the country : at any Horticultural exhibition in the 
United States. We hope to see the first prize, that fur Heaths, 
taken in this city ; Init we think that for the latter there will be no 
competition for sometime yet. 

We would be glad to receive more such offers : and we think that 
if the system were started, the premiums offered by our societies 
would he much increased. 

Now we propose to do a little of this on our own account : pre- 
mising that what premiums we offer, shall be tlirough the Pennsyl- 
vania Horticultural Society and for plants shown at their nx ins. 



U THE FLORIST AND 

We will give 

lu April. For the best three varieties of Auriculas in pots $2 00 

" " 2ncl best " 

In May. For the best Pinks, 6 plants in pots 
" " " Stockgilly 
" " " Wallflower 
In June. " " " specimen Fuchsia 

" " 2nd " " 

In July. Best 6 varieties Hollyhocks 

" 3 " Delphiniums 
In Nov. Chrysanthemum, best specimen, large variety, 
grown on a single stem 

2nd best 

All these to be submitted to the regular committee of the Perm- 
sylvania Horticultural Society and the prizes awarded by them. 

In addition to these, as we have very much at heart the increase 
of interest in our native plants, we offer Five dollars for the best 
collection of Native orchids, grown in pots, shown in bloom at any 
meeting of the society, in this year or the next, the writer intending 
if possible to win the prize for himself. 

We hope that our example, though we are obliged to offer such 
premiums as we can afford, will stimulate some of the gentlemen of 
ample means, who are a,*: anxious as we for the prosperity of horti-7 
culture in this country, to offer more liberal ones through the socie^ 
ties of their neighborhood. In this way the efforts of these institu^ 
tions would be much aided ; and greater encouragement given for 
the growth of fiiie specimens, Ed. 



$1 


00 


$1 


00 


$1 


00 


$1 


00 


$2 


00 


$1 


00 


$1 


00 


$1 


00 


$3 


OQ 


$2 


00 



For the Florist and Hortictiltnral Journal, 

Not tlie least intei'csting feature of your improving Journal, (at least to 
me, and I presume to many others also,) is that which refers to, or notices 
new and rare plants, The time of "hiding our lights under bushels" is now- 
past. No keeping plants ten or twelve years as Loddiges used to do, without 
letting the public know where they were or what they were. Lovers of 
plants are now almost daily inquiring, "What is there new?" or "Where is 
it to be had." 

The Florist does its duty nobly and promptly, in answering and sometimes 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 45 

anticipating the above interrogatories. Still it cannot be expected that the 
editor, or his numerous correspondents around the Quaker citj', can be ac- 
quainted Avith all that is new in other large cities, as New York, Boston, &c. 

I have been induced to make these remarks, from having noticed in year 
Journal recently one or two good lists of plants. I would like to make an 
addition to two of these, viz : of Pelargoniums and Chrysanthemums, of 
several varieties, which have come under my observation about New York 
during the past summer and fall, and which I would recommend as first rate. 

Pompone or Daisy Chrysanthemums. Eugenie, dark orange red, Amandcy 
purplish crimson, Ninon, white, tipped with rosy purple, excellent habit, 
Argentine, silvery white, good flower and a profuse bloomer, Sacramento, 
golden yellow, Henriette Lebois, shaded rose, Jongleur, orange yellow, very 
double and compact. 

Fall varieties. Gerhe d' Or, large compact yellow, Pius IX, crimson, 
bronzy gold edged. Lady Talfourd, good white, Peruvienne, fine golden 
yellow. 

I have called the above "Pompone or Daisy," still I think that there 
should be a distinction made between them: for instance all those of which 
Matricariodes is the type, and there are now three or four of them, as Lola 
Montez, Tom Thumb, &c., Daisies, and the others Pompones. 

Pelargoniums. I will omit the colors, but these are new and first rate 
show varieties: Luke of C'ormvaJl, Field Marshal, Gipsy Bride, Sala-. 
mander, Crusader, Magnificent, Ajax, and Ocellatum. 

As this is the time for setting the Fuchsias to work, and as there lyill be 
premiums oifered for them at the forthcoming exhibition, I give you a list 
of the best 6 as far as I am able to judge : Madam Sontag, Pearl of England, 
Elizabeth, Clapton Hero, Sir John Falstaff and Yoltigeur. The first three 
are light varieties, and the latter dark. 

New York, January 18th, 1853. W. 

We are much obliged to our correspondent, and hope he will continue his 
notices, not only of florist's flowers, but of any new introductions which he 
may meet in the collections in New Y'ork and its neighborhood. Many fine 
plants are imported by the nurserymen there, but we do not know whether 
amateurs import plants, as is done here to so great an extent by them. 

As to the six Fuchsias, we think that with Fair Rosamond, Diadem of 
Flora and Expansion, light, and Attraction, Sir John Falstaff and Yolti- 
geur, dark varieties, we could beat his six. Attraction is the best colored 
dark variety we have ever seen, and has the fullest corolla. — Ed. 



We have received the schedule of premiums offered by the New York 
Horticultural Society for 1853. 



46 THE FLORIST AND 



GARDEN MEMORANDA. 

In a visit which I lately paid to the greenhouse of Mr. Erastus Corning, Jr., 
I saw some specimens of plants, which delighted me, and which even you 
Philadelphians, accustomed to see Phalcenopsis amabilis, Nepenthes Raffle- 
siana, Victoria regia, &c, must admire. One of which was the very old 
Arbutus andraolme, loaded with more than two hundred racemes, or rather 
panicles, of its beautiful, and withal deliciously fragrant flowers. Like Sir 
William Hooker, who described Hoya bella " as an Amethyst set in frosted 
silver," I would call this plant a wreath of pearls studded with diamonds: 
which would not be an exaggeration. The only fault this plant has is, that 
it had the misfortune to have been introduced into European gardens more 
than a century ago, and into America perhaps twenty or thirty years ; yet 
it is very rarely to be met with, or because it has no credentials from Messrs. 
Low or Henderson, Van Houtte or such persons. If it had been lately 
brought from China by Mr. Fortune, like that Two colored humbug of a 
colorless rose, then it would be fine ; we would ask one another, " have you 
seen that new Chinese plant'" "Yes, isn't it supc b ; One of the best 
plants I have seen for many years." It is not only a fine winter flower 
ehrub, but is nearly hardy, and as easy of cultivation as a lilac. I send 
you a panicle of its flowers, so that you may judge for yourself what this 
plant must be ; it is seven feet high, with a head about four feet across like 
a Chiswick Heath, and in fact somew!i;it similar in its flowers to an Erica. In 
the same house I saw an Opuntia Brasiliensis, nine feet high, and strong in 
proportion — it is truly a noble plant. Op. leucotricha, Dec, upwards of 
five feet high, and four feet across ; this as you are aware, is clothed with 
long hairy spines, something like Cereus senilis. But enough of Cacti, 
some will say; then what will you say of another old plant, Polygala cor- 
data, having a stem thirty inches high and thirteen inches in circumference 
even with the ground, bearing a compact head thirteen feet in circumference ! 
do you know many like it? And all this has been done without the least 
peat; or of that other equally old native of Van Diemen's land, Calotham- 
nus villosus, four feet every way, and covered with buds. There were also 
there, Virburnum nitidum, (shining leafed Laurustinus) six or seven feet 
high, with a head something like fifteen feet in circumference, and well 
proportioned. But a description of all the good plants here would take up 
too much room. I must mention that in the same establishment under the 
management of Mr. M. Walsh, are several fine Epacridse, which had stood 
all the summer fully exposed to the sun, and were not killed. There is also 
a splendid lot of Camellias, which were raised in Philadelphia, but which 
have improved wonderfully since brought from there. 

From Mr. Coming's I went to the place of Mr. Joel Rathbone, which is 
far handsomer than Mr. C's as a landscape, but which is not so rich in ex- 
otics. I noticed there with pleasure, an Erica Braziliana, a Chiswick Heath 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 47 



in miniature, about two feet every way, covered with flowers ; an Acacia 
pulchella, with a head of rare elegance ; Polygala dahnasiana, the best 
variety in cultivation, having flowers of the size of P. grandiflora. and the 
brilliancy of P. cordata ; an Erica rubida, one of the most elegant of the 
whole genus ; some fine Epacridae, and a lot of Pelargoniums trained in the 
English fashion, which I hope will make fine specimens next summer: they 
are in good hands for that. Mr. Wm. Gray is gardener to Mr. Rathbone, 
who with Mr. Corning, I understand are going to overtop you, or at least 
to equal you; we shall see however. I wish that one of them at least, 
could eclipse Mr. Cope's Orchidete house, but that I fear would be a tough 
and long job. L. M. Albany, N. Y. 

At Mr. Dundas' houses are generally to be seen in bloom some rare 
plants. AVe saw there last week a fine spike of Dendrobium nohile; two 
fine specimens of the very free blooming Groodyera discoloi- ; the white 
flowered Brassavola caudata and a Gongora, and one of the best heads of 
Aeschynanthus puhher we have ever seen. 

At Mr. Lennig's there was in bloom a beautiful Camellia, the variety 
Buca Visconti, a good shaped flower, shaded with pink, and striped with a 
deeper shade. This collection contains some of the choicest varieties of this 
genus ever sent out. 

At Mr. Knorr's, in "West Philadelphia, we saw Franciscea latifolia, a 
handsome, free blooming species; the yellow Ruellia McDonaldii, Erioste- 
mon intermedhim, £j>a,:rii<candidh'^sima and hyaciiithiflora ; the new double 
Frinmla sinensis, and a fine bloom of Azaleas. 



Eranciscea eximia, (noticed in last number.) After all attempts to 
make this plant bush out and look handsome had failed, I let it go up as 
it liked. It has lately produced its flowers. They are the largest of the 
family, each being near an inch and a half in diamcter.of a pale blue color ; 
the leaves are three inches long, with the edges much undulated. My ex- 
perience leads me to believe, the best treatment for it is a soil composed of 
equal parts loam, pc;it and sand, in a warm stove, with an ahundaiice of. 
light and air. It is a very strong grower. 

Plumbago Zetlanica. The seeds of this plant were presented to Mr. 
Cope by Mr. Ezra Bowen, who obtained them from the Calcutta Botanic 
Garden. It was introduced into England above a hundred years a^o, but 
has been long lost to collections there. I introduce it into this list, as it is 
probably the first plant that has been introduced into the United States.— 
The flowers are rather smaller than those of P. capcnsis, but of a pure 
white ; the leaves are nearly round ; it is easily grown in a light stove, but 
soon " damps ofi"' in a cool damp atmosphere. T, Meehan, gr. to 

C. Cope, Esq., Springbrook. 



48 THE FLOSlST AND 

BEDDING^ PLANTS. 

We were asked by a subscrpiber to give in the Florist a list of 
good herbaceous plants, hardy and annual, f6r bedding, the list 
which was given in the calendar, in a former number being objected 
to, on account of the use of botanical names. It happens howevery 
that some of our most useful plants hate no English names, ol* are 
better known by their botanical appellation. Petunias, Niei*em- 
bergias. Campanulas, (who calls them Bell flowers?) Coreopsis, or 
"Tick seed," Spiroea, Verberia, for instance. We shall have prepared 
such a list of names as we can gather, which we hope will prove 
satisfactory to all our readers* 

* 

The Green Fly in GREENHOtSES, we are infornled by the London Gfar- 
dene7-'s Companion, may lie effectually destroyed as follows : Provide a 
Strong solution of nitre in water, in whicli soak some sheets of strong brown 
paper, and afterwards dry it slowly, and cut into lengths of convenient 
size, the lai-gest eighteen' inches by twelve inches ; then get some strong; 
tobacco and strew it thinly over the paper, and with a coarse pepper box,- 
dredge in a good coat of common Cayenne pepper ; wrap the whole up' 
loosely like a " cigarette," paste the end over, and when dry, suspend two or' 
three by a wire in different parts of the greenhouse, and it will soon settle* 
the' accounts of all intruders with vei-y little trouble or expense. 



% Prevent Milde-W. — Mildew is one of the greatest pests of g'reen- 
htfuses and all sorts of plant structures. The following remedy has been 
tried in the houses of the London Horticultural Society, and it is thought 
will prove efficacious; "Sulphur and unslacked lime put into a tub of 
water, in which they are quickly and intimately mixed, and the trees and 
plants syringed with th« clear liquid after these substances have settled aS 
the bottom." 



The monthly meeting of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, 
held on the evening of the 15th inst., was one of the best exhibi- 
tions we recollect. Thei'e were five collections shown, besides 
several specimen plants and new introductions. The cut flowers 
were very beautiful; the fruits fair, (in quantity,) and good>egeta- 
bles were staged.. Mr. Buist, besides the six specimens shown for 
competition, exhibited seventy-three varieties of Camellia blooms. 
We hope' that such displays will continue through the year. 

The Secretary's report and the lists of plants shown, will be 
found on other pages. 



Horticultural journal. 49 

Ci— . '::--:"T. 'T, ■'■ - ■ - ■ ■ ■ , ' - . . '-: ,: ■-■ ■. : ' . ■ ■ — '-'r .. ' ' , - , , , ^n 

GARDENIA FORTUNI. 
Among the different species now in cultivation of this highly 
fragrant and flivorite genus, none perhaps possesses ifiore especial 
fclaims on our notice than this fine plant. Its beautiful double 
flowers, measuring from thre6 to four inches across, of the purest 
white, embosomed in its fine glossy foliage, are exceedingly attrac- 
tive, each blossom forming, as it werej a bouquet iri itself. This 
species is one of rapid growth i, and Under good management, large 
bushy specimens may be obtained in a comparatively short time. 
Unlike the other double-flowering kinds, it blooms once only in each 
season ; but as it continues for some time in flower, a few succes- 
sion-plants will suffice to prolong the bloommg period through a 
considerable portion of the summer. 

The j^ropagatlon bf this plant is most easily efiected by cuttings 
of half-ripened shoots of the young wood taken off" with a heel, 
cut smoothly over, and inserted in silver sand in a well drained pot, 
and afterwards plunged in a gentle bottom-heat, and covered with 
a bell-glass ; five or six weeks will generally suffice for their be- 
coming Avell rooted, when they may be potted off" singly into 4-inch 
pots, and again placed in heat. Supposing the cuttings to have 
been taken in Jilile or July, the young plants, when well established, 
may receive a second moderate shift, and be continued in growing 
hsat, as before ; cara should, however, be taken not to keep them 
growing too late in tlie season, as that prevents the ripening of 
the wood before the dark days of November comes on. When the 
plants cease growing, they should be removed to a cooler situation 
for the winter. A temperature of 45^ to 50° will suffice during 
their period of rest, at which time water should be sparingly but 
judiciously given them when required- 
Presuming plants have by this means been provided, or a young 
healthy stock obtained from the nursery about the begiiming of 
Mai-ch, the best should be selected and plunged in a gentle bottom- 
heat, in a temperature of from 60^ to GS*^, to start them into growth; 
when this commences they should, if in good healtli, receive a 
liberal shift — say from a 5-iiich to a 9-inch pot, care being taken 
to remove any impure soil, and to gently disentangle the matted 
roots, without destroying the ball uiuic than is necessarv. After 

"7 



60 THE FLORIST AND 



re-potting, the plants should be plunged as before, and encouraged 
into vigorous growth. With the increase of solar heat at this sea- 
son, a free use of the syringe should be resorted to on all favorable 
occasions, using water of the temj^erature of the house or pit in 
which the plants hre placed; during bright sunshine a slight shading 
should be provided, any indications of flower-buds removed, and 
the points of the stronger shoots topped, to preserve a dwarf bushy 
habit. When requisite, a second shift should be given into 13-inch 
pots ; and afterwards the same treatment continued as before. — • 
With due attention to air, water, stopping, and tying out the 
branches, fine compact plants will be obtained. A httle observation 
will show the cultivator how far stopping will be beneficially con- 
sistent with the due production of flower-buds, when this is 
secured, the plants may be gradually hardened and wintered as 
before. 

If the plants are required in bloom at an early period of the 
following summer, say May, they should be placed in heat by the 
early part of February, or later, as may be required ; when the 
bio Jtns begin to expand, the plants may be removed to a warm 
part of the gi-eenhouse or conservatory. After the flowers are 
exhausted, the fshoots may be pruned back to a well-placed joint, 
and the plants removed to a close situation in heat, until the buds 
have broken freely. At this time they will require repotting. If 
the pots are weU filled with healthy roots, a larger shift may be 
given. The required size must, however, now be determined by 
the convenience or inclination of the cultivator; but I may state, 
that G. Fortuni is a free-rooting plant, and the fiowers are usually 
larger and more abundantly produced when allowed plenty of pot- 
room; if want of space does not allow of large pots being used, 
the ball of soil should be considerably reduced, and the plants re- 
potted in the same sized p)ots; in this way they may be kept in 
vigorous health for some years ; and when eventually overgrown or 
unhealthy, they may be rejDlaced with some of their j^oung and 
vigorous progeny. 

I find this Gardenia to luxuriate in a compost of equal parts of 
fibrous hazelly loam and peat soil, broken up in a rough state, ad- 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 51 

diag a sufficiency of sharp sand to preserve porosity in the soiL — 
With the above a liberal supply of charcoal, broken to half-inch 
size, is mixed : this acts as a fertiliser, and assists in keejiing the 
soil in an open, healthy condition. Any more stimulating matter 
I prefer apph'ing in a liquid state during- the season of growth, when 
a watering twice a week with clear manure-water is highly benefi- 
cial. Should that tii-esome pest the mealy bug make its appearance, 
no time should be lost in its extirpation. This is most successfully 
accomplished by taking the j^lants outside the house, and, after 
laying the pots on one side, well sj^ringing the foliage with water 
at 150° ; by repeating this after an interval of a few days, the insects 
will be destro3^ed without injury to the foliage, or impairing the 
health of the plants, which should be carefully shaded for a few 
days after each operation. Alpha, in Gard. Chron. 



WEARING OUT OF THE VARIETIES OF FRUITS. 

Mr. Editor : — I have alwaj'S disbelieved the ingeniouslj' supported 
theory of Mr. Knight, on the natiu'al degeneracy of varieties not 
renewed by seeds, from having seen trees of the Golden Pij^pin 
apple, which was one of the varieties instanced, thriving remarka- 
bly well and bearing good crops of fruit. They were growing in a 
veri/ stony soil, &nd in a warm situation ; and I incline to the belief 
that in such situations it would still do as well as any other kind. 
I should be glad to learn from some of your readers whether they 
know of any place in America, where it is doing well, as I inclire 
to the opinion that our country is well fitted for its growth, and 
that a thriving trade might be carried on with the Londoners with 
it, who prefer it to any Newtmcn Pippins, Lady apples, Rhode I, 
Greenings and Spitzenhergs, which we now send them. I do not 
much believe in this innate degeneracy, for in addition to my 
reasons above, I saw last fall near Philadelphia, a large tree of the 
old English autumn Bergamot, a variety literally as old as " Julius 
Csesar," in perfect health, and bearing in abundance. Yours, 

Philadelphia. Jii.il-s. 



52 THE FLORIST AND 

CALENDAR OF OPERATIONS, 

FRUIT, 

• Planting TREES.-^This subject has loeen alluded to in previous 
calendars, where the relative merits of fall and sjDring planting 
were discussed. Those who prefer planting in spring will be 
making preparations, and it is well to have every thing in readirsess 
before ordering them from the nursery, tliat no delay may occur in 
getting them set out when they come to hand. The shorter time 
that elapses between removal and planting the better. Should they 
unavoidably be so long out of the ground that the roots and smaller 
branches appear shrivelled, they may still be brought round by 
careful management. The common remedy for all unhealthy indi-i 
cations in a newly planted tree is copious waterings at the roots. It 
is, however, quite an erroneous one, and if persevered in, will in 
most cases prove fatal. The branches should be kept moist, jirsd 
the roots comparatively dry, We have seen trees that were quite 
shrivelled and dried up, completely recovered by laying them on 
the ground, covering the roots with soil, and enveloping the branches 
in wet stnivv. There is plenty of water in the soil at this season 
for vegetation, without any artificial applications. It will be of 
more advantage to raise a small mound of earth over the roots,' to 
throw off heavy spring rains, to be afterwards leA'elled down, and its 
place supplied with a mulching of some description, to retain moist- 
ure in dry weather. 

Pruning. — It has been recommended to "shorten in" the young 
branches of peach trees in early spring. We cannot altogether en- 
dorse the practice, as it creates a tendency to over luxuriant growths 
and unfruitful shoots, but where summer pruning was neglected it 
will be necessary to a certain extent. Experience proves that on 
established fruit bearing trees, judicious summer pruning answers, 
every purpose for which pruning is intended. All stone fruit trees 
are impatient of much cutting with the knife, inducing as it does 
canker, gummy excretions, &c. Cutting away the immature points 
of shoots may be necessary in a less propitious climate, but there is 
no occasion for such treatment here. When large branches require 
to be thinned out. it can lie done most advantageously when the 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 53 

itree is in full leaf. Orange and lemon trees are usually kept more 
for ornament than use, and in many cases they are little adapted 
for either. Healthy orange trees are the exception, and scraggy, 
•denuded subjects, the rule. This is more to be wondered at, as 
they are naturally of a free, hardy growth. The principal points 
in their growth is to drain the tubs well, give them fresh, loamy 
soil, mixed with about one'sixth charcoal — let them have a plenti- 
ful supply of water while making young shoots, with occasional 
syringings over the foliage. If placed out of doors during summer, 
•cover the surftice of the soil with moss or some such material, water 
regularly, but with discrimination. Towards the fall let the water- 
ings be less frequent to hasten the solidification of the young wood, 
aud from the 1st of November to the end of February give no wa- 
ter at all, unless they are under the influence of much ai'tificial 
heat, which they ought not to be ; if managed as above they will 
winter well in a close house or cellar without heat, 10 or 12 de- 
grees of frost will do them no injury. 

Grapes in doors, — In cold houses all will be at rest, vines tied 
down horizontally until they break into growth. There is no fruit 
bearmg plant of equal importance, so easily managed as the grape. 
Failures may be traced in the majority of cases, to extra care, 
rather than neglect. Those who have no accommodation but a 
greenhouse may still regale themselves with this delicious fruit, by 
growing a fow in pots. Now is the time to set about it. This system of 
growing grapes is practised to a large extent, and very fair crops secured. — 
single buds are selected from stout, well ripened wood, potted singly in small 
pots, and placed in a warm temperature ; they arc sliifted progressively, and 
receive every encouragement to make a strong growth. Shoots twenty feet 
long by the end of August arc attained in this way. We have seen grapes, 
not a single bunch, but in quantities, from plants fifteen months old. These 
have to be grown in a high temperature; in a greenhouse they will require 
two years' growth before fruiting. Cuttings put down at this time may bo 
placed in a 6 inch pot when well rooted, to remain for one year; give them 
plenty of water during summer, and do not pinch or prune any of the shoots 
— the growth will mature early in the fall. In November prune them down 
to eyes and place them under the stage in the greenhouse ; on the first indi- 
cation of growth, which will be early in the following Fcbruarj', shift into 
larger pots, in decayed turfy soil, always paying particular attention to 



54 THE FLORIST AND 

• — 

drainage. These pots being filled -with roots they may be placed into others 
12 or 14 inches across, where they remain to fruit. Keep them in the house 
until the growth is completed, afterwards a few weeks' exposure will be bene- 
ficial; prune in November to lengths of 6 or 8 feet — they will produce from 
6 to 10 bunches, according to strength, during the following summer. 

Nectarines, Peaches, and Cherries may also be grown in this manner; they 
require very little care when once established, and will ripen fruit five or se- 
ven weeks before it can be had out of doors. 

Strawberries in pots, if brought into the greenhouse during last month, 
will be coming into flower. Let them have plenty of fresh air during favor- 
able weather while the sun is warm, and keep cool at night; a night temper- 
ature ranging from 45 to 55 degrees will be sufacient — if lower, all the bet- 
ter, although they will not ripen fruit as early. A top shelf near the glass 
is indispensable; supply water freely ; liquid manure may be used with bene- 
fit after the fruit is well formed, but not before. S. B. 

The severest weather being past, spring work advances, and it is one of 
the most essential points in good gardening to be continually looking ahead. 
The object should be to get work done in advance of the season. With the 
best efibrts to that end, we shall find that we are only "just in time " after 
all. 

Flower Garden. — As soon as the ^weather will permit, all alterations, 
new walks, turf-laying and so on, should be driven to completion. Walks 
are very seldom well made in this country ; the underdrains which we rely 
on so much in Europe, are very little use here. The large amount of dust 
washed away suddenly by our heavy thunder showers, chokes the drains easi- 
ly ; and in other cases the amount of water is suddenly so great that but a 
tithe of it can make its exit from the surface through the grating. Having 
experienced their insuificiency, I have in my practice turned my attention 
rather to the providing of surface courses. Where a gravel walk has a great 
fall, I have been able to keep the gravel from washing away by "pebbling" 
the outsides three, four or five inches in breadth, according to the length of 
the walk, before an opportunity occurred to throw off the water ; small peb- 
bles being used and the walk being about half-an-inch higher in the middle 
than at the outsides, the walk looses none of its neat appearance, while the 
object is effectually gained. If the walk is to be made on a piece of ground 
naturally wet, under-drains must of course be employed. Had I not seen so 
many scandalous specimens of draining lately, I should not think any direc- 
tions necessary here. Drains are laid in so that they can't act, or soon be- 
come inoperative, when the report arises that " so-and-so expended vast sums 
on draining, and it has done no good." The bottom of the trench prepared 
for the drain — tiles, bricks, or stones — should be dug to one regular grade. 



HORTICULTURAL JOLTINAL. 55 

If one part of the drain be on a lower grade than the rest below it, dirt mil 
lodge there and choke it ; water will rise to its own level, and all escape, ex- 
cept what is in the low grade, but the earthy matter wont — it will all stay 
there. The eye can never be depended on in a grade ; grading pegs should 
always be employed; after the drain is laid shavings, or something like it, 
should be placed thickly over it to prevent the soil from working its way in. 
By the time that rots the soil will have become compact. A drain like that 
will do good and be lasting. Those who have to make new beds^of Roses 
cannot be too early in getting that job finished, as the sooner they are in the 
better. The same may be said of all deciduous trees or shrubs. It is a mis- 
take which often proves fatal, to leave these things to "the last moment." — 
The beautiful hardy plant Weigela rosea is not half so common as it ought 
to be ; I see some of our florists announce a white variety. Where box edg- 
ings have become large and unsightly, the end of the month will be a good 
time to take them up for replanting. 

The warm days will bring Hyacinths, Tulips, and so-on, planted out in 
the open ground, to the surface ; the severe nights following these will often 
destroy the flower buds, unless a few inches of old tan, leaves, or ashes are 
spread over them. Herbaceous plants, if not divided or planted where want- 
ed in the fall, should be done at the earliest convenience; they rarely do good 
when planted late in spring. Where the ground is dry and in good work- 
ing order, most kinds of hardy annuals would be better sown about the end 
of the month ; the earlier they are sown the finer they flower. 

Finish pruning and tying up all ornamental vines, and get all things neat 
and in order. 

Green-House. — Pelargoniums, Fuchsias, Calceolarias, and the like, in- 
tended for blooming, should receive their final shift this month, if the pots be 
well filled with roots. The former, if intended for specimens, will be much 
aided by " tying out." A wire, with loops in it a few inches apart, fastened 
around under the rim, is the best tljing for the purpose, the shoots tied down 
to it with twine ; when they arc growing well they are much benefited by 
manure water once a week or so. If the plants do not grow symmetrical, 
pinch back the strongest shoots to encourage the weaker ones. Fuchsias 
should never have their leader stopped, but bo kept growing in a cool,;^moist 
temperature, with abundant light and air, repotted as often as the pots are 
well filled with roots into sizes a little larger ; they are fond of a sandy loam 
with rotten manure in small quantity, well drained with charcoal; when pro- 
perly drained they take a large amount of moisture. The red spider is a 
great enemy; watch closely for its appearance and apply the remedies point- 
ed out in former numbers. 



56 THE FLORIST AND 



This and the nest month will he the Cineraria season. There is much to 
be done in improving this race. Watch for the best flowers for seed j those 
■which have two colors at least, broad petals, and regularity of outline— ^and 
save especially for seed the first floivers that open. Bahlias about the end 
of the month may be started; the best plan for an amateur who does not 
wish to raise a great quantity from one root, is to fasten on th& labels se- 
curely, then lay in the roots in any warm place where the temperature is 
abote 60 deg., side hy side, covering them lightly with sandy soil and keep- 
ing them si little moist ; they will soon send up a qoialitity of eyes or shoots, 
when the roots may be taken up and divided so as to have a portion of root 
Ivith each shoot ; when,- potted in small pots and placed in a close warm place, 
they will soon make good strong plants. 

So much has been said in this joua-nal on Heaths and Australian plants- 
generally, that although this is their most interesting period^ I will do no' 
moTe than refer to them. 

Hot-House. — As the season becomes warm, more air is necessary ; when- 
ever giving air does not cause the temperature to fall below 65 it ought to be 
freely admitted. Every evening before closing up for the night the syringe 
should be used freely; the object gained is the prevention of great evapora- 
tion for a time, the roots in the mean- time continuing to absorb moisture 
from the soil the plant is better able- to withstand the great drain upon it 
caused by giving air and bright sunshine. I always also make a practice of 
sprinkling water on the paths and stages before giving air, and find great- 
aidvantage result therefrom. 

Tegetable Garden. — Having (Jebided on wha* crops are to be in each' 
portion of ground, and what others are to come into rotation after them, pro- 
ceed with getting the soil manured and dug at every opportunity. Peas' 
should be attended to first ; the warmest aspect will of course produce them^ 
earliest — it is a first rate systeni to sow Peas where Celery is intended to' 
follow, which, being well manured, will produce an excellent crop of Onions- 
the following season. The Prince Albert is so far the earliest and best, next 
the Early May, or extra early. Where new Asparagus beds are to be made' 
now is the time ; the ground should be rather moist than'dry, and be trenched' 
two feet deep, mixing in with it a good quantity of stable dung, and, if the' 
ground be inclining to sand, add some salt ; the beds slfould be marked out 
four feet wide, and the alleys about two' feet. If pegs are driven down at 
the corners of the beds permanently, they will a'ssis-t operations in future 
years. Having- Eaarked the positions- of the' beds and prociired- a stock of 
two year old plants, place them on the soil nine inches apart in rows one foot 
asunder, making three rows in each bed ; then cover the whole with soil from 
the alleys and rich compost a couple of inches. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 57 

To have Tarnips good in spring tbey must be sown very early ; they are 
hardy, and must be put in as soon as the ground can be caught right, a Sal- 
sify too must be in as soon as possible — it prefers a strong rich loam. Those 
who have no Spinach sown in the fall should do that right away; no amount 
of stable manure but ivill be a benefit to it, though guano, in even smallish 
doseS; will kill it; gilano produces excellent Cabbage, mixed with the ground 
while it is being dug for that crop. Cabbage, by the way, may be put in as 
soon as the ground is ready; and Potatoes are better in before the beginning 
of next month, if the ground is not too wet ; many plant Cabbage between 
the Potato rows. The Early Manuel or Manly, I find one of the best early 
Potatoes. Onions are better pUt in early, but the ground ought to be dry 
\then planted, and trodden or beaten firm when the sets are planted; the 
ground ought not to have rank nlanure — wood-ashes and pure undunged loam 
will alone produce an excellent crop. Parsley delights in a rich gravelly 
loam, and should be sown very early. Parsnips, anothtir' crop which should 
receitfe early attention, also delights in a deep gravelly soil, but detests rank 
luanUre. Lettuces and Radishes continue to sow at intervals. Herbs of all 
kinds are best attended to at this season — a good collection is a good thing. 

T. J. 



For the florist a:id Horticultural Journal. 

Mr. Editor: — ■'ihe elegant description of the emerald groves of Elvaston 
castle, from tlie graphic pen of yuur correspondent, has awakened in me the 
ambition to follow iiim, and make myself a name by becoming a contributor 
to the Florist. 

I hope that the notice of those artificial groves of perpetual green, will 
create a more general taste among our more wealthy landed proprietors, for 
embellishing their pleasure grounds and beautifying their cottage residences, 
with groves and groups of winter evergreens; for what is a landscape, a 
park, or the grounds of a cottage without evergreens to cheer us throughout 
tlie dreary days of winter, and to screen us from the cutting force of 
liorcas. I say that without evergreens all appears for five months of the 
year, a desolate and solitary waste ; but scatter a few groups around the 
cottage, and mark how changed the scene ! behold Jthese living ornaments 
of winter; wiiile the rest of nature is asleep, fearlessly facing the storm, 
and cheering us with their mantles of green. 

Do I hear some say that evergreens will not flourish here under our 
scorching sun, as they do in the humid atmosphere of Great Urit-.iin ? But 
nature around you condemns the expression. Who that has travelled through 
our country in winter has not admired the native groves of Pines, Firs, 
Spruces, Junipers, Cedars, ArborvitiO, .<cc.; and our evergreen shrubs, 

S 



58 THE FLORIST AND 

Riioilodendrons, Kalmias, Andromedas, &c. ; are these nursed by humid 
atmospheres? far from it; see the groves of Cedars and Jcnipers on the 
arid wilds of New Jersey ; the Pine-clothed mountains of Pennsylvania and. 
New York; and the variegated banks of our navigable rivers. They ar& 
fi)und on all soils and in all atmospheres throughont our country. Am I 
asked why so many failures hapj>en with the evergreens transplanted here, 
while they are so successful in Great Britain ? I answer the fault is your 
own, and not in the plants; you employ impropey persons to do the work, 
who have neither the requisite knowledge to jwepare the soil nor to apply 
the treatment which the plants require : whereas in Great Britain they 
employ gardeners, whose education and indus'trious researeh have given 
them such knowledge — and herein lies the secret of their sucx^ss ; perhaps- 
yon have employed a man who calls himself a gardener, (and onr conrmunity 
and especially cities, swarm with such gaedeneks, ss Egypt did wiJh locusts 
in 'the days of Pharaoh.) 

There are many choice evergreens which flourish in Great Britain which 
would not do here in exposed situations, the following for example, Arbu- 
tus, Aucubajaponioa, the Bay tree, Portugal laurel, Laurestimis, Sweet 
Bay, Phillyreas, Broom, Furze Heather, tc, and even our nsrtire Rhodo- 
dendrons, Kalmias, &;c. will not grow in the open sunlight here, as they dc 
in Great Britain. 

But I could enumerate over sixty different species of evergreens which 
will flourish with us, and a group of a score or a hundred of eaeh kind, 
would be enough to embellish the most extensive domain I have yet seen ii> 
our counti'y ; much fewer would adorn the grounds of the cottage. I do not 
advocate having only evergreens in a place ; I can see beauty in Decidu- 
ous trees and shrubs, I can admire stately elms, oaks, and sycamores, the- 
symmetrical forms of maples, ashes, lindens, kc, the spire-like shapes of 
poplui-s, tulip trees, &c., the spreading horse-chestnut and the drooping 
willow, or the beautiful flowers and delightful fragrance of magnolias, and 
other flowering shrubbery : but on all occasions they should be accompanied 
by evergreens : for they are like butterflies, forsaking us when we most need 
cheer. 

There is no risk in transplanting evergreens when done by a competent 
hand : and I say this from practical experience. I have removed arbor- 
vitses 35 or 40 feet high and as much in circumference, in September, from 
the edge of the Hudson river, and planted them on an altitude three hun- 
dred above the level where they naturally grew, and not one ever lost a leaf 
or their verdure: and I have removed pines of the same dimensions, in 
spring, from the mountains of Northampton county, Pennsylvania, and 
transported them four miles, and planted them on flat land in Warren 
county, N. J. with the same success. 

Let ladies and gentlemen employ proper persons to superintend, and let 
nurserymen be careful in preserving the roots when digging them up and 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 59 

not a single failure ■will happen out of ten thousand evergreens trans- 
planted. 

Several eloquent articles have been written about "Parks" in America, 
but how dry the sermon, how barren the appearance, if these are not ac- 
companied with groves of perpetual green. 

februarj 16, 1853. Walter Elder. 



FLORICULTURE. 

Under this head the Gardener's Chronicle has articles which we 
thinlv contain valuable suggestions and information for our readers. 
We copy the following : 

Leading Flowers of 1852. — On looking back to the past year, one 
cannot fail to discover much that is intimately connected with the welfare of 
floriculture for the year which this day commences. We shall therefore 
give a short resume of such matters pertaining to the pursuit as may tend 
to point out what progress has been made, in order that our skill may be 
directed to the more easy attainment of that for which all should strive — 
viz: improvement. Let us begin with Camellia. Under this head, Countess 
of EUesmere and Martiuii arc both valuable acquisitions to their respective 
classes ; the former is white with delicate rose stripes, full, symmetrical, 
and of average size ; the latter is perhaps the nearest approach to scarlet 
of any Camellia hitherto raised, and it is not wanting in other good proper- 
ties. Gloire de Paris must likewise claim attention, as must also Mathotiana, 
the latter being remarkable for its large size : -let us hope that this year 
some society may be induced to hold a Camellia show; so beautiful a flower 
deserves one. An annual display would at least cause the trade to stage 
the novelties of the season, a point itself of much interest. Among Auri- 
culas (always slow " to move on,") Sir J. Moore (Lightbody,) is a first rate 
acquisition, and will doubtless be sought for by all growers who value excel- 
lence. Among the latest introductions the Lancashire Hero takes a foremost 
place. We wish, also, to see the Polyanthus in better keeping, a spring 
flower which few excel in cheerfulness of character and brilliancy of color; 
the latest novelty of any merit is Kingfisher (Addis;) this is a variety 
doubly welcome, as it is distinct from any in cultivation, and it possesses a 
high quality when compared with such a coarse flowering sort as George the 
4th. It is small, certainly, nevertheless is worth a dozen of the variety 
just mentioned. Both the Auricula and Polyantluis may be said to have 
their head quarters in Lancashire, and it is from tlierc we must look for 
improved varieties; let us therefore not be disappointed. 



60 THE FLORIST AND 

The following are the names of a few of the hest varieties of Polyanthus, 
viz : — Alexander (Pearson,) Bang Europe (Nicholson,) Beauty of England 
(Maud,) Defiance (Fletcher,) Exile (Cro\Yshaw,) Earl of Lincoln (Hufton,) 
George the Fourth (Buck,) King (Nicholson,) King Fisher (Addis,) Lord J. 
Russell (Clegg,) Princess Eoyal (Colliers,) and Royal Sovereign (Gibbons.) 

The best named sorts of Cinerarias were Purity (Dohson,) a white self — 
Julia (Lochner,) white, very faintly tipped with light purple ; E-osalind (E. 
G. Henderson,) white, narrowly margined with bluish purple ; Star of 
Peckham (Ivery,) an improvement on Hammersmith Beauty, on account of 
its increased size and denser colors ; Lord Stamford (E. G. Henderson,) 
white tipped, purplish lilac ; Picturata (E. G. Henderson,) white tipped, 
rosy purple; Conqueror of Europe (Hodge;) Beauty of Hamilton Terrace 
(Rosher,) King of the Blues (Keynes;) Loveliness (E. G. Henderson,) 
colors blue and white; Marguerite d'Anjou (ditto,) crinison; Prince Arthur 
(ditto,) shaded crimson ; also Chavles Dickens and Kate Kearney. 



NEW AND RARE PLANTS, 

FLOWERED FOR THE FIRST TIME THIS SEASON, AT SPRINGBROOK, 

No. III. 

Beloperoxe AjiHEESTiE — An acanthaceous plant which, like all the tribe, 
without probably an exception, is well worthy of cultivation. The flowers, 
individually, resemble much the old B. oUongata — in color they are a few 
shades lighter. Its habit of growth and manner of flowering are very dif.^ 
ferent from that species ; instead of the erect habit, this is in its flowering- 
shoots spreading, while the flowers, which are produced several together in 
the axils of the leaves, are erect, and appear above the leaves. It appears to 
be a free bloomer. Our plant was imported last year from Messrs. Lee, by 
Mr. Cope, and is thriving well in a compost of half peat and loam, and iq 
the moist part of a dry stove, where the temperature is kept about 70 deg. 

Caktua bicolor. — This plant has a high reputation in the English papers. 
There it is recommended for bedding out, For these two years past it has 
been in the Philadelphia collections, but has been found difficult to manage, 
and has, I believe, never flowered before. It is customary to treat it as a 
stove plant, and herein I believe the error, as the order of plants it belongs 
to — Polemonaeea' — is iinknown in tropical countries. It is allied to the 
Phlox and the Ipomopsis more nearly resembling the latter in the shape and 
color of the flower, but it is nearly an inch across, and has a tube of the same 
length, the tube yellow and the limb crimson. My plant grew remarkably 
well last season in a shady part of a greenhouse, in burnt loam, and a little 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 61 



sand. Towards Tvinter it was kept rather drier than is customary ^vith such 
plants, and it has lately bloomed, though not freely. I should be glad to 
Jearn whether others had been more successful, and if so, their mode of 
treatment. There are several names in existence, some saying they belong 
to distinct varieties ; others that they are synonymous. Our plant livas 
.obtained from Mr. Buist. 

IxoRA IXCAEXATA. — This plant I have grown and flowered successfully this 
season. From Mr. Low, Mr. Cope imported it one year ago. The flowers 
are in heads as large as those of I. coccinea, but are of a deep pink or 
flesh color ; the leaves are lai'ger, and the growth of the plant altogether 
stronger. My plant is two years old, growing in a mixture of peat, loam, 
and chopped moss, and kept in a strong stove heat At the present time it 
is about two feet high, and has ten of its beautiful heads expanded at once. 
It is a fine subject for a "specimen plant." 

Rhodostemma gardenioides. — A Cinchonaccous plant, imported last 
summer from Messrs. Lee, of London, by Mr. Cope. Though it is a free 
bloomer, each flower delicately beautiful, and highly odoriferous, I fear it 
will never become popular. The flowers seem to last but a few hours, and 
though there is scarcely a day without a flower open, the quantity of its 
dark shining green foliage seems very over-proportionate to the quantity of 
flowers ever open at any one time ; each flower is about the size and shape 
of a Pentas carnea, but with a longer tube, erect, and of a rosy white. It 
does remarkably well in sandy peat, under-potted, and in a strong heat, in 
a moist stove. 

Jasminum NUDlFLOiini. — This Jessamine has the peculiarity of producing 
its flowers before the leaves, and are rather larger than J. revolutum ; but 
are not of so bright a yellow. Its advantages are in blooming much 
earlier, and at a season when yellow flowers are scarce in our conservatories; 
J. revolutum seldom being in bloom before March, whilst this species will 
probably bloom the whole winter. It is now in several collections — our 
plant was obtained last spring from Mr. Buist. It is one of those plants 
that tvill grow however badly treated. 

iEsciiYXANTiirs PULCiiER.— I have seen most of the kinds of this truly 
beautiful tribe that have flowered in Philadelphia, and consider this by far 
the best. The flowers are of a bright scarlet, full two inches long, and come 
out principally in clusters of six or eight at the end of the branches. Our 
plant was obtained last spring from Messrs. Hogg of New York, though I 
afterwards learned it had been previously imported into Philadelphia by 
Mr. Buist. It is considered a shy bloomer ; but with me it blooms and 
grows beautifully under the following treatment : Last June it was potted 
in equal parts of burnt loam, peat, and cut moss, and grown till Septem- 



62 THE FLORIST AND 

ber in a shaded greenhouse ; then it was repotted into a larger pot ■with 
the same soil, and placed in a warm stove, exposed to the full rajs of the 
sun, and it is now flowering as freely as any one could desire. 

Thojias Meehan. 



PENNSYLVANIA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The stated meeting was held, as usual, on Tuesday evening, in the Chi- 
nese Saloon. The President in the chair. To the numerous visitors in at- 
tendance on the occasion, the exhibition assuredly afforded some gratification. 
Many choice specimens of greenhouse plants were shown in the collectlors 
from four of our best conservatories. Among them a fine plant of the 
Acacia pubescens in full flower, from Gren. Patterson's house, stood prominent. 
A very well grown specimen of Chorozema varium in rich bloom, was seea 
in Mr. Keen's display from West Philadelphia. Frederick Lennig's gardener 
exhibited a fine table of Camellias and another of choice plants; among 
the Camellias was a plant of the famed Duc'a Visconti, displaying a beau- 
tiful flower, and shown for the first time. On the table furnished by R. Buist's 
foreman, were many choice plants, two of which were not seen before at our 
meetings, the Epacris candidissima and H. miniata. In Mr. Cope's col- 
lection of select plants, were a handsome Ahutilon Striatum, and a new 
species, Begonia Alba-coccinea. Cut flowers of Camellias were brought 
from Mr. Buist's, Mr. Sherwood's, Mr. Lennig's and others. Designs and 
baskets of cut flowers were presented from C. Cope, R. Cornelius and K. 
Kilvington. 

Thomas Hancock exhibited fine Easter Beurre Pears. Mrs. Smith's 
gardener, five dishes of Pears. N. W. Roe, two kinds of Apples, and 
Robert Cornelius' gardener, three varieties of Apples. 

On the vegetable tables were to be seen from Mr. Cope's forcing houses — 
Cucumbers, French Beans, Tomatoes and Mushroons From Mr. Fisher's 
— fine Cucumbers, Mushroons, Lettuce, &c. From Robert Cornelius', many 
good culinary articles. Thomas F. Croft presented a fine display of 
Rhubarb. 

Premiums awarded were as follows : 

Camellias. — For the best six plants to John Pollock, gardener to F. 
Lennig; for the best six cut flowers to Thomas Fairley, foreman to R. 
Buist; for the second best to Isaac Warr, gardener to [John Sherwood. — 
Frimula simensis — for the best six plants to Benjamin Gulliss. Plants in 
Pots — for the best twelve to John Pullock, F. Lennig's gardener ; for the 
second best to "Wm. Gracey, gardener to W. W. Keen, West Philadelphia; 
for the third best to Thomas Fairley, R. Buist's foreman. Plant in a pot 
— for the best, the Acacia pubescens, to Isaac Collins, gardener to Gen. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 63 

Patterson. Plants shown for the first time, a special premium of $2 to R. 
Buist's foreman, iov E.miniata and E. candidissima. Another of $1 to Thos. 
Meehan, gardener to C. Cope ; for Begonia alha-cocclnea. Bouquet design, 
for the best to Thos.^. Meehan ; for the second best to Thos. Megrahn, gar- 
dener to R. Cornelius. Basket of Cut floivers — for the best to William 
Hamill, gardener to Mr. Fisher; for the second best to Robert Kilvington ; 
and for a beautiful display of Hyacinths, a special premium of. $2 to 
Peter Raabe. The Committee specially notice a fine specimen of the Camel- 
lia, variety Duc'a Viscont, from F. Lennig's, an Italian variety, and 
shown for the first time. Also a plant of the Cypripedium acaule, a native, 
shown by H. C. Hanson. 

Pears. — For the best ten specimens^Easter Beurre, to Thomas Hancock; 
for the second best, Glout Morceau, to F. Guoin, gardener to Mrs. J. B. 
Smith. 

Apples. — For the best ten specimens — Xewtovrn Pippin, to N. W. Roe; 
for the second best, the same kind, to Robert Cornelius" gardener. 

Vegetables. — For the best display of an amateui- gardener — to William 
Hamill, gardener to Mr. Fisher ; for the second best, to Thomas Megrahn, 
gardener to Robert Cornelius ; and a special premium to Thomas F. Croft 
for a very handsome display of Rhubarb, containing five named varieties. 

An interesting ad interim report from the Fruit Committee was submitted, 
of the objects shewn before them since the last stated meeting. 

Ordered : That the thanks of the Society be tendered to M. P. Wilder, 
of Massachusetts, for the gift of a copy of Dr. Harris' Report on Insects 
injurious to Vegetables, last edition, and the proceedings and Reports of 
the Massachusetts Board of Agriculture. 

Object.s Shown — By John Pollock, gardener to F. Lennig, Camellias — 
Duchess d'Orleans, imbricata, Henri Favre, Miss Percival, miniata. — 
Plants — Acacia longifolia; A. pubescens, A. conspicua. Gesnera zebrina, 
Begonia manicata, Euphorbia splendens, Azalea speciosissima, A. indica al- 
ba, Chorozema varium, Centradenia rosea, Camellia ochroleuca, Landrethii. 

By Wm. Grassie, gr. to Wm. W. Keen — Acacia pubescens ; Ardisia cle- 
gans, Azalea indica alba, Azalea coronata, Begonia manicata, Calla .Sthio- 
pica, Gesnera oblongata, Daphne rubra, Leschenaultia formosa, Spiroca pru- 
nifolia, Weigela rosea, Acschynanthus Boschianus. 

By Thomas Fairley, foreman to R. Buist. — Begonia manicata, Epacris 
carmtoniensis, Correa multiflora rubra, C. speciosa, Ixora coccinea, Rogiera 
araoena, Cyclamen coum, C. persicum, Daphne bybrida, Primula sinensis, fl. 
pi., Amaryllis Johnsonicnsis splendens, Centradenia rosea. 

By Thomas Meehan, gr. to C. Cope. — Hyacinth Penelope, H. Prince Al- 
bert, Ixora incarnata, Centradenia floribunda, Aeschynanthus pulcher, Old- 
enlandia Deppei, Goldfussia asophylla, Mahcrnia odoratn, Cineraria seedling, 
Henfreya scandens; Verbena Orb of Day, (Hovey's,) Bilbergia pyramidalis. 



64 THE FLORIST AND 

Collections of six Primula sinensis, by B. Gulliss, Isaac Collins, gr. tc^ 
Gen. Patterson, T. Megra]in,'gr. to R. Cornelius, and others. 



Philadelphia Botanical Associatiox.— At t^e close of the course of' 
lectures on Botany, by Dr. A. L. Kennedy, alluded to in a former number, 
about twenty ladies and gentlemen, members of the class, organized them- 
selves into a society for the mutual study of the science during the floral sea- 
son. OflBcers were elected, a constitution adopted, and regular meetings 
provided for, which are held on Monday evenings, at the convenient rooiri 
over No. 44 North Eighth street below Arch. The society is composed of 
amateurs, who, by the formation of a herbarium of indigenous plants and 
other means, propose to provide for themselves the best facilities for acquir- 
ing a knowledge of this attractive science. 



There is a great deal in the following remarks of a private? cor- 
respondent in the matter of exhibitions : 

" There is nothing which requires the pruning knife of reform more than 
these — not in a captious manner, * * * but with judgment and indepen- 
dence. 

There is no other means by which a taste for plants is fostered so much as 
by exhibitions of well grown specimens in flower — not in simply filling a 
room with plants more or less valuable, which comparatively vei'y few can 
appreciate — =but with specimens which show the untiring skill and patience 
of the gardener, and which strike the beholder as something worthy his ad- 
miration, and excite in him a desire of possessing a similar object. 

In this way the interest of all is promoted — the tradesman by the increas- 
ed demand for his articles — the am'ateur, by having superior flowers, fruits, 
and vegetables ; and the gardener, by a proportionate demand and reward 
for his services. 

Do try and impress upon the horticultural public, that becaixse a man pre- 
sents a plant or plants, he is not entitled to a prize, without any regard to 
their evincing any skill in their culture ; and that such are not the purposes' 
for which prizes are awarded." 

^ 

The annual meeting of the National Agricultural Society has just taken 
place. A large proportion of the States were represented. The Hon. Mar- 
shal P. Wilder delivered an address, of which we have received a copy. Of 
Prof. Booth's paper on the " Chemical Analyses of Soils," the correspondent 
of the Germantown Telegraph says: — "The doubts and suspicions which it 
casts over the high-sounding professions of some of our modern philosophers 
created quite a stir. This essay, the property of the Philadelphia Agricul- 
tural Society, will, when committed to print, do some good, and must prove 
a wholesome ^admonition to empyricism." With which we agree entirely. 
The formation of an Agricultural Department by the government was re- 
commended. 







NE¥ VARIETIES OE DAISIFIS. 



//// Jtuiif al tin- Sclivul nl' iJesiijii. 



AID HORTICULTUEAL JOUEML. 

Vol. IL] Pliiladelphia, March, 1853. [No. 3. 

GERMAN DAISIES. 
Bellis perennis L. Nar. Ord. Composite. 

It is difficult to any one v.^ho does not know what hybridization has 
done and can do, to believe that these charming flowers which we 
figure this month, originate from the well known English daisy which 
is sold in our markets in the early spring. Having all the beauty 
of form which is to be found in the Dahlia, with more beautiful, 
though as yet not so varied colors, they present an attraction to every 
lover of flowers* 

The writer had the pleasure a few days since of seeing in bloom 
six or seven varieties equal in shape and color to those in the plate. 
They are new to this countrj^ for like all herbaceous plants, they 
are very difficult to import, and it is not always that the seeds of 
the best varieties can be obtained from foreign nurserymen. We 
can promise, however, that several good collections of them will be 
shown this year at the flower show at the Chinese Museum. 

These varieties have been obtained in Germany, and as they are 
of easy culture and perfectl}^ hardy, they will be a valuable addi- 
tion to the flower border, or would make charming edging to the 
beds. 



For the Florist and Horticultural Journal. 

BRAZILIAN VEGETATION. 

The circuiTistancus ^vllich some years ug<; imluccJ us to visit Brazil, and 
other countries soutli and east of it, origiirated more from a desire to view 
the natural products of these countriosJ in their native wilds, than from any 
pecuniary consideration likely to be derived therefrom. And having noted 
down during our rambles such facts in relation to natural history as appear- 
ed to possess interest, \vc now cull from these notes the substance of such 
observations as wore made on the vegetable productions and their localities; 
9 



66 THE FLORIST AND 

confining ourselves for the present to what was observed in the vicinity of 
Rio de Janeiro, and within sixty miles inland of it, in an easterly direction. 
And, Mr. Editor, it is not at all unlikely that much that may be said on the 
above head will prove of little interest to many of the readers of the Florist. 
Be this as it may, we are inclined to believe, that to the practical horticul' 
turist, or such as have the cultivation of plants from this and similar tropi- 
cal regions to attend to, some hints may perhaps be thrown out by the way, 
■which in the daily operations of the judicious CBltivator, it is possible may 
prove of some advantage to him. 

One of the first features of this rich and beautiful country which presents 
itself to the eye of a lover of nature on entering the spacious bay of Rio, is 
the conical hills on each side, and beautiful islands clothed with luxuriant 
vegetation down to the water's edge. Passing these, and advancingtowards 
the city, the scene becomes grander and more extended, the objects being 
more distant and of greater magnitude. On the left, its base laved by the 
surf, is the symmetrical Sugar-loaf rock, 1250 feet high ; and some few miles 
distant in the back ground of this, the Corcovado, with its bald top, rises to 
an elevation of 2230 feet, whose irregularly sloping sides are covered with 
the richest of Flora's productions — of which we may speak hereafter. To 
the eastward, and at a distance of — miles, are seen the Organ mountains ; 
the points of some of whose peaks rise to the height of 7000 feet. These 
mountains, which can easily be reached in two days from Rio, will more am- 
ply repay the botanist for his trouble of visiting them than any other region 
of the same extent with which we are acquainted. On our first excursion to 
them, we took passage on board of a felucca-rigged freight boat; and being 
favored with a steady and rather stiff breeze, we found ourselves glided along 
by far too swiftly to be able to distinguish the individual rarities tliat adorn 
the numerous islands which stud the surface of the upper part of the bay. 
After about two hours' sail we found ourselves entering the mouth of the Rio 
Anhumirura, the water of which was muddy and sluggish, flowing as it does 
for a considerable distance through a marshy district. Tlie banks on each 
side were low ; along these grew Anona palustris, and a shrubby species of 
Hibiscus, bearing yellow flowers. Acrostichum danoeafolium, Langsd. and 
Fisch., with its golden colored frond six to eight feet high, occupied large 
tracts, almost to the entire exclusion of other plants, althoHgh occasionally a 
few Cyperaceaj and the spikes of a species of Typha shewed themselves ; in 
mud creeks a Pancratium, with large white flowers, grew in masses, wliile 
from the boat we picked up floating along tufts of Salvinianatans andbiloba, 
with Pontederia crassipes, Limnocharis Ilumboldtii and Azolla majellanica. 
"We lauded from the boat at a village called Estrella ; from this the distance 
to the base of the mountains is about eight miles by the public road, which 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 67 

passes over a gently undulated, sparsely wooded country. Here by the way 
side we saw for the first time some beautiful species of Loranthus, parasitical 
on trees, some bearing scarlet, and others yellow flowers. Many of these 
Loranthus, and particularly the scarlet flowering kinds, attain to a great 
size, their heads frequently 4 and 5 feet in diameter, and are equally as 
graceful in their growth and pretty in their blossoms as many of our finest 
Fuchsias ; the most of the yellow-flowered ones partake more of the [habit 
and possess as little beauty as our native Mistletoe. But we must not lin- 
ger on the road, for there are many gems found in the valleys and tops of 
the mountains to be talked over. 

Just imagine yourself, kind readers — you who are lovers of nature and 
landscape scenery — standing upon one of the peaks of the Organ mountains, 
at an elevation of six or seven thousand feet, overlooking the spacious Bay 
of Rio and its numerous islands, with clusters of ships of almost every na- 
tion lying at anchor, the largest of them a])pearing not bigger than the ca- 
noe of an Indian, while more near on the flat lands surrounding the water, 
plantations of Cocoanut trees. Plantains, Bananas, Sugar, Cofi'ee and Man- 
dioca (Jatropha manihot), with Rice fields of a lively green, somewhat re- 
lieving the eye after passing from the gloomy, deeply-wooded declivities of 
the mountain sides, and the rugged granite rocks shewing their crests here 
and there high above the trees. 

On entering the margin of these evergreen virgin forests (mate virgin) we 
felt quite at a loss to know what plant to collect first, so numerous were the 
species of the various tribes of Begoniacete, Rubiaceae, Solane?e, Apocyna- 
cese, Urticacese, kc, &c., which met the eye. Among the genera. Begonia 
•was most conspicuous, containing many species which it would be very de- 
sirable to have in our greenhouses ; seldom two plants of the same species 
are found growing side by side — unlike in this particular, in a general sense, 
the vegetation of northern countries, where species are usually more local 
and social. These remarks apply exclusively to the distribution of species 
in this portion of Brazil, for in some <listricts in the interior plants are found 
more in groups or masses. Another very striking peculiarity of the trees 
and shrubs in this region consists in the thinness of their bark, in propor- 
tion to the size of their trunks, and that the outer rind is not thrown off, as 
is the case with most trees indigenous to northern countries and New Hol- 
land. 

From the circumstance that these Brazilian forests are always dripping 
with moisture, and the great abundance of decomposed vegetable matter, 
ferns are very numerous and lovely ; the tree kinds belonging to the genera 
Alsophila and Cyathea, with trunks 30 or 40 feet high, and tops of grace- 



68 THE FLORIST AND 

ful spreading fronds, together with several species of pinnated-leaved Palms, 
reflect a sort of gay n ess over the gloom thrown around you by the dense 
foliage overhead, the chattering of monkeys and the screeching of parrots. 
To ascend one of these forest trees is no easy task ; we were often induced 
to make the experiment in order to procure some pretty Orchid, Tillandsia, 
Tern or creeper, which clustered its blossoms aloft on the boughs; but the 
trunks being very high, smooth and wet, with few branches making off till 
near the top, which we confess we seldom were able to reach. With respect 
to what those large forest trees are, very little is yet known by botanists, but 
from some of their flowers which we picked up on the ground, we made out 
,more than one species of Bombax ; others belonged to the genera Cassia, 
Bignonia, Lecythis, Melastoma, Inga, and Cresalpinia. It is also very dif- 
ficult to fall with the axe individual trees from which to procure specimens, 
their heads being so interlocked Avith each other, and bound together with 
roots and stems of climbing plants, belonging principally to the genera 
Echites, Cissus and Bignonia ; the roots and stems of these twine round their 
trunks and hang down from their tops, resembling somewhat the rigging of 
a ship. 

We have said that some pretty Orchids "were to be found on these trees, 
but we would have it here understood, that in dense shady forests the Epi- 
phytal kinds are by no means numerous, and only solitary specimens of ter- 
restrial individuals of this family are here met with. The favorite localities 
for this beautiful tribe is on exposed rocks and the margins of openings in 
the forests, but more particularly along the banks of rivers and streams, 
where the Epiphytal kinds may be seen in clusters like crow nests, attached 
to the limbs of trees, where the plants have a free circulation of air and a 
liberal supply of light, and even sunshine — the stems, with their singular 
and insect-looking flowers waving to and fro in the air by the vv'inds. We 
feel satisfied that the majority of individuals who cultivate Orchids are guilty 
tf a palpable error in their indiscriminate manner of treatment. A densely 
shaded glass house, or corner of one, the atmosphere surcharged with mois- 
ture, and a high temperature kept up, is too often the receptacle for such 
plants ; and we may be permitted here to hint how mother Nature (and she 
is never at fault) manages such things in Brazil. In the first place, all those 
species with thick coriaceous leaves, (and to this class belongs some of the 
finest of the family) she places on trunks and limbs of trees, or on rocks 
where light and air is freely admitted and water cannot lodge about the 
roots. We have often seen patches of these kinds on the wet ground in the 
forests, where they had been blown down by the winds, yet we never saw 
any that had been long in this position but what appeared sickly and in a 
decaying condition, from only having been removed a few feet from their 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 69 



original or primitive position. But what we deem in cultivation as essen- 
tial to the \yell-being of this class is, that after the plants are placed in 
proper receivers, they be suspended from the roof of the house, or placed in 
a position where they will be surrounded by a moderately humid pure at- 
mosphere, and very slightly shaded. 

As somewhat pertinent to what has just been stated above, we would men- 
tion that by far the greatest number of Epiphytal Orchid plants — and at the 
same time the most beautiful that we ever met with in any one spot — exist- 
ed in a swamp about two acres in extent, and thinly wooded with low trees 
of a species of Anona; on these grew innumerable patches of a lovely spe- 
cies of Laalia, bearing large violet-colored flowers ; also, an Oncidium, with 
deep yellow flowers. Through the quagmire, somewhat over the knees in 
mud and water we waded, in order to enjoy and examine these beauties ; 
and we found that from the effects of a powerful sun acting on the shallo\v 
water, a rapid evaporation was going on, which had had the effect of attract- 
ing the roots of the Orchids to leave the bark of the trees and spread out in 
all directions. 

In the second place, those Orchids having membranaceous and ribbed leaves 
as a general rule inhabit thickets of bushes and forests, where they are 
shaded, and either grow on the ground or in clefts of trees where vegetable 
matter accumulates ; these require more moisture than the first class, and 
are better constituted to succeed under the treatment that is usually meted 
out to the entire tribe by cultivators. We are inclined to believe that the 
number of species belonging to this section are greater than the first, though 
in general not so beautiful or interesting. 

Inhabiting trees and rocks, requiring similar treatment with that of Epi- 
phytal Orchids, is the genus Tillandsia, of which a great number of species 
is to be found in Brazil, nearly all of them producing greenish-j'ellow flow- 
ers ; but the great beauty of individual species is to be found in their colored 
bracts, many being crimson, others yellow, and some blue ; and we are ra- 
ther astonished that some of the finer kinds have not already been intro- 
duced into our collections, as they arc readily procured, stand transporta- 
tion well, and are easily cultivated. 

To gain the summit of one of the higher peaks of the Organ mountains, 
the traveller must subject himself to a considerable amount of physical ex- 
ertion. Where the forest trees are the largest and standing close together, 
the travel is comparatively easy to what it is on ncaring the top, where open- 
ings in the forest occur ; such places arc often strewed with prostrate de- 
caying trunks and branches of trees, overgrown with masses of a small spe- 
cies of bamboo, ferns, and prickly vines, through which you have to grope 
and cut your way. In these openings, and in rents of rocks which tower 



70 THE FLORIST AND 

above the trees, many choice plants are to be found of the following genera: 
Gesnera, Vellozia, Hippeastrum, Sinningia, Besleria, Columnea, Gaulthe- 
ria, Clusea, Rhipsalis, Cactus, Prepusa, Escallonia, Luxemburgia, Tillandsia, 
Franciscea hydrangeajformis, with numerous Orchids, and a composite plant 
■with flowers like a Stiiftia. 

The country for thirty miles beyond the Organ Mountains, through which 
the main road to the Minas Geraes passes, is of a rolling or hilly character 
and densely wooded. Oif and on this road, which keeps close to the banks 
of the Rio Parahiba, we botanized for a few days ; a view from an eminence 
of the tops of the forest trees here was truly beautiful, so many of them be- 
ing in bloom. The CiBsalpinia brasiliensis (Brazil wood,) was very common 
and conspicuous, its top covered with yellow flowers, dotting the forest in 
every direction you might turn ; these, with the hoary-headed, broad-leaved 
Cecropia peltata and digitata, contrasted well with Jacaranda mimosoefolia, 
and numerous Melastomete bearing violet-colored flowers ; for in Brazil ma- 
ny species of this family form trees twenty to eighty feet in height, and 
when in bloom are marked objects of attraction. By the sides of the roads 
where the primitive growth had been partially cleared away, an entirely dis- 
tinct flora had sprung up in its place, consisting principally of Solanaceous 
plants and compositie of luxuriant growth and great beauty of flower, inter- 
mingled with Begonias, Lobelias, Prepusas, and rambling Apocyneous and 
Malpighiaceous plants, such as Banisteria and Stigmaphyllon, with solitary 
specimens of a Bougainvillea, and an Alstrsemeria, like A. acutifolia ; and 
on moist ground some fine scarlet and blue Lobelias, one of the latter with 
astern ten feet high, crowned with very ornamental flowers. Along the 
margins of sandy creeks grew several species of Cleome and quite a variety 
of Lantanas, over the tops of which rambled the stems of Aristolochia bra- 
siliensis ; and close along and on each side of the road a row of Furcroya 
gigantea had been thickly planted in order to prevent the mules returning 
from the mines with their loads getting lost in the bushes, We passed for 
miles between such rows of this most majestic of all herbaceous plants, a 
number being in full bloom at the time ; some of the flower stems at the base 
measured eight inches in diameter, and stood from thirty to forty feet high. 

There grew on low lands that had been inundated by the river, two spe- 
cies of Cuphea, both very desirable for cultivation, one having deep purple, 
and the other pale blue flowers ; while a yellow flowered Jussicea in large 
masses occupied stagnant pools of water. We had now got far enough in- 
land to find the stately Araucaria brasiliensis, not in groups or groves, but 
in solitary specimens on the banks sloping to the river; their symmetrical 
habit and lance leaves closely set on the branches, contrasted strongly with 
the broad, smooth, shining foliage of the umbrageous trees on the back 
ground. One of these Araucaria trees we ascended in order to procure 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 71 

some of its cones, which lilce many other good things that had presented 
themselves on this excursion— were very difficult to be got at, but by swing- 
ins: ourselves like monkies from one branch to another, we succeeded in 
procuring all that was wanted ; the largest cone being about the size of a 
61b Pine apple, and the height of the largest tree we saw, did not exceed 
70 feet. 

On the top of the hills in this district is found Euterpe edulis, the Cab- 
bage palm of Brazil, and we can from experience say that it is a good sub- 
stitute for the cabbage itself; the young, unexpanded, blanched leaves 
which form the centre of the plant is the part taken for use, and the cut is 
made so deep into the core of the tree, that it never afterwards recovers. 

A large native Fig tree, whose broad, spreading top when measured, was 
found to be 140 feet in diameter, luxuriated in the midst of a small village 
through which we passed, the lower branches were about 6 feet from the 
ground and extended out their whole length horizontally ; but unlike the 
Banyan-tree of the East Indies, no roots were thrown downwards to the 
earth ; to these lower branches clung four species of Tillandsia. 

Two tribes of herbaceous plants which give character to Brazilian vege- 
tation, are Aracese and Scitaminese ; the first is represented by the genus 
Pothos, mostly all of the species of which have creeping rootstocks, these 
ascend trees; and ramble over moist rocks ; with Colocasia and Caladium, 
both inhabiting wet places. ScitaminjE is represented most largely by 
species of the genera Alpinia, Hedychium, Globba, Canna and Heliconia : 
the three first are usually found inhabiting rich alluvial spots by the banks 
of streams ; the species of Canna are commonly found on the outskirts of 
cultivated grounds, while Heliconia — which to our idea is the most orna- 
mental of the whole tribe, is an inhabitant of mountain forests. 

The tribe of Grasses as might be expected, is but sparsely represented 
in a country so densely wooded, but a few of those present were of the 
most majestic kinds ; in some localities situated in the bosom of the moun- 
tains where the soil was deep and rich, patches of bamboos were seen, whose 
smooth, round, shining canes rose to the height of GO to 100 feet, and from 
3 to 4 inches in diameter at base. 

With regard to ferns we shall not at present say much ; nevertheless, that 
they were found to be numerous, though, perhaps less so than in the vicinity 
of Rio, in comparison with the number of flowering plants, and shall only 
note in succession the genera which we supposed to be most largely repre- 
sented in species ; first — Polypodium, Asplenium, Pteria, Acrostichum, As- 
pidium, Adiantum, Ilymcnophyllum, Lycopodium, Gleichenia, l^ygodium 
and Anemia ; with Solitary specimens of such interesting genera as Marattia, 
Dansea, Cyathea and Alsophila. In one locality we met with that rare and 
beautiful fern Salpichl-ena volubilis, I. Sm., (Blechnum volubile, Kaulf.,) 
climbing on trees to the height of 40 feet. 



72 THE FLORIST AND 

The soil of the greater portion of the region, the vegetation of which we 
have given the reader a faint idea, consists principally of a tenaceous red 
clay ; but from the mild heat and great quantity of rain that falls, vegetation 
is very rank, and decomposition of the parts thrown off is constantly going 
on, so that a vast accumulation of vegetable earth prevails all through the 
forests, affording food for plants of all kinds. 

At some future time we may say something of the natural and cultivated 
vegetation in the vicinity of Rio. Peregrinus. 



FLOWER GARDENS. 

Geometrical flower gardens when properly located and tastefully ar- 
ranged are always inviting. Objection has frequently been urged against 
this species of garden as being of too artificial a character for introducing 
into natural scenery, but I apprehend that all such objections may arise 
from the misapplication of the principle. Artificial rockeries, lakes, and 
all other miniature representations of natural scenery require much taste 
both in their immediate formation, and the suitability of the locality in 
which they are placed. So with the geometrical flower garden. In pleas- 
ure grounds of an undulating nature, traversed by serpentine and abruptly 
curved walks, irregular masses of shrubbery and broad patches of flowers 
■will seem more appropriately decorative, than any formal arrangement of 
straight lined or circular shaped beds. Nothing can be more out of char- 
acter than laying down one of these gardens on an extensive lawn, or open 
pleasure grounds. Equally objectionable is that system of dotting lawns 
indiscriminately with flower beds and trees, as unmeaning as out of place. 
Many fine pleasure grounds are rendered tame ond uninteresting from the 
ineffective sameness thus produced. 

These designs are very effective in retired situations, hemmed in by trees 
and shrubs, more especially when surr ounded with an elevated terrace walk, 
that it may be comprehended in one view. Perhaps their most appropriate 
position is within, or rather, placed so as to grow an extension to, the ar- 
chitectural boundary of the house. Here they can be viewed from the 
windows of the dwelling, and may be decorated with vases, sundials, and 
other appropriate architectural devices. The flcwer beds are either inter- 
sected by gravelled walks, or cut out of the grass. The accompanying 
woodcut is intended to illustrate the general character of those surrounded 
with grass. With regard to the planting of these spots, there is much 
room for artistic skill and taste. The modern system is to fill each bed 
with a distinct colored flower, contrasting the colors so as to produce a 
Striking effect when viewed as a whole. Notwithstanding that this ar- 
rangement of contrasting colors is very frequently attempted, I have met 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 



73 




'^ . ^^ 




10 



74 THE FLORIST AND 



with few instances where it has been successfully carried out. A thorough 
knowledge of the composition of colors, is an indispensable pre-requisite. 

The plants usually employed for producing masses of flowers are tender, 
consequently they are useful for a few months only. It is desirable there- 
fore to plant a few beds permanently with dwarf evergreens. The Ever- 
green Berberries are well adapted, beautiful in foliage, flower, and fruit. 
The Euonymus also forms a fine mass, can be pruned into any shape. Kal- 
mias, and Rhododendrons, will also be available. Deciduous Azaleas 
should be introduced. The varieties of Yucca, planted singly in the cen- 
tre of the beds would have a fine effect, so exotic in appearance. Aucuba 
japonica will produce a beautiful variegated bed ; in this way the flower 
garden maybe rendered cheerful even in winter. 

As already observed, much depends upon the selection of suitable plants 
for a dazzling display of flowers during summer. There is nothing supe- 
rior to the numerous varieties of Verbena, they continue in splendor under 
the brightest sun. Petunias also flourish well in dry weather. The soil 
should bo well deepened in the first place, and moderately enriched. This 
will save much labor in watering,- an expedient often resulting from inefii- 
cient preparation. The beds should not be elevated in the centre, as is 
often done, a level surface is preferable, and retains moisture longer. In- 
stead of filling each bed exclusively with on» variety, a better clTect is pro- 
duced f]-(im a mixture ; for instance, Verbenas form an unequalled display 
of flowers, but are deficient in height and [^foliage. Heliotropes make ro- 
bust growths, attain the size of small shrubs, but are wanting in brilliant 
colors : the two planted together, the latter in the centre, form a desirable- 
combination. So also with Petunias and Salvias, Geraniums, PenstemonSy 
Portulacca, Nierembergia, &c. Examples might be multipliedj but it is not 
necessary. Many modifications and alterations will occur in practice, al- 
ways keeping in view the completion of a pre-eonceived design, both in ar- 
rangement and choice of plants. 

Baltimore, February, 1853. William Savkdees, 



Botanical Variation IN A Nectarixe Flower. — Mr. Editor: — I send 
for your inspection, a flower of a Pitmaston nectarine, having two perfect 
pistils. It is another instance of the uncertainty of botanical characters 
when the plants from which they are derived are under cultivation. At 
some future time I shall have some similar observations to record on the 
strawberry — tending to show, that the distinctions so much relied on by 
our friends in the great West, with regard to Staminates, Pistillates, and 
Hermaphrodites, are perfectly arbitrary — that a staminate can be changed 
to a pistillate, &c. entirely by cultivation. Thomas Meehan. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 75 

For the Florist and Horticultural Journal. 

ON THE CULTURE OF THE ERICA. 

There are upwards of seven hundred species and varieties of the 
Erica, and if any tribe of plants requires the special care of the gar- 
dener, if any more beautiful than another, it is the Erica. The Eri- 
cas (except a few species) are found on the Table Mountain, at the 
Cape of Good Hope, 3600 feet above the sea, in latitude 34'^ 28" 
south, \vhitth is a hot and airy situation, and proves that the Erica 
can ^vithout injury, bear intense sun on the foliage, but not the de- 
structive effects of the sun's raj-s beating on the pot. To propagate 
the Erica by seed, I prepare a cold frame, in size according to the 
quantity of seed ; the soil I use is tm-fy sandy loam from an old pas- 
ture, I fill the frame to about a foot from the glass, and press firm 
and evenly down to sow the seed on, which should be in rovv's, with 
each sort labelled; cover lightly with fine soil, then syringe the bed 
over, to settle the soil, and keep the sash in until they vogetale ; if 
sown in March they will be fit to pot in the end of summer or be- 
ginning of autumn singly into thumb pots. After potting, place 
Uiem in a close frame for a few days and gradually harden them off; 
at the approach of frost shift them into the greenhouse or heathry, 
near the glass, in a situation where they are exposed to the genial 
influence of the sun and capable of free ventilation at all times. To 
propagate by cuttings is nearlj^ as sure as rtiisiug from seed, and 
they mostly make stronger plants. In preparing for the cuttings, 
I take a square box 4 or 5 inches deep, I put sufficient drainage in 
the bottom and fill up with sand and loam well mixed, and cover 
with about h inch of Avhitc sand, and press gently down so as tool- 
low for the top of the cutting to be i an inch belnw the edge of tlie 
box; then lay a square of gltiss over the liox, wliich may be turned 
■once or twice a daj', and is much quicker than wiping out bell glass- 
es. Cuttings ma3^ be put in at all seasons of the year, the most pro- 
fei-able months are Januarv, February and Maich. Having all roadv 
for the cuttings, I select shoots which, on cutting at a riglit angle 
imder a joint or set of leaves, will nnl he bruise 1, hut out clean 
through, which is a good criterion to judge liom; dress the leaves 



76 THE FLORIST AND 

off for two or three joints with a very sharp knife; the cuttings should 
be -put in rows and have each sort labelled; a gentle watering is ne- 
cessary to settle the sand. I place them in a cool part of the green- 
house, as they should not be excited at first, as they are apt to damp 
off or grow up weak; when they are calloused they may be moved 
to a partly spent hotbed with a gentle bottom heat; when too much 
heat is applied the cutting is elongated, to the injury of its rooting; 
they should be potted off' as they root in half turfy loam, half peat 
and sand rubbed through the hands, but retain all the vegetable 
matter in the soil; treat them the same as the seedlings after they 
are potted. 

In the spring following their seedling or cutting states, when they 
are too large for thumb pots, I shift into 3-inch pots well drained, 
and keep the ball about half an inch below the edge of the pot, so 
as it will hold water to wet all the soil in the pot at once ; I then 
plunge in a cold frame in a partly shaded situation, and keep the 
sash on during storms, as they should not be exposed to the weathe? 
when so young, and plants in pots suffer more then when planted 
out; when the nights get frosty I give them the same treatment, as 
they had the winter before in the seedling and cutting states. In 
the season following, when the frosty nights are over, I prepare & 
bed IS inches deep, with good turfy loam from an old pasture, well 
chopped up; if not of a sandy nature I make it so. I then select one 
or two duplicates of each species; I do not expose too many of the 
rare and tender sorts to the heavy rains; I plant in rows 2 ft. apart; 
these by the following autumn v\-ill have grown fine bushy plants, 
when I have them carefully taken up with balls according to the 
size of the plants, and put in pots larger than the balls, to allow them 
to grow, as they should not have their growth retarded at this pe- 
riod, and I take great care not to cramp the roots, as nothing injuresi 
plants more than to force them into small pots. I then place them 
in a cold fmme shaded for a week or more, and syringe them over 
head occasionally, and gradually expose them to the rays of the 
sun. Ericas which I grow in pots, when the roots become matted 
round the side of the pot, I repot into 2-3 of turfy loam 1-3 of white 
sand, charcoal, and pieces of broken freestone, or any rough mate- 
rial to keep the soil from becoming sodden ; and the roughness of 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 77 

the compost should be accordmg to the age and size of the plant. I 
make a practice to have the pot well drained with charcoal, crocks, 
&c., if not, the soil becomes soured, and premature death is the re- 
sult. 

With the above treatment I have grown Ericas complete ; bushes 
in three and four years from 1 to 2 feet diameter, from 9 to 18 in- 
ches high; and sorts such as Persoluta, Transparens, Politrichifolia, 
&c. Much larger Ericas should be repotted some time before they 
are exposed to the influence of the weather, and if not plunged in 
the ground they should be put within a larger pot, and the interven- 
ing space filled with moss, which retains moisture and prevents the 
injurious effects of a hot sun beating on the roots ; when the plants 
are in a growing state they should be frequently stopped, and peg- 
ged down on the edge of the pot, which gives them a bushy appear- 
ance, as nothing looks so unsightly as sticks and props, (which Glen- 
ny calls the minor frigate of war style.) There has been much ca- 
villing as to the soil Ericas should be grown in ; the soil I succeed 
best with is turfy sandy loam, which has beep flayed from an old 
pasture to the depth of two inches and piled in a heap until it is well 
decayed; I find that Ericas grown in peat receive more injury from 
the hot sun than when grown in loam ; the cause may be from not 
having turfy fibrous peat, as the peat that is generally used is got 
from swamps or wet, shady woods, and is in a sodden state to be- 
gin with. To have Ericas root freely, the soil must be a free soil 
and not a binding one, and the color js no object ; Ericas should ne- 
ver be watered when the hot sun is Ideating on them, (especially if 
in a growing state) or they are apt to droop and die. In summer 
they may want water once or twice a day, in winter sometimes once 
a week; when the ball gets matted hard, I take a sharp stick and per- 
forate the ball from the top, which allows the Avater to sink all thro', 
as sometimes when they are repotted the water sinks through the 
new soil by the side of the pot, and the ball is quite dry. / never 
give a little water, or ivater sparingly — I always give sufficient to wet 
the whole of the soil in the pot at once, and never water but when 
they are becoming dry. I believe there is more injury done to the 
plants by injudicious watering than all other evils connected. 

The best structure for Ericas is a low span-roof house about 13 



78 THE FLORIST AND 

feet wide inside, the sections being nortli and south; height 6 to 8 
feet, length 60 to 100 feet, so made that the glass could be taken off 
in summer; or in short, a span-roof hotbed, or frame, heated with 
hot water j^ipes; smoke flues should never be put in a house for grow- 
ing Ericas; one-half of the house should have borders prepared for 
planting them out of the pots for three or four years, where they 
could have time to grow to specimens; and the other half for plung- 
ing the plants in pots. If they are kept in a greenhouse they should 
be arranged on the front shelf where they can have plenty of light 
and air when weather permits; the thermometer may range from 40 
to 45 degs. Fahr. or not below 35 in winter, and 45 to 55 or 60, 
with sun heat in the early spring months; if the house is kept too 
close and hot, they are apt to mildew; if there be any appearance of 
mildew, syringe with sulphur water, which will stop it. S^-ringings 
may be given on clear sunny mornings in winter and in the evenings 
in spring and summer, Avhich keep them clear of scale and filth, 
and contribute greatly to the health and vigor of the plant. 

Wm. Grey, Kenwood, Albany. 



For the Florist and Horticultural Journal. 

ORIGIN OF THE CHOROZEMA, 

WITH RECOLLECTIONS OF GARDEN SCENERY. 

Among tlie many beautiful additions -which New Holland has afforded to 
our greenhouses, few perhaps are more interesting than the Chorozema, 
whether we consider the beauty of its bloom or its entertaining history. — 
The derivation of its name from chores, a dance, and zema, a drink, alludes 
to the occasion of its discovery, which was made by a party in search of fresh 
water, and which they found at the same time. Among my earliest recol- 
lections I recall an elegant specimen of C. varium nanum, which stood 3i ft. 
high and as many across, never failing in the vernal months to cover every 
inch of its surface with racemes of its fine showy blossoms. This reference 
leads me to the beautiful place where this specimen grows ; and I hope that 
a, brief detail of its other beauties will not be uninteresting. Lismore Castle 
gardens, owned by the Duke of Devonshire, which are under the superin- 
tendence of one of his best gardeners, Mr. Keane, who has managed them 
for the last 25 years with the greatest credit. Here he cultivates upwards 



HORTICQLTURAL JOURNAL. 79 

of 150 varieties of that noble family, the Erica, which are exclusively grown 
in peat with a small mixture of turfy loam; he also uses liberally peat char- 
coal and white sand. I have never since seen any collection superior in lux- 
uriance of growth or of bloom. The peat is obtained from that part of the 
mountain where the heath grows, and the sods are piled in a heap for twelve 
months before using. 

A few of the varieties which I most admired were Hartnellii, which pro- 
duces a profusion of red flowers, and possesses the property of blooming twice 
a year; Archeriana, which I never saw at any time lack its dozens of beau- 
tiful scarlet clusters ; Propendeus, a highly esteemed favorite, bearing in 
spring its fragrant purple bells in great profusion — one called hybrida, with 
tubular glistening red blossoms, deserves especial notice ; Westphalingia, 
bright crimson,— most of the ventricosas; Bothwelliana, the best specimen I 
have ever seen, its flowers resembling ven. grandiflora; Cavendishii and de- 
pressa, splendens, ampullacea superba; Masonii, perspicua nana; triumph- 
ans, Shannonii, and almost endless variety of fine sorts. In a visit which I 
lately paid to the nursery of Mr. Menand, I was much gratified by the healthy 
appearance of his fine young specimens of this family, which are the founda- 
tion, I don't doubt, of something astonishing — even so much as Chiswick 
specimens. 

Both the kitchen and flower gardens at Lismore are remarkable for their 
tasteful and peculiar construction, with winding walks and lofty trees ; and 
well worthy of notice is the " dar-k ivalk," so called from the fact that the 
brightest rays of the sun cannot penetrate the densely leaved arcade of Yew 
trees, the growth of centuries. 

Along the south walls in the pleasure grounds are planted all the fine va- 
rieties of tea and china roses, besides a large collection of beautiful climbers, 
such as Clianthus puniceus and Glycine sinensis; some fine Magnolias, the 
finest Coral tree I ever saw, two extraordinary Yuccas, var. gloriosa, which 
recently threw up spikes of flowers 17 feet from the ground. An Acacia 
affinis stands 30 feet high, an Araucaria irabricata not less than 12 ft. high. 
I once had the pleasure of showing a gentleman from New York around this 
establishment, and many times did he sigh for some such places in America, 
and so do I — I)ut as the inclemency of our winters wont permit such rarities 
to live out of doors, let our gentlemen of sufiiciont means imitate my employ- 
er, in the erection of glass, and then we can have the pleasure of their beau- 
tiful appearance. Let our ladies also warmly advocate the cause, as it is 
only a natural circumstance that the gentlemen should listen to their solici- 
tations, and thereby evince that zeal which no tasteful mind should lack. 

Maurice Walsh, 
gr. to U. Corning, Jr. Esq., Albany. 



80 THE FLORIST AND 



Mr. Editor: — Your correspondent "Anthophilus" seems to have found a 
"mare's nest" in the fact that plants can be grown -without peat. Indeed, 
he actually believes it. It would be a greater wonder to me to see plants, 
of the kind he mentions, grow well in it, if the peat he alludes to is the marsh 
mud that I see some gardeners collecting, drying, and storing past under 
that name- One thing I wonder much at is, that I never see any of them 
using it by itself in their plafit culture; — perhaps they would grow too well. 
TradJlcs thinks they would not grow at all in it; but he is no authority. I 
would hesitate in making the remark, did I not see encouragement loammg 
through some late articles in your pages. That I have known heaths on the 
tables at Chiswick with very little peat about their roots, not more than a 
"night-cap" full to the bushel. This was merely tried as an experiment, 
not from a scarcity of good peat — real fibry stuff, fit for foot balls — that had 
to be cut with a chopping-knife before it could be used. 

I had hoped that the mysticism of compost making was at an end ; but in 
a late "New York Agricultor" I observed a specimen which, a century ago, 
would have immortalized the author. It is a border for growing grape vines, 
composed as follows — I omit the quantities of each, which are considerable : 
Bones, sculls of sheep and oxen, pulverised charcoal, oyster shells, leather 
scrapings, coal ashes, blacksmiths' cinders, leached ashes, iron filings, well- 
decomposed manure, street scrapings, garden soil, yellow loam and sod. The 
•writer premises that he is " very particular with his border," and "waters 
with soapsuds every Monday — one pailful to a root — ^ and on Friday with 
guano." If this is not horticultural charlatanry it is a very near approach to 
it. Such exposures go farther in retarding than advancing the subject they 
pretend to simplify. Many who would gladly undertake the culture of grapes 
would give it up in despair, if they seriously believed such a conglomeration 
of substances was indispensable for their growths Your calendar writer may 
enufl" out his farthing candle in the face of this bright light. He is content 
with well drained " garden soil," trenched two feet [deep, and mixed with 
charcoal and bones. The latter substance is very generally recommended 
as a manure for grasses. Wonder if the idea was taken from Plutarch? He 
informs us that " the Massalians walled in their vineyards with the bones of 
their enemies that they had slain, and they produced a prodigious crop the 
next season." Truly, "there is nothing new under the sun." This wassome 
2000 years ago. 

You remark that the London Horticultural Society have been trying sul- 
phur and lime to prevent mildew, and think it will do it. They need not 
think anything about it, its efficacy has been fully established long ago. As 
like as not they picked up the remedy from Allen's treatise on the vine, pub- 
lished some years ago in Boston ; but, of course, they must find it out for 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 81 

themselves. The discovery has also lately been made in France. 

"A curious coincidence, to use a phrase, 

By which such things are settled now-a-days." 

There it gets the natne of hydrosulphate of lime. Brandy and water, with 
a squeeze of lemon in it, in these gentlemen's hands would become the acidu- 
lated hydrate of alcohol. 

This sulphur and lime mixture is also valuable as a means of eradicating 
red spider; applied as a whitewash on the underside of the stage during sum- 
mer, and every part of the greenhouse where the color is not objectionable, 
red spider will cot make their appearance. If they are troublesome in win- 
ter, paint a little of the mixture on the flues or hot water pipes, if that me- 
thod of heating be adopted. In this way a slight application will be sufli- 
cieat — otherwise it may injure the plants if a strong heat be applied. 

Anti-humbug. 



Mr. EctToli: — In reading the commencement of the article on Heathsby 
Mr. Saunders, I said to myself, at last here is one with whom I can agree — 
"Heaths can be grown without peat," and "in a mixed collection of plants;" 
but when I came to tlie conclusion of the article, I saw that I was mistaken: 
that in fact the sarcasms of "Anthophilus" about artesian wells and ice houses 
are more near to "Experiment" tlian to me. Is it possible that such a prac- 
tician as Mr. S. should advocate such means to grow such plants as Heaths? 
I could conceive such associations for Cypripedia, for Calopogon pulchellus, 
Arethusse, &c., but for Heaths, natives of the most southern parts of Africa, 
and for the most part growing on dry, dreary hills, at an elevation of many 
hundred, perhaps thousand feet above the sea level ! I know you will say 
that the atmospheric circumstances are different. I know they are, as from 
a dry hill to almost a cistern. Do we lose our Heaths in summer in the dri- 
est seasons and weather ? No ! it almost invariably happens after a shower — 
and the heaver and longer the rains, the greater the chance of losing them. 
Perhaps you answer — we can cover them to keep off these rains; then I will 
ask you, if those who have adopted the system of keeping tlicm in doors all 
the time have had better success, and have never lost any'^ If so, wiicre are 
they? The best collection I have seen in America w:is in Boston, at the 
Hon. Mr. Wildcr's; they stood in the middle of the garden, exposed to all at- 
mospheric changes, and yet were in the best condition I should ever wish 
plants to be. There were not only Heaths, -but Epacridae, Lysinema pul- 
chellum, and L. pungens, plants still easier to lose than Ericas — and all more 
thrifty than I ever saw them. I have now in bloom Dracophyllum Hugelii, 
11 



82 THE FLORIST AND 

another Epacridea, which stood all last summer fully exposed to the sun, in 
a 4^inch pot, and not plunged, but standing above ground. However I don't 
recommend the plan, I only quote the example. 

It is really astonishing to see ho^Y contradictory are our opinions about 
these unfortunate plants ; they are natives of one of the driest and ■warmest 
parts of the globe, and we want to make them live in the most frigid atmos- 
phere. Ah ! Mr. Editor, we are not homoeopathic doctors in our treatment 
of plants — it is surprising how Heliophoby is prevalent among gardeners — 
shade, shade for everything; shade for Orchideoe, shade for Heaths, and of 
course, shade for ourselves; but I think we keep ourselves too much in the 
shade — the reason why our ideas become so etiolated, so diverse, so weak. Ahl 
my friends, instead of complaining that the sun is made too hot, let us rather 
regret that our minds are too narrow for the portion of vanity which occu- 
pies our brains ; nothing is wrong but our presumption. What, we style our- 
selves physiologists, phytologists, naturalists, &c., and we want to explain 
all the phenomena of nature ? yet we cannot make use of the very small al- 
lowance of common sense with which the Supreme Being has endowed us. 

L. M., Albany, Mar. 1. 



Mr. Editoe: — I'm in for it, to a certainty — simply for giving my opinion 
on a few bricks in a "north-east aspect," to grow ray little pets, the Ericas, 
in. I am very sorry that our friend "Anthophilus" has such tall ideas — he 
certainly must be a tall man if he cannot stoop to look into those miniature 
holes six or eight inches from the ground ; but he must consider that we 
working gardeners of Philadelphia are glad to bend our backs to poke our 
nose through the holes he talks of, to gaze upon our little notions, — and in 
time we hope to get larger notions. 

"Anthophilus" seems to want to make large Chiswick specimens at once ; 
I do not. My four brick walls in a north-east aspect, I can convince him, is 
the riglit place to grow them in. The space I allotted is small, but what use 
is there of a large place with no Heaths in it; but I know that the Chiswick 
specimens will come out of such a place, and Philadelphia is to be the Chis- 
wick of America. You shall see. Experiment. 

"We think that the views of our different correspondents on this subject 
have been pretty well stated by this time ; and we want to see the result of 
their practices. There are many persons of experience here who still doubt 
whether they can be grown at all, and the only way to satisfy all parties is to 
show plants of the fine kinds — not Meditteranea, nor Wilmoreana, nor Ru- 
hida, but such as are more difficult, as Neillii, ventricosa superba, ampulla- 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 83 

cea, MoUinsonii, &c. It matters very little ^Yhether they are grown in the 
shade or in the sun, so that we have them. The opinion of the writer is de- 
cidedly with those who do not think peat essential to growth of certain kinds 
of plants. — Ed. 



To the Editor of the Philadelphia Florist. 

Dear Sir : — You have heard of the Augusta Rose that is about Syracuse, 
N. Y., and has been talked about and written upon for the past two years, 
with a more mysterious air upon it than any other Rose of any other name, 
always closing with its being tlie finest yellow ever-blooming Rose in exist- 
ence. We think in all candor that the mystery should be unveiled, and the 
fair proportions of the Rose laid before you, presuming as you are not one 
of the trade you will give it an insertion. 

The seed of tlie Rose was obtained from some of the roses that luxuriate 
in the gardens of Washington City some years ago. The result has been the 
said Augusta Rose, which appears to be in character between Noisette Sol- 
fatare and Cloth of Gold, an improvemement on the former, but (what we 
have seen) inferior in color and nobleness of flower and petal to the latter. 
It does, however, possess the character of blooming freely, even on very 
young plants. In hardiness we would assume it to rank with Solfatare, or 
Noisette Laniarque, and more fragrant than cither of those two roses, and 
perhaps equal to them in growth. 

Yours, a lover of RoSES. 



NEW AND RARE PLANTS, 

FLOWERED FOR THE FIRST TIME THIS SEASON, AT SPRINfiBROOK. 

No. IV. 

Epacris miniatus — Perhaps the best of the dark flowered kinds. Its 
flowers have the rich bicolor of the E. grandiflora, but with twice their thick- 
ness, with the finer habit of E. iinprcissa. It may be an hybrid between the 
two. My plant is but small, being but a rooted cutting when received from 
Messrs. llovcy last spring. Its flowering so young indicates a free bloom- 
ing property, which the plant recently introduced and exhibited at the last 
meeting of the Penn. llort. Society by Mr. Buist confirms. 

Tropjjolum azureum. — We received a small bulb of this last spring from 
Mr. Buist. It was kept in a 3-inch pot of sandy loam, dry, on a shelf in the 
greenliouse till October, when it showed signs of growth. Tliis small pot 



84 THE FLORIST AND 

was then plunged to the rim in an 8-inch pot, anJ the plant trained to a flat 
trellis. It has been a sheet of blue for the last t'wo months. The foliage is 
small likeT. tricolorum; the flowers are large, its petals more spreading. It 
is essential in a collection of Tropoeolums. 

Eriostemon BUXIFOLIUS. — Who that has seen an European collection of 
Cape or Australian plants, does not know this, tliere, old and beavitifal plant? 
I slionld think that it must have been formerly introduced into oar collec- 
tions. Our plant was introduced last fall by Mr. Cope, from Messrs. Lee, of 
London. Though the waxy white flowers are not so pretty individaally as 
some of the newer kinds, yet taken collectively and together -with its box- 
like foliage, it is unsurpassed. My plant is in a mixture of peat and loam, 
was kept in a shady part of the greenhouse during the summer and fall, and 
grows like a willow — so luxuriant indeed as to prevent its flowering with thafe 
freedom I know it to be capable of. 

Hypocyeta strigillosa. — A Gesneraceous plant, between a Cohmneci 
and a Nematantli-us, It is more woody than either of them, and does not 
seem to grow higher than a foot or so, forming a bushy shrub. The leaves 
are about an inch in length, and so covered Avith fine hairs as to give them a 
peculiar grey appearance; they are thickly set on the branches, and bear a 
scarlet sessile flower in their axils. Our plant was received last spring from 
Messrs. Hovey, and being small, produced a few flowers in the fall. This 
plant kept but slightly flowering in a warm greenhouse, is now showing flow- 
er abundantly, while another kept growing strongly in a high stove heat is 
but just showing its flower buds. It seems to be a plant which by manage- 
ment may be had always in bloom ; and, as a small growing, neat flowering 
plant, will, I have no doubt, get an "extensive circulation." 

IxoRA incarnata. — Since writing the notice of this plant I Lave flowered 
the /. 7-osea of the Philadelphia collections, and find them identical. Can 
any one inform us whether there is a distinct I. rosea? 

Thos. Meehan. 

Templetonia glauca. — A Leguminous plant, in bloom at Mr. Knorr's, W. 
Philadelphia, from New Holland, with obovate glaucous leaves, and red flow- 
ers of the papilionaceous shape peculiar to the order. It was imported last 
spring from Mr. Van Iloutte, of Ghent. It is free flowering, and a decided 
acquisition to the greenhouse. Sandy loam and peat seem to suit it well. 

Epacrh Atlceana, one of the best varieties of this favorite genus, with a 
long white flower, shaded. with pink at the base of the tube. 

Several new Azaleas were in bloom, among them were Exquisita, Prince 
Albert, Striata, Formosa, and others. They were received last fall from 
Messrs. Low, of Clapton, and Van Houtte. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL, 85 

CALENDAR OF OPERATIONS. 

FRUIT. 

Grapes, out-doors. — Opinions are varied with regard to the evil effects 
of bleeding that follows pruning vines when the sap is in active motion. 
The late Mr. Downing, (considered good authority in such matters) has 
somewhere remarked that "all the bleeding that occurs from cutting last 
year's wood will not hurt them in the least." And Mr. Hovey (authority 
equally trustworthy) says, "that no danger need be apprehended from a 
bleeding." We know that many cultivators would rather leave them un- 
pruned than risk this bleeding process, although we have not seen any 
direct evidence that it is injurious ; while on the other hand, we have rea- 
son to believe that it is not. It is a pity for the principle of the thing, that 
it is not. The fact is, that the grape-vine is a plant of too accommodating 
a turn, were it less so, we would sooner agree to a definite system of man- 
agement. 

The soil about their roots may receive a slight top dressing in the fol- 
lowing manner, first, sprinkle a little guano on the surface, then lay on 
two or three inches of a mixture of fresh loamy soil and charcoal dust, 
forking the whole slightly over without injuring the roots. Enriching the 
surface offers an inducement for the roots to seek upwards, were they will 
be influenced by the atmosphere, and subjected to those chemico-electrical 
agencies so beneficial to vegetation. Should they be deep in unsuitable 
soil, a fresh supply may be obtained by bending down the branches, so that 
a part may be covered with soil. Fresh roots will emit freely from these 
covered parts, and by mulching in summer, and annual top dressings as 
above, they will be completely renovated, and in every respect "as good 
as new." 

Grapes, in-doors. — In cold graperies the vines will soon be starting to 
growth. Keep the house open and avoid excitement. A few mild days 
will cause some of the buds to burst, which are liable to injury from cold 
day winds, and sharp night frosts, that frequently occur at this season; 
vegetation should therefore be retarded as far as practicable. The horizon- 
tal position that the vines should now be in, will retard them somewhat, 
particularly if they are tied close to the parapet wall, where they will be 
shaded from sun. The house may be shut up close on frosty nights but not 
otherwise. The border may also be kept covered, to prevent absorption of 
heat by the soil, and growth of the roots. These precautionary measures 
are requisite, as this is the principal difficulty wc have ever experienced in 
houses destitute of artificial heat. Should the thermometer outside in- 
dicate a few degrees of frost when the vines have commenced growth, if 



85 THE FLORIST AND 

you have no other resort, Jill the house ivith smoke. We have frequently 
applied this remedy with success under the above circumstances, and can 
confidently recommend it to those similarly situated. 

Planting. — Real lovers of gardening never consider anything a frouhle 
that has in it the remotest likelihood of success. Therefore if you have a 
few choice trees or shrubs that you intend transplanting by and by, suc- 
cess will be more certain if the soil where they are to be placed is turned 
over occasionally during bright sunshine, and covered up at night with a 
sprinkling of rough litter of any description, to prevent radiation. Not 
only will the soil be rendered more friable by this means, but considerable 
heat will be absorbed, and thus some of the advantages of autumn planting 
secured. 

Raspberries. — If not already done, no time should be lost in pruning 
out the old bearing wood from these, leaving four or five canes for this 
year's crop. Wood ashes, bone dust, and lime rubbish are good for top 
dressing, forking it in between the rows. In forming a new plantation 
trench the ground deeply, manuring heavily in the bottom of the trenches. 
On thin soils with a hard bottom, these fruits seldom come to much, unless 
they are heavily mulched — a practice that cannot be too often insisted on 
in all cases where it can be applied. They ripen at a season generally 
warm and dry, and if the roots have not some resource beyond the mere 
surface, the fruit will shrivel and ripen prematurely. Plant in rows four 
feet apart every way. Tying to upright stakes is the common method of 
securing them. Those who have a fancy for neatness combined with utility 
may form a wire fence and train them on it like grape vines. The finest 
we ever saw were produced in this way. Not that we place much weight 
on any method of mere training for the securance of any crop, provided 
other circumstances are favorable, but in the case of raspberries when bun- 
dled close together one half is crushed and suffocated. It may also be re- 
marked in passing that this fruit is worthy of being cultivated more largely 
than it is. It has many commendable properties when well cared for. 
Horticulturists are ever running to extremes. At present pears and straw- 
berries are monopolising all the talk from Cincinnati to Boston. S. B. 

MARCH — APRIL. 

Flower Garden. — In the annual trimming of the "verges" or grass 
edges of walks, they ought not to be cut so as to appear like a wall on each 
side — the smaller it can be made the better the walk will appear. Where 
they have become deep from the washing away of the gravel, now is the 
time to apply fresh. The old gravel should be stirred with the point of a 
pick before the application of the new. Lawns should have all litter that 
may have blown on them during winter at once cleared off, if with a birch 
broom it will be much preferable to the rake — and receive a good rolling 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 87 

■witli a heavy roller. In my opinion there is nothing more refreshing, or at 
any time more agreeable than a "soft velvety carpeted lawn," and if the 
directions I have formerly given be attended to, and the newly sown lawn 
be kept rolled after summer showers, mown every two weeks, and the cut 
grass swept off, not raked, we can have in America the much envied "green 
carpets" of old England's flower gardens. Hardy evergreens add much to 
the beauty of the pleasure ground. The beginning or middle of April is 
as good a time as any to transplant them. Some of the newer kinds of 
Coniferx form very handsome objects when planted by themselves singly in 
conspicuous positions. The Deodar cedar, yi'vCa. its bluish gray color, and 
pendulous branches, is especially beautiful. The Cryptomeria japonica 
can scarcely be excelled in its way. The Araucaria imbricata does not 
seem to be hardy in Philadelphia or it would be a unique subject for a sin- 
gle specimen. Abies pinsapo, Douglassii, and Smithiana, and Pinus Ham- 
iltonii excelsa, and I believe ponderosa, are entirely so — all of them dis- 
tinct and beautiful. The Hemlock, Abies canadensis, is also a very elegant 
and graceful tree when planted singly, and in some situations the Norway 
Spruce, Abies excelsa, is beautifully adapted. It is no use to plant any of 
them in wet grounds, nor do they do well in such as are hot and dry — they 
prefer a loose friable loam, where the rain can easily penetrate, soak through 
to the under strata, and pass right ofi". Such a soil is always moist, and 
cool, and yet never wet ; and in such a soil all the coniferce will luxuriate. 
The English Holly when grafted on the American (I. opaca) is perfectly 
hardy, and one of the very best of evergreens. In the fall calendars I gave 
lists of plants adapted to bedding out, so that they might be propagated 
and got on hand by the spring — as many have not seen the back numbers, 
and others may have to procure from the florists the plants they require, 
I insert a list of things of various colors best adapted to planting in 
masses. Annuals are generally the worst of all things — something to stny 
in bloom the whole season being preferable. Red, crimson, or deep rose, 
Scarlet Geranium, A'^erbena Robinson's Defiance, Ruellia formosa, Cuphea 
platycentra, Alonsoa linearis, Gaillardia picta, Zinnia. Purple and dark 
violet, Petunin, Duke of Bedford, Lord John Russell, or even the common 
small purple; Globe amaranthus. Marvel of Peru, Senecio elegans. Blue, 
Heliotrope, Blue Queen Verbena, Salvia patens, Plumbago Larpentre, Nier- 
embcrgia gracilis or filicaulis. TF/^Vc, Vinca alba, white Petunia, Queen 
Verbena, white amaranthus, sweet alyssum. Yellow or Orange, Lantana 
Mexicana, L. crocea, Lychnis coronaria, perhaps the new orange amaran- 
thus, and Jasrainuin revolutum. Whenever the weather permits seize every 
opportunity of getting the ground dug in readiness for the plants next 
month. Wherever there are 60a; edgings they should be neatly trimmed 
once a year, at this period. Carnations and Pinks that may have been 
slightly protected during the winter should be planted out at the earliest 



88 THE FLORIST AND 



possible opportunity. The same with Chrijsantliemums that flowered in 
pots during the winter — these should be put out in very rich soil so that the 
new wood may afford luxuriant wood for next year's cuttings. 

Green House. — One of the sweetest and most desirable things in flori- 
culture is the Tuberose — pot a dozen or so singly in 8 in. pots and get them 
along early ; sand, loam, and cow-dung, in equal proportions suits them. 
Azaleas and Rhododendrons require a large supply of water while in flower, 
and manure water once a week. If it is desirable to re-pot them, do so 
as they are about to go out of flower, and before they start into a new 
growth. They will do better if kept close and warm while growing. In 
general they do not require potting often — growing to a very large size, 
healthy, and flowering abundantly in very small pots Save seeds of the 
finest flowers of your Chinese Primroses as they ripen, and sow them at 
once. They will make fine plants for next winter's flowering. Next winter, 
too, requires at the present time attention in other quarters. For blooming 
then, commence now to propagate Spiroea JReevesiana, white; Eupatorium 
elegans, ditto ; Stevia serrata, ditto ; Henfreya scandens, and Spiroea pru- 
nifolia ; also pink colored. Begonia incarnata, and Pentas carnea, scarlet ; 
Euphorbia jacquinceflora, and Poinsettia, Habrothamnus elegans, Cyrtan- 
thera [Aphelandra) G-heisbrechtii. For yellows there are nothing prefera- 
ble to Jasminum revolutum, and Cestruni aurantiacum. In some cases the 
Strclitzia reginse is a valuable winter blooming plant. I have one which 
has this winter born over eighty flowers. Don't follow old rules about 
throwing away your Syacinth bulbs after flowering, turn them out in a bed 
of rich sandy loam, take them up in the summer, re-plant in a fresh bed in 
the fall, let them stay there all winter and flower there the following spring; 
then take them up again, and tliey will be as good as ever. This will save 
you many a thirty cents for fresh bulbs. The venders will not quarrel with 
you as they will get your spare money for other things which you cannot 
raise. I hope to see the Hyacinth more generally loved than it is, and 
America the chief mart for their exportation, vice Holland, as the old ga- 
zette would say, "superseded." The Jerseymen should see to this. Oamel- 
lias, while growing must have a bountiful supply of water, and the free use 
of the syringe. The aspects and circumstances under which they are grown, 
■will of course vary the treatment in some degree. 

Hothouse. — At this season of the year insects should get a closer look- 
ing after in this department than at most others, as, if a few have escaped 
the winter's crusade against them, they will soon be as bad as ever; one kill- 
ed now, will save your plants more than a thousand in the fall. Tillandsias, 
Bilbergias and Bromeliaceous plants, amongst the finest winter flowering 
plants for the dry stove, should be repotted now into rich loam, grown in a 
strong heat, with plenty of water, for a couple of months, then placed in a 
hot, sunny spot, where they will get little water, till September, when, re- 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 89 

ceiving gradually an increase of moisture, they ■will reward you handsomely. 
The " tall Cacti," as the Londoners call them, such as C'ereus speciossissi- 
mus, Phyllocactus Jenkinsonii, Ackermanii, speciosus, and so on, ought to 
be kept moist and warm at this season ; they ought to flower abundantly in 
May. Phyllocactus crenatus is said to be a great acquisition. The Clero- 
dendron is an essential now-a-days in old country collections of stove plants, 
judging by the reports in the papers; about here, though some kind or other 
is "everywhere," they are not grown so well as their beauty deserves. They 
require good pot room, a rich, loamy soil, a strong moist heat and manure 
■water while growing, and an abundance of light when about to bloom. Cle- 
rodcndroti paniculaturn, Hpccio.iissimuni, and Kccmpfcrii, are three of the 
best. Orchideous plants, though some are in bloom continually, will be 
mostly flowering now, especially of the genera Oneidium, Gongora and Den- 
drobiuw. The house may still be kept for them at about 65 or 70 degs., but 
they should receive a slight syringing at least two or three times a day. — 
They have succeeded in raising these from seed in England, according to the 
Revue Ilorticfilc. Can't we come up to this? 

Vegetable Garden. — Many put in a crop of dwarf or bush Beans about 
the end of the month — I find no advantage in sowing them before May. — 
All crops of which a succession is required, as Peas, Beans, lladishcs, Let- 
tuce, &c., should be sown as often as the preceding crop is fairly above the 
ground. Having attended to the crops mentioned in the last calendar, the 
Beet will come next, preferring a deep, sandy loam, well dunged the year 
previously; the Turnip Beet is best fur this crop; the long Radish Beet will 
be best for winter use, and should be^sown a month later. The Carrot will 
thrive in soil similar to the Beet ; lime is an excellent manure for it — I use 
the long orange. Celery may be sown about the end of the mouth, in a bed 
of very light rich suil, and Tomatoes, Egg Plants, and Peppers sown in pots 
or boxes, and forwarded. It is as bad to be too early with these as too late, 
as they become stunted. I. j. 



For the FIttriSt and Horticultural .Tounial. 

PENNSYLVANLV HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The stated meeting of this society occurred on Tups.hiy evening, March 
15, 1853, in the Chinese Saloon. The President in the chair. The usual 
exhibition of the large and imposing Azaleas, Rhododendrons and finely 
grown specimens of greenhouse plants presented at the March meetings, 
ivas withheld on this occasion owing to the sudden change in the weather, 
from mild to severely cold, yet those who attended were amply repaid by 
the display of many interesting plants, and very beautiful cut flowers 
shown in the tasteful designs, Baskets of cut flowers and Bounuets. 
12 



90 THE FLORIST AND 

— — ■ 

1 

Mr. J. F. Knorr's gardener exhibited a dozen of choice blooming plants, 
six pots filled with Hyacinths, and the following new kinds Templetonia 
fflauca, Ahutilon striatum Van Monttii, Azalea alba striata, A. JExquisita, 
and Cinerarias — Carminata, Vicar of Wakefield, formosa, Mrs. Sydney 
Herbert, Marianne and Amie Robsart. Mr. C. Cope's gardener brought a 
dozen of select greenhouse plants, a collection of Cinerarias, and two species 
shown for the first time — Rhodostemma gardenoides and Hi/pocijrta strigil- 
losa. Peter Raabe exhibited a large pyramid of Hyacinths — a rich show. 

On the fruit table were seen, a small basket of strawberries from Mr. 
Cope's houses — Easter Beurre pears from Thos Hancock — St. Germain 
and Nouvelle d'Esperin pears and Reinette franche apples from Mrs. J.B. 
Smith — and Newtown Pippin and Catharine apples from R. Cornelius. 

The following are the premiums awarded : 

P>y the Committee on Plants and Flowers. Azalea, for the best grown 
specimen to Thos. Meghran, gardener to R. Cornelius. Plants in pots, for 
the best 12 specimens to John Bell, gardener to J. F. Knorr ; fur the second 
best to Thomas Meehan, gardener to C. Cope. Netv plants shown for the 
first time, a premium of two dollars to Thos. Meehan for Rhodostemma 
gardenoides. The silver medal to John Sherwood for an American seedling 
Camellia, double white, a very superior variety. The Committee called the 
attention especially of the society to the following new plants presented 
for the first time, which they consider an acquisition, Templetonia glauca. 
Azalea alba striata, A. exquisita, Abutilon striatum Van Houttii; and Cin- 
erarias — Carminata, Vicar of Wakefield, formosa, Mrs. Sydney Herbert, 
Marianne and Amie Robsart from the houses of J. F. Knorr. Bouquet 
design, for the best to Thos. Meehan; for the second best to Thos. Meghran. 
Basket of cut flowers, for the best to Thos. Meehan ; for the second best 
to A. Hall, gardener to D. Rodney King. And special premiums to Thos. 
Meghran for a basket of flowers, and to Peter Raabe for a fine pyramid of 
Hyacinths. 

By the Fruit Committee. Pears, for the best ten named specimens, 
Easter Beurre to Thos. Hancock. Apples, for the best ten specimens, the 
Newtown Pippin to Thos. Meghran ; for the second best, the Reinette 
franche to F. Guoin. And a special premium to Thos. Meehan, for a basket 
of Hovey's seedling Strawberries. 

By the Committee on Vegetables. For the best and most interesting 
display by a private gardener to Thos. Meghran ; for the second best to 
Thos. Meehan. 

Ad Interim Report. 
The Fruit Committee respectfully report: That since this last stated 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 91 

meeting of tlie Society, tlipy have received and examined specimens of the 
followiri'if varieties of Fruits. 

Fi-om Mr. Chailes Kcssler. — Tltc Reading — This valuable Winter pear 
has been noticed in several of our ad interim reports. The present speci- 
mens, which were eaten on the 11th inst., have strengthened the favorable 
opinion previously expressed by us of its merits. 

The Kcim, which we have previously described, appears to be a late 
keeping Winter apple, assuming a more beautiful waxen appearance with 
the advance of the season. 

Eccniiig Party. — This is the third time this delicious little apple has 
been submitted to our examination during the present season. Each suc- 
cessive trial has served to confirm our estimate of its value. 

The Orange. — A medium sized native apple, from the garden of Mr. 
Nicholas Lot, of Reading. The original tree which stood on the adjoining 
premises is now dead. The fruit is roundish, slightly oblate, faintly ribbed, 
of a warm yellow color, approaching orange; stem short, thick; cavity open, 
shallow, obtuse, irregular ; basin shallow, wide, plaited. Flesh yellowish, 
with a slight orange tint ; flavor sprightly ; quality "good." 

The Ohlinger. — A native apple of Pennsylvania. It originated with 
Ohlinger in Alsace Township, Berks Count}'. It fruited in 18u2, for the 
first time. Fruit below medium size ; roundish ; waxen yellow, with a pale 
brownish cheek containing many white spots with usually a russet speck in 
each; stem J of an inch long, slender; cavity deep, wide, russettcd in rays ; 
basin wide, shallow, furrowed; seed brown, short, broad, i-oundish ovate; 
flesh yellowish white, fine texture; sprightly flavor; quality "good." 

The DampUng. — A large roundish, oval yellow apple ; stem short; cav- 
ity contracted, shallow ; basin narrow, rather deep. Tliis is entirely dis- 
tinct fi-om the Dumpling of Coxe, and is a good deal cultivated in some 
parts of J'ennsylvania for culinary purposes. 

Tlie Almce. — A seedling apple of Alsace township : si/e medium; form 
conical ; skin whitish yellow, with a pale blush on the exposeil side ; stfin 
short, slender; cavity narrow, accuminate ; basin deep, open; flesh whitish, 
fine texture, juicy ; ]ileasant flavor ; quality "good." Though eaten on the 
12th of March, it is saiil to be in eating order in September. 

The Fallemimlder or Formralder. — The F'allawater of Downing. — A 
large, yellowish green apple, with a brown blush, uniformly fair, and of 
"good" quality. It is abundant in our markets, and, at this season of the 
year the largest apple to be found there. 

From Mr. W. Boas, of Heading. — The 7v>rt».<trr.— This apple has been 
described in a previous report, and is represented us being wonderfully pro- 
ductive. 

From Mr. Casper Ililler. — The JLss. — A native a]. pic of Conestoga, 



92 THE FLORIST AND 

Lancaster county, Pa. Size medium ; form variable, sometimes roundish, 
often conical; red in stripes of different hues; stem short, rather stout; 
cavity narrow, moderately deep, slightly russeted ; basin deep, narrow ; 
flesh greenish- white, tender; flavor agreeably aromatic; (^uahty '* very 
good." 

To the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society ; 

In accordance with a suggestion of the society in one of its regulations, 
that "notices of peculiarity in culture, management, &c., of the objects cxt 
hibited are often desirable," I make a few remarks on the sexual characters 
of the plants of Hovey's Seedling Strawberries I have exhibited this even^ 
ing. 

This variety is usually classed as a pistillate, and considered worthless 
■when not planted in the neighborhood of a staminate kind. I find by repeats 
ed observations made while forcing them that they become staminate by be^ 
ing forced slowly in a moderate temperature, receiving at the same time an 
abundance of light and a regular supply of moisture — conditions well known 
as essential to a healthy luxuriousness of the Strawberry. On the other 
hand, I find that whatever tends to check that luxuriance has a tendency to 
produce the pistillate form. In the specimens before you, one very weak 
from over-watering and deficient drainage, is a pistillate ; another, a weak 
plant, and forced rapidly, has the anthers very nearly abortive ; while the 
other plant, which has been in the forcing house since the middle of January, 
and in circumstances every way favorable to their healthy development, are 
as perfect as possible. 

Last season a number of plants started in a temperature of 65, and ripen- 
ed in one of 75 to 80 degs,, produced all pistiUates ; twelve runners from 
these plants were selected, potted in small pots for forcing ; seven of the 
strongest of them produced staininate flowers, the other five pistiUates, like 
their parent plants. Another set of one hundred pots last season, forced 
very rapidly, produced plants all pistiUates ; a similar set forced early this 
season, produced all but the weakest plants perfect. 

It has been doubted whether Alice Maud, in many collections, is correct- 
ly so ; and it has been suggested that the growers should observe whether 
their plants are pistiUates or staminates, in order to decide. 

I have submitted the above observations to you hoping they may have a 
practical bearing ofi that question by showing the distinction between pistil- 
lates and staminates to be worthless — cultivation producing either one or the 
other. Thomas Meehan. 

Members JElected — Jos. Harrison, John Collins, Jacob Moore, and Francis 
Metcalf. Adjourned. 

Tnos. P. James, Rec. Sec. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 93 

STATE AGRICULTURAL SCHOOL CONVENTION. 

IIariusburg, March 9, 1853. 

The Convention was called to order by General Simon Cameron, of 
Dauphin county, who moved that Christian Myers, Esq., of Clarion county, 
take the chair. John Montgomery, of Northumberland, and Dr. A. L. 
Kennedy, of Philadelphia, were chosen Secretaries. 

On motion of G. Blight Browne, of Montgomery, a committee of seven 
was appointed to nominate permanent officers of the Convention. 

The Committee consisted of Messrs. G. Blight Browne, of Montgomery ; 
Wm. Heister, of Berks; B. 0. Way, of Allegheny; H. N. McAllister, of 
Centre ; J. B. Johnson, of Erie ; A, 0. Heister, of Dauphin; J. W. Alex- 
ander, of Washington. 

Dr. A. L. Elwyn moved that the counties of the State be called, and the 
delegates present their credentials in order. Thirty-six counties were 
found to be represented. 

The Committee on nominations submitted the names of the following 
officers : 

President. — John Strohm, of Lancaster. 

Vice Presidents. — Everard Ohlis, Juniata ; John Murdoch, Allegheny ; 
Samuel Mills, Erie ; Charles B. Trego, Philadelphia. 

Secretaries. — A. 0. Heister, of Dauphin ; John jNI. Sullivan, of Butler ; 
Alfred L. Kennedy, of Philadelphia. 

Judge Strohm, on taking his seat as presiding officer, thanked the Con- 
vention for the honor conferred, and called the earnest attention of the 
members to the importance of the proposition before them. 

Voted, on motion of G. Blight Browne, of Montgomery, that a Commit- 
tee of seven be appointed to propose business for the action of the Con- 
vention. The Chair appointed Messrs. G. B. Browne, of Montgomery ; 
A. L. Elwyn, of Philadelphia; F. M. Watts, of Cumberland; Simon Cam- 
eron, of Dauphin; Benjamin Herr, of Lancaster; A. S. Roberts, of Phil- 
adelphia ; and — McAllister, of Centre. 

EVENING SESSION. 

Convention rc-assombled at 7 P. INL ^. 

Judge Strohm, of Lancaster, in the chair. 

The report of the committee appointed to prepare business was pre- 
sented. It is an able document, entering at length into the great ques- 
tion involved, and recommending a Farm School and Model Farm, of about 
200 acres, with accommodation for one hundred pupils. 

The report closed with the usual resolution, which, after amendment, waa 
adopted, as follows : 

Resolved, That Frederick Watts, of Cumberland ; Simon Cameron, of 



94 THE FLORIST AND 

Dauphin ; Christian Mjers, of Clarion ; H. Jones Brooke, of Delaware ; 
and the President of the Convention be a Committee, whose duty it shall 
be to draft a bill in accordance with the principles of this report, and sub- 
mit the same for the action of the Legislature. 

The resolution and report were discussed by Frederick Watts, Cumber- 
land ; John C. Cresson, Philadelphia; Benj. Ilerr, Lancaster; David Mum- 
ma, Jr., Dauphin; Wm. M. Meredith, Philadelphia; G. Blight Browne," 
Montgomery, and Jas. Cameron, Northumberland. 

Adjourned sine die. 

* 

The New York Horticultural Society held its monthly meeting on the 7th 
of March. We see by a report in a New York paper that Messrs. T. 
Hogg & Son exhibited some flowers, and Mr. Isaac Buchanan some plants, 
among which were specimens of his new Verbenas, Painted lady, P. B. 
3Iead, and Eliza; and Mr. Cranston seedling Cinerarias and Pansies. 



The Albany and Renssalaer Horticultural Society held their annual meet- 
ing on the 16th of February. The display of fruits and flowers was very 
j5ne ; most of the apples and pears were from the nursery of Messrs. Ellwan- 
ger k Barry, of Rochester. The show of Camellias and greenhouse plants 
was also very good. 



Maryland Horticultural Society. — At a meeting of the Society, held in 
Baltimore on the 7th of March, the following ofiicers were elected for the 
present year : 

President — Dr. Thomas Edmondson. 

Vice Presidents — Thomas Winans, Henry Snyder, A. C. Pracht, Samuel 
Sands. 

Treasurer — Edward Kurtz. 

Corresponding Secretary — William Saunders. 

Recording Secretary — R. F. Pentland. 

Assistant Secretary — John Tuomay. 

Secretary to Committees — IL B. Jones. 

Committee on Plants and Flowers — Thomas Winans, C. U. Stobie, John 
Tuomay. ' 

Committee on Fruit — Henry Snyder, John Feast, Wm. Saunders. 

Committee 07i Vegetables — S. Feast, Sr., N. Popplein, R. F. Pentland. 



We had the pleasure of seeing in bloom at Mr. Knorr's in West Phila- 
delphia, ^FJscJiyna7itJius albidus, a species newly introduced by him. It 
has the habit of pidcJier, with the same ovate leaves. The calyx is deeply 
cleft as in speciosus and the corolla is small, waxy white, spotted with 
brown on the inside, shaped like a Gloxinia, resembling except in the fring- 
ed edge of the corolla, the flower of l>rymonia punctata, It is free-flow- 
ering and a decided acquisition. 



HORTICQLTURAL JOURNAL. 95 

Mr. Editor : — In a late number of the " Country Gentleman," published 
at Albany, I see a report made by a certain gentleman, delegated by the 
Albany and Renssalaer Horticultural Society to visit the annual exhibitions 
of the Pennsylvania and New York Societies. After a rapid touching upon 
expectations and disappointments upon his arrival at Philadelphia, a short 
notice of two varieties of pears, and a query concerning Duchesse d'Augou- 
leme and dry weather, he " descends to the floral room." Here he is struck 
with the appearance of several specimens of Manettia glabra, which certain- 
ly deserved the attention they received; and then he finishes the paragraph 
by a short attack on props for Achimenes and yard long specimens, winding 
up with the wrongly named Cacti. 

Now as to those Achimenes, we venture to say that no better specimens, 
no, or none so good, were ever shown before in this country ; and if any one 
from Albany or any other place, can show better without sticks, or with less 
sticks, I should like to hear of it. The "yard longs," and "hop-poles," we 
hope have had their day— at least in this city. As to the Cacti, the writer 
of the report under notice knows that in the names of no tribe of plants ia 
there more confusion than in this. 

Then our "committee of one" goes ofiF to New York, where he is indignant 
at the judges for awarding a premium to some specimens of Verbenas, " which 
were hideous, supported by a forest of sticks, which, in point of clumsiness, 
far surpassed those at Philadelphia." Having had a " quantum sufiicit" 
of Achimenes and Verbena, he commends the timber attached to a Lycopo- 
diura unibrosum. 

Ne.xt come notices of single specimens — Oldenlandia Deppei, which has 
been shown here a half-dozen times in the last year ; Schubertia graveolens, 
which he did not see in Philadelphia, although it was there; — a handsome 
fern — there was a collection of twenty species in the Philadelphia exhibition; 
and several others. But he says nothing of such novelties as Balsamina la- 
tifolia alha, Amlierstia nohilis, Broivnca firandiceps, aiiclB. coccinea; Tacno- 
nia sanguinea; Nepenthes Btifjlesiana; P/iarbit/s limhata; Stenocarpus Cuii- 
ninghamii; Medinillamagnifica, and many others. 

We are not at a loss to discover why he concludes his criticism with the 
remarks that "in quality, not in quantity, the New York exhibition far sur- 
passed that of Philadelphia." I hope that next fall our Society will depute 
some persons to visit the New York Society, that we may see how badly we 
are beaten. Yours truly, John. 



Mr. Editor: — I sec that you have also had Cantua bicolor in bloom. It 
is now two years that I have ha<l it in bloom, on small plants three or four 
inches high ; it is a greenhouse plant which grows freely, the only trouble be- 



96 THE FLORIST AND 



ing to keep oif the red spider. It docs very well in the open air, fully ex- 
posed to the SU71., in almost any kind of soil. I exhibited one plant last week 
which had about thirty-five or forty flowers on it. It was rather pretty, but 
does not repay one for the trouble it gives in the summer time to keep it free 
from the above-mentioned pest; its' chick weed-like foliage, like Hoitzia coc- 
cinea, is very apt to turn yellow, and burn altogether; from what I know of 
it I consider it worthless. 

^schynaiithus pulcher is in flower with me since last March or April — I 
have only two plants, and since they commenced blooming I do not think 
they have been without flowers, one or the other, for three weeks altogether. 
It grows freely, and as Mr. Meehan says, is beautiful , but I think that when 
we have good size plants of Aesch. miniatus it will surpass it. Aeschynan- 
thus speciosus is also very handsome, and grows more in the way of iEs. 
grandiSorus. Messrs. Parsons & Co., had a large quantity of exceedingly 
fine young plants of this last, last summer, all covered with flowers. 

Anthophilus. 



We were invited a few weeks ago by Mr. Peter Mackenzie, of west Spruce 
street, to see a seedling Camellia of his, then in bloom. It is a white, of 
good imbrication, great regularity, and shape of petal in this being equal to 
Fordii, delicately shaded with pink, and with a few stripes of a deeper color. 
It has been pronounced by competent judges to be one of the finest flowers 
ever raised. We were unable to have it figured — but another year we shall 
give our subscribers a representation of it. 

The Horticulturist for March, is as usual neat in appearance, and interest- 
ing and useful in its information. Mr. Barry is proving himself the worthy 
successor of the late editor. 

The Germantown Telegraph has a wide circulation and a well deserved re- 
putation as a family newspaper, and is a good authority in farming matters. 
Major Freas, its editor, is a successful farmer. 

The Working Farmer, published monthly in New York, Prof. J. J. Mapes, 
editor. The fifth volume of this periodical has just commenced; it is devoted 
to the improvement of farms and farmers. The reputation of its editor is a 
suflScient guarantee for its usefulness. 

We receive the Soil of the South, published at Columbus, Ga. — An excel- 
lent authority for the section in which it is published, and to the productions 
of which it is devoted. 

Letters received from Oliver Taylor, R. Parnell, A. J. Fuller, Wis., R. 
G. Courtenay, Louisville; Jas. Stephenson. 

Messrs. Mcllvain & Orr of John st. N. Y., will receive any subscriptions 
due us there._ E. J. Tryon, 98 Chambers st. will also act as agent. Those 
of our subscribers who have not yet paid, vre respectfully request to do so. 




3';hi:?5se'.h lid 



& Co. Phil? 



THE FLORIST 

AND HORTICrLTUEAL JOUEML. 

Vol. II.] PJilladelphia, April, 1853. [No. 4. 

PHARBITIS LLMBATA. 

ETYM. ■f>n§/3t(. Colour, in allusion to the brilliant colours of the flower. 
Convolvulacece — Convolvuleje. Chois. Pentandria-Monogynia. 

CHARACT. GENER. — '■'■Calyx .5 sepalus. Corolla campanulata ant campan- 
ulato-infundibiiliformis Stylus 1; stigma capitato-granulatum. Ovarium 3 rari- 
us 4-loculai'e, loculis 2-spermis." 

" Herbs volubiles elonCTatie speciosae, perplurirtiE ornamenti gratia in liortis 
cults, plersEque americanre, retrorsnm pilosje." Chois. 

Pharbitis, Ciioisy. Conv. or. p. 56 et ia DC. prod. IX. p. 341. 

Convolvuli et Ipomecs sp. Auct. 

I'onvo/vuloides, Moench. 

Ornit/iospermci, Rakik. 

CHARACT. SPECIF. — " P. annua, caule retrorsum piloso, foliis cordatis in- 
legris angulatis, trilobis-que pilosis-que lobis basi dilatatis acuminatis, pediinculis 
solitariis unifioris petiolis duplo brevioribus, sepalis basi liispidis apice pilosis linear- 
ibus acutis longissimis." Lindl. 

Pharbitis limbdia, Lindl. in Joui'. of the Hort. Soc. V. p. 33. A. Henfrey, in 
Garden. Mag. of But. p. 217 cum. icon. 

" Nothing is more common in gardens than the ci-devant Convol- 
vulus purpureus, now become the principal type of the new genus 
Pharbitis. This plant, of tropical origin, but Avhose annual duration 
adapts it to the out-of-door cultivation in our temperate regions, 
forms the commonest ornament of trellises. Why not expect tl e 
same usage for the Ph. limbata? an annual species like the first, 
and which will take precedence of it, as well in size as in the oolois 
of its flowers. It is now two years (Oct. 1849) since the new Phai- 
bitis was communicated lo the Horticultural Society of Chiswick, 1 y 
its introducers, Messrs. llollinson of Tooting, to whom their collec- 
tor, Mr. J. Henshall, had sent the seeds from Java. It obtained, 
and deservedly, an hoiiDialile inciition, and was described as a neAv 
species by the learned Dr. Lindley, Avho distinguishes it iVom tl e 
Pharbitis Nil on account of the greater length of its sepals, of the 
more marked hispiditA' of these organs, and of the com]iai'atiAe 
13 



9S THE FLORIST AND 

shortness of its peduncles. For ^vunt of objects of comparison, we 
accept this distinction as founded, in mentioning for the acquittal of 
our conscience the doubts expressed in this matter by Dr. A. Hen- 
frey, one of the skilful editors of the "Gardeners' Magazine of Bo- 
tany." — Dr. Planchon, in the " Flore drs Serres." 

This beautiful climber flowered last summer in the garden of Mr. 
J.F. Knorr, of West Philadelphia, Avho obtained it from Messrs, 
Low, of Clapton. It is very free flowering, and nearly equal in 
size to P. Learii ; 1 have measured them 3| ins. across the limb. It 
will need in this climate to be started in the greenhouse, and the 
quicker it is grown tlie better, as it sometimes commences to flower 
in the axils of its first leaves, when all ho23es of its gi'owing may be 
given up. — Ed. 

HISTORY AND CULTIVATION. 

Few orders of plants have attained to such a popularity as that 
of which the plant figured is a representative — ConvolvuIacecB. Its 
cottage name of "Morning Glory" is significant of its extensive es- 
timation amongst all classes, for the people will not have a "jaw- 
breaking" name for a flower which they love. Its popular appre- 
ciation is also a test of its beauty, for mere rarity has few admirers 
amongst the masses. Very few species are in cultivation compared 
with the great number that have been described by botanists. In 
their wild state they are scattered over the greater 23art of the Avorld. 
In the tropics they are very abundant, becoming scarcer in temper- 
ate latitudes, till in cold regions they disappear altogether. In the 
former they are principally comprised under Ipomoea, receding from 
the tropics they merge into Convolvulus, till reaching the boundar- 
ies of their geographical zone they dwindle, as it were, to that sec- 
tion represented by Calystegia, of which the C. sepium of English 
hedges and the pest of British gardeners in cultivated ground, is a 
familiar example. That section of most importance to cultivators 
is comprised by Ipomoea ; they are all twining shrubs, the perennial 
species being either tuberous or fibrous, and all dying down after 
they have produced their flowers and perfected their seeds. Where 
the flowers are not allowed to perfect their seed, some species will 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 99 

retain portions of their stems for several seasons. The genus Phar- 
hitis is so named by M. Choisy, a French Botanist, from a Greek 
word ill alhision to the great beauty of the flowers — is very nearly 
allied to Ipomoea, differing a little in the formation of its seed ves- 
sel, but none in the habits or ajDpearance of the plants comprising it. 
There are several other genera separated Irom Ipcmaa by similar 
differences, as the Quamoclit represented by the I. quamoclit, or 
"cypress vine ;" Mina, represented by L lobata; Batatas, of which 
the I. batatas or sweet potato is the type; the I. Learii is perhaps the 
best known of any of the kinds referred to Pharbitis. The habits 
and appearance of I limbata are ^Weaker and altogether different 
from that species, but the flower is in every respect handsomer and 
sui^erior to that very beautiful kind. 

This species, like most of the Ipomoeas, delights in a light, open 
soil, of a texture so as to be capable of receiving an abundance of 
water without ever being soddened — than which there is nothing 
more fatal. The soil I use is about three parts turfy loam to one of 
well-rotted dung, in well-drained pots ; if the soil is well arranged 
hy the use of large turfy portions, broken 2wts, and similar things, 
the P. Learii thrives well on the " one shift system," — that is, it may 
be planted at once in the pot it is intended to Ijloom in. In the 
case of the present species, which appears of more delicate growth, 
it would be safest to repot it as often as the pot becomes lightly 
filled with roots, into sizes but a little larger. The larger the pot it 
can be flowered in hy this course, the more luxuriant Avill be its 
growth and the finer the flowers. There cannot ha finer objects for 
training on trellises in greenhouses or stoves; their flowers ah^ays 
look best when looking from a flat surface. Plaftted out in a con- 
servatory boi'der, they will give more satisfaction, though •■ying 
down in the winter, than tlic generality of perennial branched 
climbers, which, after one or two years' growth, become ^laked at 
every part except that near the glass. Their growth in such si< na- 
tions is very rapid, several feet being but a few daj's' work. They 
love a light and wai-ni situation, and are very easilj- propagated 
from cuttings in a slight bottom heat. 

Some oliject to the tribe on account of the resemblance such 



100 THE FLORIST AND 

choice plants have to the common idea of a " morning glory ;" but 
others will deem the size, beauty and diversity of foliage, the beau- 
tifully marked and sujDerior flowers, and the perpetual season in 
which they may be continued in flower, as preponderating advant- 
ages. A PHILADELPHIA GARPENER, 



THE CINERARIA, 



Flowering from Christmas ,tp June, and forming handsome specie 
mens for decorative purposes at a comparatively small expense, both 
as regards attention and accommodation; and also furnishing a pro- 
fusion of finely-shaped many-colored flowers for bouquets, which 
the Cineraria does, it well deserves to be, as it is, one of the most 
popular flowers of the day. It is of easy culture, and in most cases 
is well managed; but, nevertheless, in some instances where ample 
means exist, and also, doubtless, a desire to produce resjjectable spe- 
cimens, it exhibits effects of the worst possible treatment. The fol- 
lowing hints may enable such growers to produce creditable ex- 
amples of this extremely useful plant. The ordinary method of 
propagating the Cineraria is by root suckers, which are produced 
abundantly by plants after blooming, when placed in a shady situ- 
ation and properly attended to with water. The old plants should 
be broken up as early in August as suckers can be had strong- 
enough; the latter should be potted singly in 4-inch pots, and placed 
in a shady part of a cold frame till well established, which will be 
in less than a fortnight. The plants should then be placed near the 
glass, and receive abundance of air, with a view to insure "stocky" 
growth. During autumn, and until severe weather occurs, a cold 
frame will form the most suitable situation for promoting rapid 
growth; but some attention Avill be necessary — not to wet the foliage 
any mare than can be helped, and also to avoid cold currents of 
air, which turn the leaves foxy and greatly injure the plants. At 
the same time, however, admit sufficient air to prevent weakly 
growth. Water should be applied early in the day when necessary, 
giving a good soaking, and air admitted on the sheltered side of the 
frame to dry the atmosphere and foliage. During autumn and win- 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 101 

ter the Cineraria is somewhat liable to mildew, especially some va- 
rieties; keep, therefore, a sharp look-out for this enemj-, and apply 
sulphur the moment it appears to the parts affected. Mildew is 
greatly encouraged by a confined over-moist atmosphere, which is 
also very congenial to aphides, which will be sure to make their ap- 
pearance under such circumstances. As soon as they are perceived 
apply tobacco smoke; but if the plants are kept in good health nei- 
ther evil will be very troublesome. As soon as frost is likely to oc- 
cur the glass should be protected every night M'ith straw screens, or 
some efficient covering; for, remember, the Cineraria will not stand 
much frost, and neglect in covering may do irreparable damage. — 
With respect to potting, the plants should be allowed plenty of root 
room until near their period of flowering, and they ought never to 
be pot-bound during the growing season. Liberal shifts may be 
given to healthy thriving plants, but weak vai'ieties should not be 
over-potted. Specimens may have 10-inch pots at the second shift, 
Avhich will be sufficiently large for the winter, and in March they 
may be moved into 12 or 15-inch pots, according to the sized speci- 
mens desired. The plants should be removed to the front of the 
greenhouse, or to some light airy situation where they will be secure 
from frost and dam^D. 

As before stated, keep them free from insects and mildew, and 
remove any decaying leaves as they appear. When the flower- 
stems begin to elongate they should be pegged or tied out, so as to 
keep the specimens open for the admission of light and air, and ma- 
nure water will be highly beneficial at this stage. When the plants 
are in flower they should occup}- an airy place, where they will re- 
ceive abundance of light without being exposed to the full force of 
the forenoon's sun; but this applies only to plants flowering after the 
sun becomes powerful in spring. Those blossoming in winter like 
full exposure to the little sunshine and light which can then be af- 
forded them. Where specimens are wished to flower in winter, cut- 
tings should be selected about April, planted in light sandy soil, 
placed in a temperature of about 55^, and grown as freely as possi- 
ble during the summer and aufumn, and allowed to become pot- 
bound towards Novcml)or, when if placed in a tcniiiorature of about 



102 THE FLORIST AND 

50'^ they will be found to flower freely, and will be exceedingly use- 
ful for furnishing cut flowers. Seeds sown in April produce Hsefnl 
plants for winter flowering, as they grow more vigorously during 
the summer. When the beauty of the specimens is over, remove 
the flower-stems, unless seed is wanted, and then only a few spikes 
need be left. Place the plants in a shady situation, and keep them 
clear of insects and propei'ly supplied with water until a supply of 
suckers is obtained, when the old plants may be thrown away. — 
Good fresh turfy loam, in the proportion of two parts to one of two 
years old cow-dung, well intermixed with a quantity of clean sharp 
sand, according to the nature of the loam, to ensure efl&cient drain- 
age, forms an excellent compost for the Cineraria. For small plants, 
leaf soil or sandy peat ma}- be substituted for the cowdung. S. 

Ill Gaid. Chron. 



For the Florist and Horticultural Journal. 

Dear Sir : 

Once again do I obey the pleading of an anxious pen to advocate 
the cause of those guardian angels of mankind, flowers — 1 think I 
hear some sectarian exclaim, guardian angels in flowers — irreligious, 
—yes, I reiterate, my good friend, they are our guardian angels 
and our guiding stars too. What a waste would this wide world be 
Avere it not for them,— a fit tribute to the bride, and an accompany- 
ment to the coflBn,— grasped by the infant, and smiled upon by the 
centenarian — -fit companions to the gorgeous ball-room, and alike 
welcome in the humblest cottage— adorners of the hero's brow, and 
an acknowledged sign of peace, — used to decorate the liair of the 
squaw, and no less becoming the most polished lady — admired by 
all, young and okl, grave and gay — emblems of woman's love, and 
sharers in her true modesty— examples of purity, and teachers of 
design, they combine that compound excellence which may be 
soui^ht for in vain elsewhere. Loudly does their wonderful struct- 
ure, their varied colours and texture, their net-work of organization 
proclaim to the sceptic,— "examine and look through our form and 
make, and then decide whether or no we came into existence with- 
out the aid of a designer,— are all parts thus brought into this beauti- 
ful completeness and adapted to the ends to which we are so per- 



HORTICULTURAL JOURN2VL. 103 

fectly fitted merely by chemical affinity witbout any pm-pose being 
in view; has all this been accomplished by mere chance, — nay are 
we not silent monitors in the great creation of an All Wise De- 
signer from the poles to the tropics, in the burning desert and the 
humid tropical swamp, and do we not teach thee to " look through 
nature up to ]iature's God ?" Here wilt thou find sermons and 
books, for although some of us " are born to blush unseen and 
waste our perfume in the desert air," there are plenty left im- 
mediately under thine own eye to satisfy thee that " not a plant, a 
leaf, a blossom but contains a folio volume m which thou "mayest 
read and read again, and still find something new, something to 
please and something to instruct." Would that the better quali- 
ties of the human mind would become more frequent!}- liberated 
from avarice and sectarian bickeiing and study God through his 
beautiful creation, to know him through his works, and to love him 
through these grand opportmiities, surely we should be on the eve 
of the " millenium," and we should be obejing more nearly the 
end for which our intellect has been given. It has been my privi- 
lege during life to be acquainted with many energetic botanists and 
florists, and I am proud to say that I never yet knew one Avho was 
a true enthusiast in tlie j^ursuit to believe that there was no Creator, 
on the contrary, the mind has been led to see and clearly demon- 
strate the beauties of design, and through it to a firm belief in and 
worship of a God without giving way to the rancourous spirit of in- 
tolerent bigotry. 

I hope, Mr. Editor, that your valuable periodical will go on in its 
good work of advancing the cause of the flowers and floriculture 
generally, and that by your example, your readers may be prompt- 
ed to pay more attention to these advisers, by which their true hap- 
piness will be more enhanced, not ou\y hy the pleasure accruing to 
themselves, but likewise in that which will be conveyed to all the 
members of their families. Where is to be found a fmcr picture of 
happiness, and what fitter subject for a painter, than where the head of 
a family has gatliercd around him his smiling wife and daughters, 
examining and admiring a well kept and floweiy parterre. 

Here is a pleasure that cannot be experienced in the acquirement 
of dollars and cents. A lasting gratification that is not to be found 



104 THE FLORIST AND 

in the ball room or in the halls of the sensualist. Here is to be 
found " Home where the heart is," and " pleasure -without pain." — 
Neither is it alone that the "wedded" husband experiences a solace 
in these useful helps, for how often has the presenting of a bouquet 
of sweet flowers been a relief to " the love-sick swain," when his 
throbbing heart has supplied the utterance of his tongue at the time 
it ought to have been free, many can bear witness ; and many a la- 
dy-love has been gained simply by these beautiful mediums, which, 
vice-versa of the " spiritual," have caused many a thumping heart 
to cease rapping by restoring confidence and assurance that the af- 
fection bestowed has been reciprocated. Young bachelors get then 
a knowledge of flowers, learn to appreciate their beauties and study 
their organization, for it may lead to some advantage, and prevent 
you from appearing awkward at the very time when your utmost 
grace and attraction is fully required. Young ladies, be sui-e to 
make yourselves acquainted with flowers, with their cultivation and 
their structure — they are true pictures of yourselves — they shew 
forth lucidly to the world, woman's disposition, her "rights," her af- 
fection, her character. The true lover of flowers invariably becomes 
a loving wife and a fond mother; she is enabled, through them, to 
guide the ideas of her rising offspring " how to shoot." Fit teachers 
of a Creator's dignity, they train the mind to contemplation, and 
prevent the worse propensities of the human mind, which is " prone 
to evil," from developing those untoward consequences that too often 
lead to bitter disappointment and regret. The study of flowers 
softens down the asperities of and ennobles the mind, produces af- 
fectionate and kind feelings, and brings peace and good will to all 
around- wii. chorlton, n. y. 



AN ENUMERATION OF THE VINES OF N. AiMERICxi. 

. BT JOHN LE CONTE F. L S.* 

In attempting to give some account of the vines of our country, a 
very considerable difficulty arises, even at the outset, from the great 
similarity of the different species. A family resemblance almost 
amounting to identity runs through the whole of them. Hence, 

•See Proceedings Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Feb. 1853. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 105 

characters which are taken as distinctive, may appear too slight to 
warrant us in separating as distinct species what at first sight might 
appear to be mere varieties. But setting aside the shape and ap- 
pearance of the leaves, the nature of the fruit and the method of its 
growth, in most cases, furnish a good criterion for distinguii^hing 
closely allied species from each other, which might in vain be sought 
for elsewhere. 

Some years ago, when there existed a mania for the cultivation of 
the vine, there was nuich written about our native grapes, which 
only tended to involve in obscurity a rather plain and easily devel- 
oped subject. Men unacquainted with botany, gardeners and others, 
remarkable only for their ignorance, folly and bad faith, gave names 
to various kinds of grapes, and frequently made a dozen species out 
of one. These names, barbarous and unmeaning as they ai'e, were 
never bestowed on the same variety by an}- two writers ; they saw 
differences where none existed, and endeavored to account for them 
Ijy supposing impossibilities. Thus, a variety of V. labrusca, which 
has been called the Isaljella and Catawba grape, and received seve- 
ral other as ridiculous appellations, has been considered as a hybrid 
between a Eurojjean and one of our native species. This variety- 
has always been said to have been first found in South Carolina, a 
country where the V. vinifcra had at that time seldom or never been 
cultivated, and where it by no means flourishes, and where likewise 
the labrusca is not found. Although among some families of plants 
hybrids occur naturally or may be found artificially, Aet it is diffi- 
cult to understand how this ever can be the case in the genus Vitis. 
In forming a hybrid it is necessary to emasculate tlie flower which 
we wish to produce fruit, and to impregnate its pistil with the pollen 
of some other species; this is impossible in the present instance, on 
account of the minuteness of the llower and tlie parts of fructifica- 
tion. If the hybrid be supposed to be R)rmo(l natundly, how could 
the anther dust of a cultivated plant be carried in a suflicient quan- 
tity from a gaivlen to produce an}- ellect in the thick woods of the 
Southern States ? 

Botanists have hitherto been able (o detect but lew ,-pecies of Vi- 
tis in the United States. Michaux, Elliot and others, reckon but tour 
14 



106 THE FLORIST AND 

or five in the whole extent of our country. Eafinesque, by believ- 
ing in the various follies of the day, and led aside by writings which 
fell into his hands and by the false statements which he collected 
from dUferent quarters, made forty-one species of this genus, the 
most of which he had never seen. Althouoh able to investieate 
and describe as well as any naturalist of his day, he was led astray 
by an insatiable desire of making new species, and appropriating to 
himself every thing that he saw or even heard of in natural science, 
he gave names to many things which never existed, and furnished 
accounts of them as if he had had them in his possession. Altho' 
his lucubrations are little worthy of notice, I have endeavored to 
identify as many of these numerous species as possible, and to re- 
duce them to some degree of certainty j guided as well by what I 
remember to have seen in his possession, as by the short, and, in 
many instances, very imperfect descriptions found in his American 
Manual of Grape Vines ; some 1 have not been able to determine, 
but scarcely think them different from others already well known. 
The number of species now recognized in sj-stematic works is not 
more than five or six. I have increased ibis number considerably; 
with Avhat propriety is for others to judge. 

In my wanderings through our country, I have, I think, seen two 
more species, but have no memoranda of their characteristics which 
allow me to say more than that one was observed in the middle re- 
gions of Georgia, which bore grapes of a tolerably large size, in 
clusters of such density that the berries Avere pressed into a cubic 
form. The other was a small grape, of which the inhabitants of 
the upper part of North Carolina made a considerable quantity of 
pale red wine. This may be the V. cordifolia of Michaux, which 
species I have not been able to determine. The description of the 
last epecies, V. palmata, is taken in a great measure from recollec- 
tion, and not from a late examination. 

By the word racemus or raceme, I wish to be always understood 
to mean the bunches of mature frnit, the true and legitimate mean- 
ing of the Latin word. 

1. ViTis labrusca: Foliis lato cordatis, sublobato-angulatis, aut 
quinque-lobatis, acuminatis, irregulariter eroso-dentatis, supra gla- 



horticultuhal journal. 107 



bris, subtus irregiilariter reticulatis, dense tomentosis nut velutinis, 
pube incana aut rufescente, baccis magnis rotundis avt ovalibus. 

Hab. — lu the Northern and Middle States. V. sylvestris, occi- 
dentalis, et viilpina, l^rtram, in New York Medical Repository, 
Hexade II. vol. 1. V. latifolia, canina, luteola, rugosa, ferruginea, 
labruscoides, blanda, prolitiera and obovata, Rafinesque's American 
Manual of Grape Vines. Vulg. Fox grapes, Isabella and Catawba 
grape. 

Stem large and tall. Leaves widely cordate, sublobately-aiigled 
or distinctly three or five lobed; acuminate, irregularly eroso-dentate, 
above smooth, beneath irregularly reticulate, beneath densely to- 
mentose or velvety; the pubescence of various length, hoary or ru- 
fescent. Berries large, -7 of an inch in diameter, round or oval. 

Tlie commonest form of this species has thick leaves, with a ra- • 
ther long pubescence beneath; the racemes are small, rarely with 
more than live or six berries on each; these are round, often oblate, 
black or red colored, acid and austere, frequentlj^ occasioning sore- 
ness of the lips and fauces of those who eat them. Another variety 
much cultivated under the names of Isabella, Catawba, and twenty 
other unmeaning names, has the leaves thinner, the pubescence un- 
derneath much shorter and more velvety, the racemes large, long 
and dense, the berries more or less oval, red or black, very sweet 
and agreeable to the tas^te, ^^'ith a peculiar flaAoiu-, by some called 
musky. This is much cultivated in some parts of the Union, and 
wine of a fine quality)- is made from it. But like all the grapes of 
America the fruit is so water}'^ that it is thought necessary to add 
sugar to the nmst, not considering that the must before fermenta- 
tion can be made of any strength with regard to the sugar contained 
in it, by boiling, as is done in some j'arts of the countiy Avitb np])le 
and pear juice. 

The best of all the varieties of this species is the white fiiiited, 
which does not differ in its leaf fnmi that first described; the racemes 
are, however, large, long and dense, the berries white oi' green \\ ith 
a slight coppery tinge on the side exposed to the sun. It is, pei- 
haps, the best grape indigenous to America which hns been found in 
the Northern States. It is very sweet, and has but little of flie je- 



108 THE FLORIST AND 

culiar flavor which ahnost all the othei">s have, and is entirely free 
from all acridity. 

2. V. TENUiFOLiA. Foliis tcnuibns, lato-cordatis simplicibus, tri- 
lobis, aut quinquelobis acumiriatis irregulariter dentatis, glabris in- 
terdum snbtus arachnoideo-villosis, nervis rufo-pubescentibus. Ra- 
cemis parvis, baccis magnis, rotundis, Tiridibus paulo glancescenti- 
bus, ingratis acidis. 

Hab. — In New Jersey formerly very common in the vicinity of 
Trenton, but now not to be found. 

Stem tolerably large and tall; leaves thin, widel}' cordate, simple 
or three or fivel-obed; acuminate, irregularly dentate, smooth, some^ 
times arachnoideo-villous beneath; the nerves and veins always fmv 
nished with a rufous pubescence. Racemes spaall, berries large, 
•8 of an inch in diameter, green, a little glaucous, disagreeably acid. 

3. V. ^STivAus. Foliis lato-cordatis sublobato-angulatis, tri vel 
quinquelobis, acuminatis irregulariter serratis aut dentatis, dentibus 
mucronatis, supra glabris aut paulo arachnoides, subtus arachnoideo- 
villosis plus minus fuscis, interdum subglabris, junioribus, densius 
villosis. Racemis parvis, baccis parvulis nigris acidis. 

Hab. — In Carolina and Georgia. V. jjestivalis, Michaux and Ra- 
finesque. V. labrusca, Walter and Elliott. Vulg. Fox grape. 

Stem large and lofty; leaves widely cordate, sublobately angled, 
sometimes distinctly and deeply three and five lobed; acuminate ir- 
regularly dentate or serrate, with the teeth mucronate, above smooth 
or a little archnoidal, es^Decially in the yomiger state, beneath more 
or less fuscous, arachnoideo-villous, sometimes, subglabrous, the 
youngest one more densely villous. Racemes rather small; ber- 
ries rather small, -4 of an inch in diameter, black, gener-ally very 
acid. 

These three species have a general resemblance to each other, 
but, as appears from the descriptions, are sufficiently distinct. 

4. V. BRACTEATA. Foliis cordatis, acuminatis, quinquelobis, sinu- 
bis latis profundis, irregulariter dentatis dentibus acutis muticis, su- 
pra glabris, subtus nervis rufo-pubescentibus. Floi'um fasciculis brac- 
teatis. Racemis longis compositis laxis, baccis jaarvis nigris. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 109 

Hah. — In Carolina and Georgia in swamps. V. bracteata, Raf. 
V. aestivalis, Elliot. Vulg. Duck shot or Swamp grape. 

Stem very large, climbing to the tops of the loftiest trees; leaves 
broad-cordate, acuminate, five-lobed, sinuses wide and deep, the 
lobes irregularly dentate; the teeth without any mucronate point, 
above smooth, beneath with the nerves rufo-pubescent. Fascicles of 
the flowers with a short leaf or bract at the base of each ; racemes 
long, loose, and compound; berries very small, -15 of an inch in di- 
ameter, very acid. 

5. V. VULPINA. Foliis glabris, cordatis acuminatis, simplicibus, 
trilobis, aut interdum profunde quinquelobis, dentatis, dentibus sub- 
abrupte-acuminatis, subtus plus minus sparse villosiusculis aut etiam 
glabris. Racemis densis baccis parvis. 

Hah. — In the Northern and Middle States. V. vulpina Willd. 
V. sestivalis, Emerson's rep. on the Trees, &c., of Mass. V. cordifolia 
of many authors, but not of Michaux. V. callosa, hyemalis, cordifo- 
lia, Raf. Vulg. Winter grape. 

Stem moderately large, very branching, the j'ounger shoots for 
the most part purplish. Leaves always smooth above, and general- 
ly so on both sides; beneath sometimes, jiarticularly in the younger 
ones, a little villous; cordate acuminate dentate, the teeth abruptly 
acuminate, always more or less tri-lobate, sometimes profoundly so, 
and often five-lobed. Racemes tolerably large, very dense, so as 
even to chaiige the form of the berries; berries -35 of an inch in di- 
ameter, black, acid. 

The name of cordifolia is occasionally given improperly to another 
species, the V. rotundilblia Mx. Willdenow's description is not ve- 
ry full, but sufficiently so to remove all doubt of his meaning this 
species; there is no other so well deserving the name of Vulpina, 
as the grapes have a strong smell nnich resembling that of a fox. 

The older leaves are without any villosity beneath except on the 
nerves, which with the veins are very prominent. They frequently 
become glaucous beneath. 

{Conclusion next month.) 



no THE FLORIST AND 

For the Florist and Horticultural Journal. 

RosEDALE Nurseries, April 8, 1853. 

Dear Sir — I have thought that a few hints to your readers on the 
subject of the culture of pears might be opportune at this season, when 
many of them no doubt have planted from one to hundreds. Nur- 
serymen (including your humble servant) say that it has been a sea- 
son of unprecedented demand for dwarf Pears. The French nur- 
serymen also feel its effects, and rejoice that their grounds have been 
all cleared of good, bad and indifferent for America, where ever}''- 
thing foreign takes admirably. 

Dwarf Pears. — ^This term has lead to the impression that all trees 
are dwarfs that are grafted on the quince stock ; we do not incline 
to this term from the fact that we cultivated dwarf Pears before we 
knew of the effects of the pear on the quince, and also from the fact 
that we now have very fine standard trees with stems G and 7 feet 
clear that are on the Quince stock. You will therefore allow me to 
say in a few words without regard to the preconceived ideas of others 
what effects the quince stock has on the constitution of the pear, 
and what congeniality there is between their constitutions. The 
Pear, Apple, Quince, Hawthorn and Mountain Ash, all belong to the 
same class and order, and will grow if grafted on each other; they 
do not all however assimilate well with each other, for we find that 
there are some apples that will not grow on the pear, and vice-versa; 
there are also jjears, and not a few, that will not grow on the 
quince ; others that grow well, laut their fruits are inferior ; whilst 
again many are greatly improved on the quince. To enter into a 
detail of these facts is not at present our intention though we may 
have a word on the subject on some future occasion. We now say 
that the Pear, to be successful on the quince stock, must be very 
highly cultivated with enriching manures of almost any description 
incorporated with the sui'face soil, and frequentl}' stirred during the 
growing season, repeating the enriching material and thorough cul- 
ture every season. They can be planted from 10 to 15 feet apart, 
and will with such treatment give a A^ery abundant crop, even a 
bushel from a tree only a few years planted. This is not, however, 
the only attention they require — thej^ must have a summer pruning 
and a winter pruning, which you shall have in another chapter. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. Ill 

Again, the Quince stock is a very general term ; there is a vast 
difference in the kind of quince, and it is now very strange that all 
the pears on the Quince, wliether worked thereon the past year or 
ten years, are on what has recently heen called to the peculiar bene- 
fit of some, the Anglers Quince. Certain it is, that there is a va- 
riety aptly adapted to the vigor of the pear more generally known 
to the experienced eye by its growth as that variety, and we think 
it is the variety onl}^ that demands particular notice. The growth 
is clean and luxuriant, bark smooth and free, making shoots 6 feet 
high in a season, readily propagated from cuttings, and even budded 
the first season; these very desirable peculiarities have enhanced the 
value two per cent, within the past two years of this variety in 
France, and they are now very chary of parting with it, as those 
nurserymen who have ordered their supply from abroad the past 
season will perhaps ere this be aware of the usual supply being 
eagerly absorbed by the local demand. 

Every cutting therefore, of that variety, should be carefully plant- 
ed on which 3-ou may grow either dwarfs or standards, with this re- 
sult that the sorts of pear worked thereon will come into bearing in 
two or three years, and continue productive for many years, say 
half a century, and be more free from blight than if on the pear 
stock, which roots deep, descends into the cold ground perpendicular- 
ly, predisposes the tree to blight during summer, and if not blight, 
produces a redundancy of wood almost beyond practical manage- 
ment and not at all adapted for gardens. Another point in favor 
of the quince stock I might refer to, is the certainty of its growth 
after being removed and conveyed to a distance, the many fibres 
close to the bole of the tree rending its growth almost certain, at 
least 49 out of 50. The pear on its own stock makes few fibres, 
and is more precarious in removal and carriage ; this is again par- 
tially under control by frequent removals in the nurser}^ when the 
trees are young, which checks their growth of wood, produces 
eai'ly fruiting properties, so that we liope to live to see dwarf fruit- 
ing pears on the pear stock as eagerl}- sought for as those now on 
the Anglers quince — you will please make a note of this assertion. 
Wo are now deluged with names of new pears regardless of their 



112 THE FLORIST AND 



qualities, that will take many years to extirpate; we cannot avoid 
growing them and selling them, the jjublic require it and will have 
their own choice. Although they say, select ybr me, their own taste 
must be suited, you take them to trees of the ott peat in the vicin- 
ity of Belle Dumas or Souvenir de printems, you advise the former, but 
they prefer the latter; they have so fine, thrifty growth, in quality 
you may as well compare persimmons to seckel pears, or a sous to a 
sovereign. One word more in budding the pear on the quince, the 
closer to the ground it is inserted the better, that on its being 
transplanted the stem of the pear may be partially under the sur- 
face; if this is not the case and a portion of the stock above ground, 
it is advisible to plant the whole of the quince beneath the surface, 
or to draw up soil to it — keep the soil rich, dig or plough deep, and 
you may dispense with my pear preparation. It is only 5 or at most 
10 years ago since all the offal of the slaughter house was requisite 
to grow grapes — the idea ! but liow cautious and cool heads'have sub- 
dued that mania, amongst them is jour correspondent Chorlton, 
who proves what can be done by what he has done; so it is with all 
ideal preparations, nature hands out bountifully the material in 
loam, sand and decomposed vegetable matter which is under the 
control of every reader of your journal. 

Yours Trul}', R. Buist. 
•^ 

Mr. Editor — So many things have been offered for sale that have 
proA'^ed worthless, that it makes one doubt everything new ; but the 
"Lover of Rose^" in your last number ina.j come to the conclusion 
that the Augusta Rose is a fine acquisition to the Noisette fatnily ; it 
is a free bloomer of a good color, and Avithal as sweet as any Tea 
rose. Its foliage is remarkably fine, and it no doubt will stand the 
severity of our winters. I had seen the bloom in 1851, and have 
now a plant in my possession blooming, and it proves fully equal to 
what has been said aboilt it. Being of American orisin, I wish its 
introduction on that account; and such a beginning may lead us to as 
many choice varieties in this family as there are in the Camellia. 
Of this latter we can be proud in Baltimore, and can compare with 
all Europe and America. Persevere and encourage the raising of 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 113 

all kinds of seedlings, then we shall have plenty without importing 
so much trash, or copying from foreign journals to fill our own pages. 

John Feast, Baltimore. 

As to the Augusta rose, we saw it at Mr. Fulton's nursery last 
week, but the bloom was rather far gone ; it seemed much like Le 
Pactole, but larger. The general opinion seems to be that itis not 
sufficiently distinct from Chromatella for a new name ; whether it 
be more hardj^ remains to be proven. 

There is no doubt that as good seedlmgs can be raised hei'e as 
anywhere — there certainly have been as good Camellias ; neverthe- 
less, an interchange of plants as well as of ideas is very useful in 
most cases. — Ed. 



WINDOW AND YARD GARDENING. 

As soon as the warm breezes of spring begin to refresh the earth 
and incite in us anticipations of genial summer, every occupier of 
a rod of ground, (it is hoped) turns attention to having thmgs "fixed 
up." Flower-beds and shrubbery borders undergo their annual re- 
freshment; if not done in the fall (which is the most proper season) 
they should now be turned over with a fork, a much better im- 
plement for this purpose than the spade, which cuts and injures 
roots. Leave the surface as rough as possible, aftd on fio account 
rake it over; the first heavy shower that falls will beat it level 
enough. It is one of the principal points in good culture to keep 
the ground open and well stirred on the surface, that both air and 
water may find ready access to the roots of plants. A smoothly 
raked surface may look very pretty, and please the eye at the time, 
but it is not indicative of good cultivation. Herbaceous plants, as 
Chrysanthemums, Phlox, &c., that have got large will tlowcr better by 
being divided and reset. ' There is great want of flowering plants and 
shrubbery in yards, such plants as Spirea prunifoHa, Weigela Rosea, 
Forsythia viridissima, Spirtea Reevesii, &c., should be in every bor- 
der, as suitable companions to the early flowering Narcissus and 
Hyacinths. 
15 



114 THE FLOEIST AND 

Fuchsias — that have been -vvintered in the cellar should now be 
looked to; place them in a light situation and give them a good 
watering to moisten all the soil thoroughly; when they begin to 
grow prune out all decayed branches and repot them in fresh soil, 
mixing it with a portion of charcoal ; this substance keeps the soil 
from baking hard in the pots and in conjunction with good drainage 
maintains a healthy medium for roots. 

Annuals. The cultivation of these have of late been somewhat 
superseded by plants of a more permanent nature, as Verbenas, 
Salvias, Petunias and such like. There are many persons that have 
no accommodations for keeping them over winter, such must have 
recourse to annuals for a summer display of flowers, and a very 
pretty display they make ; they may be sown at once where they 
are wanted, or, a surer method is to select a sheltered spot of ground, 
dig it thoroughly and sow the seed in slight drills ; if you have a 
spare sash of glass to lay over them and preAent heavy rains from 
beating the soil, they will come up sooner; where there is no such 
convenience a sprinkling of loose litter of any description will 
answer the same purpose, taking care to remove it on the first ap- 
pearance of vegetation, thin them out where too thick, and 
transplant them to the borders at a. favorable raining opportunity. 

Geraniums coming into flower will require attention; stake them 
out anil give them enough water, do not keep them saturated, neither 
must they droop for want of it, a medium between the two ex- 
tremes must be maintained, otherwise tl>e flowers will suffer. 

Dahlias will now be starting into growth, they may be planted 
out, although it is rather earl}^; a few inches of manure over the 
tops will preserve them from slight frosts. 

Camellias and Azaleas that are growing should not be subjected 
to cold currents of air until their growth is matured ; about the 
end of June is soon enough to place them out of doors ; ignore 
that system of setting every thing out of doors on the first appear- 
ance of fine weather. Plants, although comparatively hardy, will 
receive a severe check by being suddenly removed into the open air 
while growing; even an oak tree would suffer from such treatment. 
As the growths approach maturity they will set flower buds more 
certainly by being placed out in the open air; attention to tlais par- 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 115 



ticulai' would ia many instances be productive of gratifying im- 
provements, both in the quantity and quality of flowers. 

Chinese Primroses. — -It is sometimes a matter of difficultj^ to get 
seed from these; select the best plants, thin out the flower stems, 
stake securely those that are left, and set them out in the sun, at- 
tend carefully in supplying th:m with water, under these conditions 
they will be Kkely to mature plenty of seed. D. D. 



GARDEN MEMORANDA. 

Mr. Editou. — A few diiys ago, having an hour or two to spare in West 
Philadelphia, I called at two of the principal gardening establishments there, 
those of Mr. J. F. Knorr, and of Mr. W. W. Keen. Bt-ing rather in your 
own neighborhood, I was sui-prised to find so many things worthy of note 
with which the readers of the "Floiist" are unacquainted. You will, I liope, 
pardon me for the attempt to drag out the light from under your bushel. 

The former gentleman's establishment is anything but an extensive one; 
the ground occupied by it is pci'hnps under an acre; it has a small green- 
house, hothouse, propagating house, and rose house. In these there are pro- 
bably congregated a greater stock of valuable novelties than in any similar 
space in the Union. The hothouse contains many choice Orchidete, among 
which I noticed the rare Dendiobium Dalhousianuna and Cambridgeanura. 
There were probably ten or a dozen species of Qilschyuanthus, 2E. albidus be- 
ing in flower; its white fiing<;d corolla gives it a very distinct character, 
but it will be generally thought inferior in gaiety to many other kinds. The 
very rare and valuable Mcdinilla magnifica had two of its large clusters of 
flowers far advanced towards expansion; Neniatanthus Morrellianus was also 
in bloom, the flower has a purplish tinge, though in other respects resembl- 
ing N. longipes. 

In the greenhouse Bignonia picta, a very well-grown specimen, was in 
flower; the corolla is large, white, thickly set with purple lines ; it will make 
a favorite climber for a warm greenhouse. Jasniinum gracile, an old but 
not much known species, with profuse white flowers and small privot-like 
leaves, was abundantly set with flower, &c. Here also was a very fine Cam- 
panula Vidalii, looking more like a shrubby Cotyledon or Crassula than a 
member of the bell flower fraternity. A very choice assortment of the new- 
est Cinerarias were in bloom, and aff"orded an illustration of the great pro- 
gress in beauty this pet plant is making ; they were all mostly two-colored, 
with petals broad, and the whole flower forming a perfectly circular outline. 
I took Adela Villiers, Mrs. Sydney Herbert, and Vicar of Wakefield as three 



116 THE FLORIST AND 

of the most superior and distinct. I must remark that I think these English 
varieties though in breadth of petal, regularity of outline and distinct mark- 
ing of the colors superior to any of our seedlings, are yet far behind us in 
size, and I have no doubt a little attention from our florists in selecting see^ 
from flowers having good breeding qualities, would be rewarded by some- 
thing superior. 

In one part of this house were some Ericas; they were of the more difficult 
kinds of growth, as Ampullacea, Aristata, and Ventricosa ; they were re- 
markably healthy in appearance. The gardener, Mr. Bell, intends to lend 
his share of experience in deciding the unsatisfactory question whether 
Heaths can or cannot be successfully grown in America. Under the stage, 
in the shade, was a box of the Southern Sarracenia Drummondii, blooming 
as happily as if in its native bogs ; and in the same curious company I saw 
our own Goodyera pubescens. In another small house there was a fine stock 
of that new candidate for popular favor the English Paisy. 

When it is recollected how very lately this gentleman has turned his aU 
tention to floriculture, it may excite surprise at the richaess of his collection, 
I will end by expressing the hope that the pleasure and gratification the pur- 
suit has already afl"orded him may increase till it warrants his establishment 
to be in extension what it already is in richness. 

W. W. Keen's is another establishment which has grown up within the las4 
few years. Commencing with a few window plants, then the small garden, 
till a small greenhouse was born, Mr. Keen was his own gardener. This 
practical love of Horticulture is the surest foundation for a lasting source of 
pleasure in its pursuit. Mr. Keen's establishment has overgrown his indi- 
vidual care, and for some time past has been under the management of Mr. 
Wm. Grassie, and I am sure with an increase of pleasure to the proprietor 
as well as of profit to our profession. The order and neatness which per- 
vades all parts — the health and beauty of the plants, and their variety and 
rarity, ' contrast singularly with things as seen by the writer two years ago, 
when at the kind invitation of Mr. Keen he paid his first visit there. They 
were creditable then ; now they will rank with any establishment near the 
city. A Bletia Tankervillje, with fine spikes of flowers, was a pretty object; 
a Begonia coccinea, above two feet high and nearly as thick, was covered 
with bloom, and was the prettiest looking Begonia I had ever seen; a Choro- 
zema cordata was past its best, also above two feet high and wide — it ap- 
pears to have borne flower spikes this season by the hundred. An Erica 
Bowieana, two feet high and about twenty inches thick, covered with its 
waxy flowers, was "an object." A specimen of the new Azalea "exquisita," 
above a foot high and as wide, covered with its pinky-white feathery flow- 
ers, was a gem. The much neglected Mimulus would rise in anybody's es- 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 117 

teem who could see it under Mr. Grassie's hands, embodied as " Jupiter." — 
In a small house devoted to Orchids and stove plants, a specimen of the Hoya 
imperialis was very nearly in bloom. This was of the downy variety. At 
the south end or aspect of the garden a Vinery has been constructed of per- 
haps 50 feet — amongst other unraistakeable signs of improvements. Mr. K. 
is an enthusiastic lover of bees, and is perhaps the most successful keeper in 
Philadelphia; his boxes are of the most perfect construction, being, I believe, 
patented by him. This department is by no means the least interesting fea- 
ture of this pretty establishment. 
•A. M. Eastwick's, of Bautram. 

One hundred and fifty years ago this memorable spot was occupied by a 
Swede ; the only memorial of whose existence at the present time, is an old 
Windsor or Bell Pear near one of the outbuildings. It was the ambition of 
his successor Bartram to make his garden the repository of everything that 
could be obtained — under his son William, and the latter's son-in-law, 
Colonel Carr, the collection continued to increase till the collection of hardy 
trees became unequalled by any in the union. In 1850 the estate fell into 
the hands of A. M. Eastwick ; it must be highly interesting to every citi- 
zen who prides himself on the lustre the name of Bartram has shed on the 
scientific character of his country to learn with what care the present pro- 
prietor endeavours to preserve every memento that has reference to his il- 
lustrious predecessor. The alterations which have been m3.de in the old 
garden in the shape of walks, retreats, groves and flower gardens, have been 
effected without the removal or injury of a single tree. The ideas of the im- 
prover were made to suit the trees and the ground, for the preservation of 
everything possible. Thus the famed old cypress still stands though its 
natural grandeur has been eclipsed by the beauties of art — on taking the 
height and circumference of this tree I found it to be 20 feet for the latter, 
and 137 the former. The large Magnolia acuminata, 7 feet in circumfer- 
enc e 80 feet high, Pinus Mitis 5 feet 8 inches, 90 feet high — Silver Fir, 6 
feet, 95 feet high — English buttonwood 4 feet, 90 feet — Yellow Buckeye, 7 
feet 1 inch, 120 feet high^Quercus hetorophylla feet, 70 feet high — Q. 
alba, 13 feet and 5 feet high — British oak, pedunculata, 7 feet and 3 feet high 
— -Q. macrocarpa, 6feet 9 inches, 62 feet high — Q. lyrata, 6 feet 2 inches, 60 
feet high— Salisburia, 3 feet 8 inches, 61 feet high — Hemlock spruce, 8 feet 
4 inches, 94 feet high — Abies excelsa, 7 feet 2 inches, 120 feet high — Va- 
riegated box, 2 feet 8 inches, 30 feet high — a chinquapin, 2 feet 11 inches, 
25 feet high — Pecan nut, 5 feet 7 inches, 91 feet high,— these were amongst 
scores of others equally as interesting — much has been done to improve the 
appearance of the new part surrounding the mansion, by planting walks, 
terraces and drives, with good effect, and the praiseworthy efforts of Mr. 
E. in draining the marshes in the neighborhood have so far been attended by 
success as to considerable increase the salubrity and value of surrounding 
property. 



118 THE FLORIST AND 

CALENDAR OF OPERATIONS. 

FRUIT. 

Grapes. — Among the various systems of training and pruning grapes it 
seems there are scarcely two authorities alike. This is much to be regretted, 
and arises chiefly from the fact that the grape will produce more or less un- 
der any system of management, consequently those who make a first essay, if 
they can procure even a miserable crop, are so overjoyed with their success 
that they extol it to the skies, and chronicle their great success as proceed- 
ing from some trifling circumstance or other, which is henceforth considered 
indispensable. " These grape vines will never do any good, because they are 
planted inside the house," was a remark made in our hearing by one ■who 
■wished to be considered an authority in these matters, having planted a fe'w 
acres of vineyard. "You leave your young wood too long for the first year," 
says another, who reads in the books that vines should not be allowed to fruit 
until the third year after planting, overlooking the fact that a well managed 
plant will be in better condition for fruiting in its second year than a neglect- 
ed one in its fourth. We have heard remarks similar to the above made in 
cases reminding one of the commissioned officer of six months' standing, in- 
structing the private veteran of many battles how to handle his musket. We 
propose to offer a few remarks-upon the various systems of pruning alluded 
to in a former number ; and before proceeding to details a few preliminary 
remarks will be necessary. 

When a seed germinates, its first efi"ort is to lengthen downwards into the 
soil and upwards into the air ; the starch contained in the seed affords sufl5- 
cient nourishment for this process. The plant being now formed 'svill hence- 
forth derive its food from the air and soil, the young roots immediately be- 
gin to absorb nutriment from the earth, which passes into the. stem and leaves, 
where it undergoes decomposition, is then returned downwards to the roots, 
extending their formation. The carbonic acid and other matters that enter 
the system of the plant through the roots, are of no value until decomposed 
by the leaves. This relative action continues during the growth of the plant, 
the increase in size, the quantity of its secretions and extension of roots are 
the result either of immediate or previous elaborating functions of foliage. 

Such is the generally recognised process of vegetable growth. Leaves are 
the principal agents ; any system of pruning, therefore, that involves their 
removal must exercise a corresponding check of root growth ; and if these 
principles are kept in view, we shall be better able to discuss the merits of 
pruning in all its modifications. 

The spur system of pruning is advocated and practised by many at the 
present time. This may arise from its simplicity, certainly not from any 
physiological superiority it possesses. According to this method, a single 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 119 



shoot is encouraged until it reaches the desired length, the bearing shoots 
proceeding at intervals in its length, these shoots being annually pruned down 
to one eye or bud from Tvliich the shoot bearing the future crop proceeds. — 
During growth the points of these shoots are pinched out at one or two 
leaves beyond the fruit, and all future efforts at growth are watchfully re- 
moved. This is done in order to concentrate the sap and fill up the lower 
eyes, with a view also of benefitting the present crops ; for the same reason 
the leading shoot is likewise prevented from extending. The whole system 
involves a continual suppression of growth, and as a natural consequence the 
roots are also checked, they cease to extend, become more woody at the ex- 
tremities and lose their power of absorption. A young plant strongly esta- 
blished in a well prepared border, will continue in health and productiveness 
for several years under this treatment, but they are gradually weakened and 
fail to burst into growth with that vigor which they did in their early days. 
We think this statement will be endorsed by all experienced grape growers 
who have practised the system. This subject will be continued next month. 

Strawberries. — In preparing ground for a plantation, deep working and 
manuring is the first consideration ; no plant repays extra care more cer- 
tainly than the Strawberry, and perhaps there is none less satisfactory under 
poor ti'eatment. It has proved that the finest Pine Strawberries of Europe 
can be raised in equal perfection in this climate, if properly cultivated. — 
Deep rich soil, and mulching in dry weather is all that is required. Notwith- 
standing that much has been said about their sexual character, many good 
cultivators pay no attention to the matter. The young plants will strike 
root readily at this season, and if the soil is stirred frequently and mulched 
when dry weather comes on, they will establish themselves well, and produce 
a heavy crop the following season. 

Pears. — Those grafted on the quince require a deep, rich soil to attain 
their greatest perfection. There is no more pleasing occupation for the ama- 
teur in fruits than attending to a collection of dwarf Pear trees. Having in 
his eye the symmetrical proportions of a pyramidal-formed tree clothed with 
foliage from the ground upwards, he will now be bending down strong shoots 
and elevating weak ones, to equalize their conditions; and as growth advances 
those shoots likely to take a lead and disarrange the equality of growth, 
■will have their extremities pinched out. At present, appearances indicate 
a profusion of blossoms, the flower buils being more than usually prominent, 
occasioned, no doubt, by the protracted, although not severe winter just 
passed. 

S. B. 



120 -THE FLORIST AND 

APRIL — MAT. 

House Gakden. — The turning out of plants into the beds and borders is 
the thing now to be attended tov Plants should not be taken out at once, 
from the shade and moisture of their winter to the sudden extremes of the 
open air ; it is better to place them for a few Weeks in a frame where they 
may be protected if neccessary for a few days, or placed somewhere out of 
doors in a sheltered spot; the hardiest kind will of course set out first, the 
tenderest following. In planting for masses, the plants should be set in 
thickly. All annuals not yet sown should be done at once — the second week 
in May will be time enough for for such tender annuals as Thunbergia, Cy- 
press Vine, and amaranthus— the seeds of the white cypress vine should be 
sown with the crimson for efi"ect-^some very pretty effects are often obtained 
from this plant trained on fancy trellises — annuals or other seeds that have 
been forwarded in a slight hotbed or under protection, should be set out 
whenever a shoWer affords an opportunity. Where it is desirable to have a 
mass of flowers in some shady places, the Hydrangea or Hortensia answers 
admirally, continuing in beauty the whole season. I have seen a bed of the 
English Ivy iii such deep shade with a singularly pleasing effect — there are 
not many plants that will thrive in such situations, and what will should be 
prized — as a vine for shady spots there is nothing superior to the Bignonia 
capreolata or Golden Trumpet vine — clothed with brilliant flowers in summer, 
and maintaining its verdure the year round — Gladioluses are deservedly in- 
creasing in favour. A number of new varieties have been lately added to 
collections; they like a rich loam, rather moist, where Hyacinths or Tulips 
were planted in beds in the flower garden in the fall, and are now coming 
into bloom — they may be planted with a dibble or trowel in the spaces 
between them, so that in a few weeks after the former have done blooming, the 
latter will come in, maintaining the interest through the whole season. The 
Tuberose and Tigridia or tiger flower may be done the same way — Moles 
and ground Mice make sad havoe amongst these roots-— a lump of tow dipped 
in gas tar and sunk a few inches in the soil in the neighborhood of the roots, 
will make the marauders shy of coming about. Whenever the ground 
"cakes," after a rain, the ground should be lightened with a hoe and rake, 
it mixes the air with the surface soil, and as that is a non-conductor, it 
prevents the soil from losing so much moisture by evaporation, or of be- 
coming so hot and hard as it otherwise would. 

The lawns should be mown as soon as ever it is long enough to bear the 
scythe, if a continuous " green carpet" be desired; when suffered to grow 
long before the first cutting, a face of brown stumps are left which shows 
at every successive mowing. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 121 

\ 

Greenhouse. To turn all the plants out in "the first week in May," with- 
out reference to any contingency — this should not be; all plants should be 
gradually inured to the open air — the ventilators and sashes should be kept 
open as much as possible, yet by degrees — sudden changes of temperature 
engender mildew, and a species of consumption fatal to many plants — the 
hardiest things should be placed out first, in a somewhat shaded spot, and if 
possible on a bottom of coal ashes to keep out worms — Azaleas and Rho- 
dodendrons, Daphnes and Camellias may go out when their growth ip finished 
— no spot will be too shaded, provided they can get an abundance of air all 
around. If plants are well rooted, and have not been repotted, they should 
be so before setting out, as they will, otherwise, suffer at times for want of 
water. It is objectionable to turn out everj'thing, leaving the greenhouse 
for the season like a lumber loft — such as will stay in advantageously should 
be left, and the idea is becoming pi-evalent that cape and hard wooded things 
are better in than out. 

Abutilons, llabrothamnuses, and Cestrnms, indeed many similar plants, 
if taken out of their pots, turned out into the open border, and lifted and 
repotted early in the fall will make fine growths and do well — as fast as 
Hyacinths in pots are done flowering, turn them out into beds as recom- 
mended last month — Calceolarias should be kept in the coolest part of the 
house, and have a good supply of water, they frequently die after flowering 
— cuttings of desirable kinds should be taken from them now, and if they 
show signs of flowering before fall, dont allow it — Cinerarias should receive 
the same attention, as they also die out after flowering — as soon, as the 
Chrysanthemums, planted out as recommended last month have shot forth, 
take cuttings for next season's show — they strike very readily in sandy soil, 
in a somewhat moist and shady situation — Dahlias need not be put out be- 
fore the second or third week in May — they do not like the scorching heat 
of summer, and if put out early become stunted and do not flo^ver till later. 
Pelargoniums should have all the light possible till they begin to open their 
flower buds, when they should be somewhat shaded and kept cool; by this 
the flowers are rendered finer, and last longer — 'Everbloomini: roses, trrown 
in pots, should be pruned in a little after their first flowering, kept a little 
drier for a week or so, then repotted, and place where desired out of doors • 
— they delight in a rich loamy soil, and are benefitted by manure water 
while growing ; those who have not a collection should begin — there is no 
finer class; six of the best for pot culture may be Souvenir ch' la nialmaison, 
salmon white; Devonimsis, pale lemon; Ilcrmosa, rose; Agrqipina, criui- 
Bon; Lyonnals, pink; and as a free blooming white, Cds. 
16 



122 THE FLORIST AiN'D 

Hot Hotjse — Justicias, Aphelandras, and Acanthaceous plants, -n'hich 
have been the mainspring of beauty in this department most of the winter 
and spring, and have now done flowering, should have the lightest and driest 
part of the house, to ripen well their wood, pi-cparatory to being cut back 
and repotted for next season's flowering. The Acbimenes and Gloxinia 
•will be coming on to take their places, their cultivation has been detailed in a 
former number of the journal — they like a moist heat circulating amongst 
;heir roots, and do well with much rough material in the soil. Pentas car- 
nea, or similar soft wooded plants grown for flowering early in the fall, may 
be still repotted if the pots become filled Tvith roots — as the weather be- 
comes warm shade the house a little to keep the sun from scorching. I like 
to see all plants under glass have a slight shade in summer time — water in 
the morning, keep the syringe going in the evening, keep the temperature 
regular, between 60 and 70°, and all will go well. 

Vegetable Garden. — Tomatoes, Egg Plants and Peppers, raised under 
glass and gradually inured to the open air, may be put out early in the month. 
For the two last prepare a sandier soil than the former. Lima Beans are 
also fond of a light soil ; they frequently fail from being put in too early in 
May, planting the beans too deep, or the stifi"ness of the soil preventing their 
coming through easily — guard against these. Bush or string Beans also re- 
quire attention ; the Valentine is the earliest, the Six Week nearly as early 
but more productive; and the White Royal Dwarf the best for a crop of 
beans for winter use. The main crop of Carrots and Beets may go in at this 
time. Early in the month a few dozen of the Stowell Corn may be sown for 
table use, which should be repeated as often as each sowing appears above 
the ground. So also with Peas, Radishes, Lettuces, &c., of which a succes- 
sion is desired. Cucumbers, Cantalopes, Melons, and Okra may be sown 
about the third week in the month — the former in light rich soil, the three 
latter prefer a rich firm loam. I\Iany plant Squash seed in their potato rows; 
I prefer them by themselves — they too like a very rich loam. If a few large 
Pumpkins are desired, they may be planted in the rows of Lima Beans — 
feeding on different elements, they do not interfere with that crop. Some 
of the fall crops must be looked after — Drumhead Cabbage, Purple Brocoli, 
White Cape, Eranges white, and some Walcheren Brocoli, may be sown in a 
bed of light soil. Also, the main crop of Celery, and some curled Endive in 
a similar situation. Wherever Asparagus is used for forcing, a bed of seed 
should be sown every year to keep up the supply. Hoeing and weeding of 
all crops should be attended to earlj', for the benefit they receive from loos- 
ening of the soil as well as to save much after labor in eradicating weeds, 

T.J. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 123 



^ BOOK NOTICES. 

Ti£K Principles of Botany, as exemplified in the Cryptogamia ; for the 
use of Schools and Colleges, by Harland Coultas. Lindsay k Blackiston, 
Philada. 1853. pp. 94. 

The issue from the Philadelphia press of a book on Botany, and an original 
book, too, is such a novelty that we are ready to hail with satisfaction the 
appearance of any work on the subject. The last we remember was a Cate- 
chism about the size of a primer by Mr. Samuel Gummere. Whether that 
be out of print or not we cannot say, but certainly the time has come for 
something better, and so we presume thought Mr. Coultas, for he has given 
us something not only wonderfully superior without, but within, introducing 
another world — we would say a world of minute beauty, were beauty capable 
of being thus qualified. That Catechism and this Class-book contrast well 
the present with the past, and argue hopefully for the demands of the science 
in the future. 

The study of the vegetable kingdom through the (.so called) lower' tribes of 
plants is the idea which would seem to have sucjgested the book before us. 
These humble beings we have around us at all seasons. Regarding them as 
the type of the vegetable creation, the study of the laws of their development 
and growth will lead to the comprehension of the more complex forces which 
are at work in the grander and more gorgeous botanical productions. Thus, 
in his introduction, page x. our author says : " The study of the simpler 
plants ought to take the precedence of those whose organization is more 
complex and intricate, as being tlie simplest expression of the laws of vege- 
table life." This proposition which we presume none will deny who are at 
all conversant with the present condition and tendency of the science of Bo- 
tany, was also recognized liy the illustrious Jussieu himself. In his study 
of plants under the then grand divisions of .A.cotyledons, Jlonocotyledons and 
Dicotyledons, he commences with the Alg;e and closes with the Compositfe, 
the flowers of which, to him, present the most perfect transformation of the 
prototype leaf. 

The one-nessof vegetable development is thus stated, p. 49: "The little 
bread mould which nature constructs from decaying organic matter in a few 
short hours, consisting of a few united vegetative cells and a single terminal 
reproductive cell, is only a simpler expression of the same law which operates 
in the production of the forest tree. The extent of all development in forest 
trees and flowering plants is alone diflerent — the phenomena themselves are 
precisely analogous. In forest trees and flowering plants, the vegetative 
cells as they develope in countless millions, assume distinct organic parts, as 
root, stem and leaves, whilst the reproductive cells are seen in the form of 
beautiful and highly organized flowers. In the bread mould all such distinc- 



12i THE FLORIST AND 

tions vanish, and the organization of the parts is reduced to the*itmost de- 
gree of simplicity." 

In introducing his readers to the study of Botany through the Cryptoga-- 
mia, our author considers first the h-v/s of growth, multiplication and trans- 
formation of cells; and in his second part, the sea weeds, lichens, liverworts, 
mosses, club mosses, ferns and equisetae successively. At the close he ex^ 
presses his hope of completing the work at some future time by adding the 
laws of the development of flowering plants, We hope that he may be en- 
couraged by the friends of Flora so to do, and in the same excellent style in 
which the present is got up. The illustrations are numerous and well-select- 
ed, and of the typography it is sulBcient to say that our esteemed friends, 
Messrs. T. K. & P. G. Collins are the printers. A. L. K. 



The Cold Grapekt. By Wm. Chorlton ; New York, J. C. Biker, 129 
Fulton street. 

This little manual, being notes from " direct American practice," fully 
sustains the reputation as a practical, common-sense grape grower which Mr. 
Chorlton has already established for himself by his articles in the " Horti- 
culturist," and other Magazines, It is a plain subject plainly treated, freed 
from the quackery of the past fifteen years. 

The construction of houses — an important part of all plant 'growing — oc- 
cupies a chapter. The double pitch curvilinear roof is thought the best by 
the majority of growers. The ridge and furrow' roof house is recommended 
by the writer of our calendar, (one of the very best authorities on this sub- 
ject in the country,) at page 334 of the last volume, and we have no doubt 
will, in some situation, be the best adapted. 

The raised borders treated of at page 33, are a decided improvement on 
the old style, and the use of the base (original would be better) soil, is not 
only a great saving of expense, but equally as good as hauling it away and 
often returning worse, 

In West's St. Peter's grape we find what we were desirous to know, name- 
ly, what the Bostonians called the Poonah grape. There is a difference of 
opinion as to the identity of the Black Prince and Cambridge Botanic Gar- 
den grapes. Mr. C. describes what we know by the latter name. We give 
the names of the best twelve sorts recommended by him. 

Victoria, and Old Black Hamburg, Chasselas Fontainebleau, Malvasia, 
Muscat Blanc Hatif, West's St. Peters, Grizzly and White Frontignan, 
Black Prince, Muscat of Alexandria, Dutch Sweetwater, andZinfindal. 

Here are a few sentences worth remembering : " At all times, with a clear 
sun in the morning, ventilate as soon as the house begins to warm a little ; 
and close early — the temperature by these means rises and falls gradually. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 125 

Nothing is worse in all plant cultui'e than allowing a house to be closed un- 
til it becomes hot, and adniitting at once a great quantity of cold air. In 
grape growing it leads to the most baneful results." 

After a careful reading of this work, we can recommend it to all as a most 
useful and reliable one, and its author is entitled to the thanks of all ama- 
teurs. 



PENNSYLVANIA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The stated meeting of this society was held on Tuesday evening, in the 
Chinese Saloon, Dr. W. D. Brinckle, Vice President, in the chair. The 
display was unusually rich, and the Hall crowded with gratified visitors. 
The extensive tables of the society were completely covered with the many 
beautiful objects of exhibition. The imposing show of blooming plants was 
contributed from more than a dozen green-houses, and presented one of the 
finest ever seen at a monthly meeting. Robert Buist's foreman brought a 
great number of interesting and rare specimens, several of which were new 
and shown for the first time. Hhododendron javnieum, a beautiful species, 
with flowers of an orange hue; Crastrolohiuvi Drummondii, Dendrobium 
Blandfordianum, Zieria trlfoliata, Tetranthera Hugelii, and Ceanothus 
rigidus. Of standard plants, were a splendid specimen of Pimclia sjyecta- 
hilis, displaying innumerable trusses of flowers, a large and graceful Acacia 
pubescens, a very fine Ciqjhea platycentra, a handsome Spircea Reevesii, 
and a dozen of the choicest Cinerarias of merit; also a collection of indi- 
genous plants in flower, very interesting. J. F. Knorr's gardener exhibited 
choice plants, which were not ofi'ered in competition. Of those shown for 
the first time, and new, were j^schynanthus albidus, Azalea Heine des 
Beiges and Delphinium Beaty of Charonne, and fine Cinerarias, Azaleas, 
Templetonia, glauca, (j'C, 

Caleb Cope's gardener presented new plants for the first time, shown in 
bloom — Rhododendron Cfibsonii, Pimelia Verschaffeltii, Lantana lilavina 
Mimulus species raised from seed presented to the Society, from California, 
by Capt. W. McMichaels ; and Cinararia seedlings ; Azalea Smithii, a 
beautiful plant, with many more of the choicest specimens; Camellia, A. J'. 
Downing, a seedling raised by N. J. Becar, Esq., of New York. From 
Thomas Richardson of New York, were beautiful plants — Tropa'olum tri- 
colorum, gracefully trained over wire in a globular form, in full bloom, a 
pretty object ; Pimelia spectabilis, and twelve select Cinerarias. W. W. 
Keen's gardener of West Philadelphia, brought twelve handsome plants — 
Euphorbia praeclara. Erica, etc. Robert Scott exhibited a large collection 
not in competition, in which were some of the choicest liases. Adam Uber, 
a table of very fine Pelargoniums. Benj. Gulliss, a large collection of seed- 



126 THE FLORIST AND 

ling Verbenas, &c. ; also, twelve beautiful Roses. Charles Miller, a large 
table of Calceolai-ias. Peter Raabe, three large vases of Hyacinths, Tulips, 
and Narcissi ; also, a fine display of seedling Pacquerettes, a dwarf Apple 
tree in profuse bloom. Moore & Warnick, Camden, a choice collection of 
plants. Robert Cornelius' gardener had a beautiful Azalea indica and 
Maliernia odorata. Martin Cundlach, a great number of Pansies. William 
Hobson, Cinerarias, Pansies and Auriculas. William Warnick, Camden, 
Pansies. H. IngersoU's gardener, a specimen of Bielytra speetaMHs. 
Robert Kilvington, specimens of three native plants, raised from seed brought 
by Dr. Hermann and Dr. Kern, of Ex. Expedition ; Claytonia perfoliata 
— this species is used as a salad ; Penstemon Mariana and Nuttalia sp. 
H. C. Hanson — shown for the first time, Pinguicula lutea and Sarracenia 
Drummondii. Capt. Marston a basket of dried Immortelles, &c., very pretty. 
Designs and Bouquets from several sources. 

On the fruit tables were delicious Strawberries and Figs from Mr. Cope's 
conservatories. Pears and Apples from Mrs. J. B. Smith, and Apples from 
Robert Cornelius. 

Of Vegetables, in Mr. Cornelius' display, were forced Potatoes, Cucumbers, 
Cauliflowers, &c. In Mr. Cope's, Asparagus, Pears, French Beans, Toma- 
toes, and other esculents. 

Premiums awarded on the occasion were : 

Roses — for the best 12 to Benj. Gulliss. Cinerarias — for the best, and 
for the second best six, to Thos. Fairley, foreman to R. Buist. Pansies — 
for the best and second best six to Martin Cundlach. 

Plants in Pots — for the best 12 to T. Fairley; for the second best to Thos. 
Meehan, gr. to C. Cope; for the third best to W Grassie, gr. to W.W. Keen. 
Plant in a Pot — for the best grown specimen (Pimelia spectabilis) to Thos. 
Fairley. 

Indigenous Plants — for the best display to T. Fairley. Plants shown for 
the first time in bloom — a premium of $3 to do; and another of §2 to Thos. 
Meehan. Bouquet Design — for the best formed of cut flowers, to Thomas 
Meghran, gr. to R. Cornelius; for 2d best to T. Meehan. Basket formed of 
cut flowers — for the best to T. Meghran ; for 2d best to T. Meehan ; for the 
best formed of indigenous flowers to T. Meghran ; and special premiums of 
$2 each for a beautiful Trojxeolum tricohrum, to Thomas Richardson's gar- 
dener. To Adam Uber for a display of Pelargoniums; to Chas. Miller, for 
a display of Calceolarias ; and of $1 each to Peter Raabe for a display of 
seedling Pacquerettes; and to B. Gullis for a collection of seedling Verhenas. 

The committee notice a collection of G-naphaliums from Capt. Marston, 
and two plants, Pinguicula lutea and Sarracenia Drummondii shown for the 
first time by H. C. Hanson. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 127 



Pears — for the best 10 specimens, St. Germain, to F. Giioin. Apples — 
for the best ten Newtown Pippin, to T. Meghran ; and a special premium of 
$2 for a dish of Hovey's Seedling Strawberries, and another of $1 for two 
varieties of Figs to Thos. Meehan. Cucumbers — for the best brace, Cauli- 
flowers for the best 3 heads, and Rhubarb for the best 12 stalks to Thomas 
Meghran. Sea Kale — for the best, and for the 2d best Rhubarb, to Thos. 
Meehan. 

Display — For the best by a private gardener, to T. Meghran ; for the 2d 
best to T. Meehan. 

The committee notice and call the attention of the Society to a specimen 
of Hemp manufactured from the fibre of the Okra plant, which appears to 
possess remarkable strength and fineness of texture. It was shown by Ths. 
Dunlap. The usual ad interim report was submitted, describing a number 
of fine varieties of Apples. ^ T. P. James, Rec. Sec. 



MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The first monthly exhibition of the Society, for the present year was held 
on the 4th inst., in the hall of the Maryland Institute; on this occasion there 
was a fine, although not a large display of plants and flowers. Mr, 0. 
Kemp, gardener to Miss Tifl'any, sent a showy collection of Cinerarias, 
chiefly seedlings, also a collection of Pansies, superior to anything hereto- 
fore exhibited before the society, the flowers above average size, of good 
shape and substance ; it was quite refreshing to observe the result of skil- 
ful culture as applied to this beautiful tribe of plants. 

A collection of the same by Mr. C. Campbell, gr. to Dr. Edmondson, were 
little inferior to the above and contributed much to the floral display. A 
flowering plant of the beautiful Acacia pubescens, and well grown plants of 
Centradenia rosea, Gesnera oblongata. Begonia fuchsiodes, &c., were shown 
in this collection; with Radishes, Mushrooms, and Lettuce, several heads of 
a new lettuce raised by Dr. Edmondson from seed, received especial notice, 
as being of a superior character for the table. 

Messrs. S. Feast & Sons, contributed an extensive assortment of plants ; 
in their collection several magnificent roses were conspicuous, especially 
Cloth of gold, Caroline de Sansal. Geant des Battailles, Victorine de Aus- 
terlitz, and Souvenir do la jMalmaison; Camellias, Sarah Frost, Hempsteadii, 
and the Baltimore seedlings, Kurtz's Defiance, Feast's Perfection, Mary 
Troup, and Jenny Feast, well flowered specimens of Geraniums, Azaleas 
Verbenas, Petunias and Pelargoniums. A novelty which attracted much 



128 • THE FLORIST AND 

attention was a Tropaeolum named PulcheiTimum, a hybrid between T. Lob- 
bianum and Peregrinum, a beautiful \Yintcr flowering greenhouse climbing 
plant. Several fine flowering plants of Forsythia viridissima, from the 
borders, were much admired. This early flovrering hardy plant should be 
in every door yard. 

In Mr. John Feast's collection of Camellias was a plant in flower of his 
fine seedling Mrs. Lurman, a beautiful mottled, imbricated flower; seedling 
Cinerarias, Fortune's yellow rose, Burclielia capensis, Cytisus elegans, (a 
beautiful and much neglected greenhouse plant) Petunias, Verbenas, and a 
large flowering plant of Cactus Samphiroides were also in this collection. 

Messr. Pentland, Greenmount Gardens, exhibited a few of their superb 
seedling Verbenas; tliese gentlemen have been eminently successful in the 
improvement of this now popular flower — several blooms of roses were 
noticed as flne, Pius 9th, Gen. Cavaignac, Louis Napoleon, Aurora di 
Guide, Madam Ami, Lodowiski, and Madame Bosanquet, several bouquets 
were also in this collection. 

Various contributions were sent by E. Kurtz, J. Galloway, E. Whittimore 
and others. 

The following are the awards of the committees : 

Camellias, 6 in pots, S. Feast & Sons ; second, John Feast. Rhododen- 
drons, John Feast. Azaleas, first, S. Feast & Sons ; second, John Feast. 
Roses, first, S. Feast; second, Messrs. Pentland. Cinerarias, first John 
Feast ; second, S. Feast & Son; do. amateurs, 0. Kemp, gardener to Miss 
Tifiany. Geraniums, S. Feast & Sons. Verbenas, John Feast, second, S. 
Feast & Sons; do. amateurs, C. Campbell. Stock gillies, S. Feast & Sons. 
Daisies, do. Pansies, first, 0. Kemp; second, C. Campbell, gardener to Dr. 
Edmondson. Bouquet, first, John Feast; second, Jas. Galloway; third, S. 
Feast. Design, Pentland, Bro. Mushrooms, W. Saunders gardener to T. 
Winans. Lettuce, E. Whittimore; do. amateurs, C. Campbell. Radishes, 
E. Whittimore,. 

W. Sauni>ers, Cor. Secretary. 



To CoEEESPOXDENTS. Our thanks are due to Mr. H. A. Dreer, for a 
package of Seed of German Summer Stock. 

Catalogues received from B. M. Watson, Plymouth, Mass. W. R. Prince 
& Co., of Flusliing ; and R. Buist's Rose catalogue. 

J. McD. Florida — No. 1 Illicium floridanum, No. 2 Sarracenia flava. 

Mr. M. W. Contribution is crowded out by more valuable matter, 
besides which it is too near the subject of which we have had sufficient lately. 

H. L. k Co. Turner's Florist has come to hand.' 




AESGHTNANTHUS PULCHER. 



LtsHtatr oI'DMUfi 134'i Sprace .ft 



n^ 



^j 



AND HORTICULTUEAL JOURML. 

Vol. II.] Philadelphia, May, 1853. [No. 5. 



^SCHYNANTHUS PULCHER. 
Gesneriacex § CyrtanilreiE. — ■■ Didjnamia-Angiospermia. 

CHARACT. GENER. — Calyx ventricoso-tubulosus apice 5-lobu3 5-fidus v. 5- 
partitus, lobis se-jLialibus. Corolla tubulosa incurva, limbo obliquo subinrequaliler 
5-tiilo subbilabiato. Stamina 4 antherifera didynama soepe exserta cum rudimenti 
quinti; loculis antherarum parallelis. Ovarium annulo cyatlnlbrmi basi cinciimi. 
Slylus fililormis; stigmate integro depresso-concavo. Capsula siliqusformis elon- 
gata acumina;ta, valvis doubus strictis, placentis bitidis bilamellatis margine revo- 
lulis quasi 4-lociilaris. Semina nuTieroia minuta obliqua pendula uirinque setis 
longis paucis aut solilariis appendiculata, funiculo nullo aut capillis multo bre- 
viore. 

SufTructic-'s inilici p^eudrt-parasitici scandenfes scepius radicantes, caulibus tere- 
tihui genicidntis gl'ibrin. foliis dp'positis pe.tiolatis carnoiis intesrerrimis i-apisnivie 
g/iibris, pediculis lerminalibus aut axillaribus l-i-rarius plurijloris, coi'ollisrultris 
(^rarissime viridibits.) 

DC. et Fil. Prodr. IX. 260. (Parentheses excepta.) 

CHARACT. SPECIEl. — JE. scandeiis, foliis ovatis coriaceo-carnosis immerse 
venosis obscure dentatis, coiymbis terminalibus bracteatis, calvce ov-ato cvlindra- 
ceoglabro basi obtuso, segmenlis^ brevibus ereclis, corolla calyce triplo longiore 
glabro. Hook. 

Mschynnnthu.t p-M.cher Alp. DC. (1) Prodr. IX. 2b2. Bot. Mag. t. 4--264.. 184.6. 

Trichoporum pul.clirum Blume Bijdr. 764. Hassk. Cat. bogor. 1.t3. 

Among the various species of the genus Aeschynanthus which 
are now to be found in our greenhouses, none is more valuable than 
this, either in foliage or in flower. The deep green of the leaves 
and the graceful pendulous brcnches are alone an ornament ; and 
when the long shoots are terminated by clusters of sometimes eight 
or ten flowers, the effect produced is very pleasiflg. This species is 
very like its congener, JEi. Lobbianus, but bus a lighter colored and 
perfectly smooth calyx and a longer corolla. As the propagation of 
these plants is very easy, we hope to see them introduced to every 
collection. The species at j^Tcsent cultivated in this counfiy are, 
Aesch. pulchcr, Lobb!anus, Boschianus, Javanicus, grandi floras, 
ramosus, speciosus, miniatus and albidus. A hybrid has been lately 
sent out in England Itj^ Messrs. Lucombe Pince, & Co , called splcn- 
17 



130 THE FLORIST AIN'D 

didus, but ^ve do not know if it Las been imported into this' 
country. 

The cultivation of these plants is very simple; any loose, light 
soil seems to suit them ; but they do best in baskets planted among 
chopped moss and fibry peat. Kept in a warm, moist house while 
growing, and kept dry and in a moderate temperature during the" 
winter, they will grow rapidl}^ and flower abundantly. Cuttings- 
root very readily in sand under a bell glass. 



ROSEDALE NuESEKIES, DaRBY E.9AD, MaT 10th, 1853. 

SUMMER PRUNING OF THE PEAR. 
Mr. Editor : — ' promised in my last to say a word to your many 
readers, but 3"our calendar writer, S. B., has fairly anticipated me, 
and has, moreover, said as much in ten lines as book-makers gen- 
erally do in ten ft)lios — in fact he has done up the subject well — 
read it again. It is thirty j-ears since I summer-pruned fruit trees, 
but I have lived to see that the science was very imperfectly under- 
stood then, and those who may succeed us will, I hope, be able to 
say so of us. Our pruning Avas done in August just on the return 
of the sap ; an error if you wish fruit ; a fit time if you wish 
wood. Before this reaches your friends it will be time for many of 
them to begin io prune — not by cutting off shoots and thinning out, 
but by pinching off the tip of the young growth as soon as it has 
made six inches of young wood. Some may require nibbing off 
entirely where they form a thicket ; but that is rarely required 
when the tree has had a judicious winter pruning. Strong shoots 
that offer to outgrow all others will require frequent topping during 
the season ; and those of weaker growth will do with one topping, 
observing to keep the proportions of the tree in the e3e that it may 
be regular and uniform from base to tip ; much defoliation should 
ne»^er be performed; the smaller the portion the more healthful the 
tree ; deprive it of its foliage and you at the same time deprive it 
of a portions of its roots. When the summer pruning is performed 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 131 

at the time we indicate, and in the manner described, the next 
season will show that raanj' of t'ne trees have formed fruit buds on 
this year's wood. AYe object to summer pruning during the heat of 
the season, unless it be an occasional exuberant shoot. The tree 
at that period requires all ttie foliage and growth to keep the bole 
of the tree cool and the sap in active circulation. Some trees, 
however judicious our management, are tardy in producing fruit 
buds. We have often, and do now every Jul}' and August, twist a 
piece of wire or cord tight round a limb, which checks the returning 
sap and causes it to be elaboi-ated in the limb instead of the root. 
Another method, and a very old one too, is to cut out a ring of the 
bark about one-quarter of an inch in width, disturbing the sap on 
the surface of the wood as little as possible. From this old practice 
it will not surprise us to see a new one arise, that instead of scrap- 
ing the outer bark oflf during early spjing, the trees will yet be en- 
tirely denuded of their bark about the end of June, when a new 
bark will be male in 4S hours, and a new life, and new energies 
given to the tree. We are not thorough arborists until we can take 
a growing branch of a tree and unite it to its kindred species at 
any period of the year, and when that time arrives, planting will 
not be confined to two short periods of the year. When attending 
to summer pruning, attend at the same time to thinning out the 
fruit ; one dozen first rate in size and fiiirness will bring more 
money than two dozen of inferior, or even mediocre size. Such is 
the opinion of yours truly, 

R. BuisT. 



THE CAUSE OF BAD COLORED GRAPES. 

There was a curious discussion a fow months since in the London journals 
about a grape exiiihitod there as tlie "Red Ilamhnrfr." One party calling 
it a badly colored "Black," the other stoutly maintaining its distinctness. 
Dr. Lindley, while adhering to the former party, thought it would be inter- 
esting to know whether grapes colored badly in warm elimati-'s — intimating 
that the real cause of bad coloring was not yet clcai'ly uiKk-rstood. Having 
paid much attention to the su'ijoct, and having been foi iiinaty iu having a 



132 THE FLORIST AND 



very varied experience in grape growing in many circumstances, and in 
many conditions, I have at length arrived at the conclusion, that bad color- 
ing is the result of a disproportion between the quantity of roots, and the 
fruit to be nourished on any given vine. 

Opinions seem to be very opposite on the subject, Some asserting their 
telief that the cause lies with "leaving on too many bunches;" others "a 
■want of air at the time of coloring ;" another section, "the want of bright 
sunshine or light" at that period ; and then again in "the borders being too 
Avet," "too poor," "too rich," or "the vines being placed too deep." The 
quantity of heat or light has nothing to do with the subject of grapes ri- 
jpening without color, for without heat or light sufficient they will not ripen 
at all though every other circumstance be favorable. The advocates of the 
other theories are all right. Mistaking effects for causes results in the 
seeming opposition of opinion. For instance, when "too many bunches" 
are left on, the proper proportion of roots to bunches is overbalanced — in 
other words the supply of nutriment afforded by the roots is insufficient. 
Then again if the borders are ill drained, or become in any way so wet that 
the young fibres are rotted off, tlie disproportion is again originated, and the 
grapes will not color. If the vines are planted too deep in the borders, fi- 
bres are produced in very small quantity ; and, as the fibres draw much nu- 
triment from the atmosphere, the few that do exist are in no way propor- 
tionate to the demands made upon them by the plant and the grapes will not 
color. A border that is too ricli, whereby the fibres are "burnt up," or too 
poor to sustain the proper life of a grape vine, will also have the same ef- 
fect. It is very rarely that we see a grape growing in a soil rather dry, and 
not well enriched, ripen with a bad color, and where they seem to be, an ex- 
amination will find that the want of color is in reality a want of ripeness, 
arising from insufficient air, light, or heat. In a cold vinery where some 
grapes grew in the house at the back wall, and others planted deep in an out- 
side border and trained up the rafters, I have had the former beautifully 
colored, when the latter were but indifferently so ; and in forcing them in 
pots, I have found that if a vine get "over-watered" causing some of the 
roots to decay, the same results happen. So if the pot is too small for the 
strength of the vine, the bunches will color badly, unless assisted by liberal 
supplies of manure water. 

From such- observation and experience I lay it down as a rule, that what- 
ever interrupts the proper course of nutriment between the roots and the 
fruit, produces "Red Hamburg's." 

Thomas Meehan. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 133 

NOTES ON ROSE CULTURE. 

BY A LOVER OF ROSES. 

"Good work never springs from bad materials" is as orthodox on 
the present subject as any other. So the first object of attention is 
good soil, on a dry bottom ; or in other words good, rich, sandy 
soil, free from stagnant moisture in all seasons. Such being the 
case, we are indifferent about the exact component parts of the soil, 
but it must be rich to produce anything approaching a luxuriant 
growth, and full sized flowers. To obtain such I will briefly touch 
upon the following subjects — soil, disposition, sorts and pruning. 

Soil. I prefer a sandy loam, dug at least 1 8 inches^^deep, and in- 
corporated with at least one eighth of manure that is at least 4 to 
6 months old. I prefer it from the cow'stable, but when I can get 
a profusion of decomposed leaves from the woods and mix it in 
equal portions with the garden soil I never fail to have flowers of 
full size and fine color, and am convinced of finer odor. Another 
point of vast importance to the success of the grower is never to 
plant a rose in soil where a rose has grown before ; invariably re- 
place your soil, or grow on it grass or vegetables for 2 years before 
renewing your rose plantation, The many failures and disappoint- 
ments that often occur arise solely from this neglect. How fre- 
quently have I seen some of my neighbors dig up an old worthless 
rose bush that had exhausted all the soil in its vicinity, and replant 
some other sort of more fashionable reputation that did not take 
hold of the soil, and consequently never made a growth. The fail- 
ure in nine cases out of ten, was cast upon the plant, or perhaps the 
unfortunate vender, whereas had it groAvn the planter would have 
assumed the full credit of its success. I speak now from experi- 
ence for which I have fully paid. 

Loccdity, is another important stej} in rose culture. In city gar- 
dens especially, how frequently you see some of the finest plants of 
the rose purchased in the market, carefully carried home and plant- 
ed directl}^ opposite the back parlor window, whether the sun shines 
or not the rose is planted to grow? No — to die or dwindle out a 
sickly existence. Again in the country' how frequently are your 
nerves iiritated by seeing a fine Souvenir de la Malmaison or a 



134 THE FLOPJST AND 

Giant of Battles, both indispensable kinds, planted under the shade 
of some large maple, oak, or pine tree ; eA^ery flower they produce 
is smaller than the one that preceded it, till you hear "Well ! I am 
quite discouraged with my roses, they won't grow." It is not sur- 
prising ; the soil exhausted with other roots, and the sun (so es- 
sential) rarely smiles upon the plants. Avoid, therefore, all those 
crowded, shaded localities, and give them a full, free exposure, 
where the sun will have its full influence at least 4 to 6 hours every 
day from February to November. 

Disposition. Whether it be five feet or five acres, let it be a rose 
garden ; the very name itself carries with it an irresistable charm. 
Do away with all those incongruous mixtures of plants ; not a 
♦' wilderness of sweets," a wilderness of confusion ; cast j'our eye 
where you will, all is alike, a confused mixture — nothing striking, 
nothing to visit the eye ; nothing for it to rest upon ; nothing to 
brighten ; nothing to dazzle — all is one monotonous view. I go in 
fully for variety, but a decided variety, and a decided place for it, 
whether in the garden, on the lawn, or in the rosery ; by the drive 
or in the park ; and may I while on this subject ask for the benefit 
of your citizens, and the strangers who visit here every season and 
leave therein their thousands, why Lemon Hill, the property of the 
city, now lying waste, is not converted into a Rose Park ? It could 
not be appropriated to a more pure and beautiful purpose ; we say 
then, give roses their place and they will in all their splendor shine 
from May till the chilly blasts of winter. There is no situation 
which they are not adapted to, or can be made to suit ; amongst 
rocks ; over tree roots ; by old quarries ; on uneven surfaces ; gang- 
ways to barns; espaliers to back buildings and out-houses; in the 
vicinity of water ; by the lake or rivulet. Oh, strange ! I have 
just said they must have a dry subsoil, and now recommend them 
for margins of lakes, &c. How can their roots be drj^ in such 
locality ? Pray roll together a few logs, tree roots, or large stones; 
cover them entirely, or partially with rich earth, and plant thereon. 
You will have in a few years verj' romantic masses of roses, ramb- 
ling in every form, and waving their crimsons, pm-ples, blushes, 
pinks and whites, in separate clumps. This arrangement is much 
more pleasing to the eye, and creates a greater variety. Climbers 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 135 



or runners; dwarfs and mediums, should have their separate spots, 
and independent treatment. It is much better to select a few promi- 
nent, than to run into a great variety. We can by this arrangement 
procure plants much cheaper from the growers, or raise them by 
cuttings or layers, which is simple enough to those who will devote 
a litle patience or time to the subject, or those who prefer to begin 
at once, and vrith the return of the plant season might, we think, 
procure in May sorts in quantity at 12 to 20 cents each 

[To be continued.] 



MANDEYILLA SUAVEOLENS. 

Much and deservedly as tliis splendid climber is prized wherever it is pro- 
perly cultivated, it is nevertheless perfectly unknown in many places, a 
statement which may seem incredible to some, but wliich is strictly true. The 
lady owner of an elegant and well kept conservatory recently expressed 
surprise at seeing the Mandevilla rambling about the roof of a house in 
which she was standing, and covered with its deliciously fragrant clusters of 
snowy white Convolvulus-like blossoms ; she said, "We tried it in the stove, 
but we could not afford it sufficient space, and it was not very satisfactory ; 
■we therefore did not think that the conservatory would be warm enough for 
it." And a corrcspijiident, evidently an intelligent person, writing so re- 
cently as the 10th inst., from one of the principal town? of the kingdom, 
begs for such information respecting it as plainly indicates that it is not com- 
monly grown in his locality. Had it not been his request to be informed 
whether this, the best of conservatory climbers, is worth growing, I should 
not have selected it as the subject of an article ; and I do so now more for the 
purpose of recommending it to notice than to give especial directions for its 
culture. As minute instructions may, however, operate as an inducement 
to some amateurs to add the plant to their collection (and there are few 
plant houses in which a suitable place for the Mandevilla might be found,)" 
I have thought it worth while to give them. 

It is not very suitable for pot culture, at least I believe it is not ; for e.x- 
cept the two iiist plants I had of it, I have never attempted to grow it in 
this manner. I am convinced, however, from the success which 1 obtained 
with those, that it may be made to bloom rather freely in a pot ; and the fra- 
grance and beauty of the flowers render it worth an effort to obtain them in 
that manner. Were I to attempt its culture in pots, I would treat it as fol- 
lows; and although the display of blossom which I might get would be poor 
compared with what plants turned out in the eonsorvittory border, and al- 
lowed plenty of space to ramble about, would produce, it would nevertheless 
be ample compensation for the little attention which the plants would re- 
quire. 

I would procure good strong young plants, say in March, prune them 
back closely, leaving but one joint of the last season's growth ; then place 



136 THE FLORIST AND 



theiil in a house wherd the night temperature might arerage about 50°, arid 
when the plants started into active growth, I would give a moderate shift, 
and stop the shoots once or twice, to ensure an abundance of J'oung ■wood. 
When the pots became filled with roots, I would shift into the flowering 
pots, which should be 15 or 18 inch ones, according to the strength of the 
plants. The vigorous habit of the plant renders a good sized trellis neces- 
sary,which should be applied at once, and the shoots neatly and regularly 
tied over it. Water should be given rather sparingly at the root from the 
time when the plants are placed in the flowering pots; but the syringe 
should be used freely, and the plants kept in an airy^ light part of the 
house, and if the night heat can be conveniently kept as low as from 50° to 
65°, it will be more suitable than a higher temperature. Yvhen the trellises 
are well covered with wood, which probably maybe the case by the middle 
of June, remove the plants to the greenhouse, placing them in the warmest 
end of it for a few days, toavoid injuring the foliage by a sudden removal 
from a moist atmosphere to a dry one ; and when they are inured to the 
change, expose them freely to sun and air, giving no more water at the 
root than will sufiice to keep the folianje from fiacrcring. This treatment con- 
tinned for three weeks or a month, will effectually check the tendency of the 
plants to make wood, and when this is effected, they may be placed in the 
warmest corner of the greenhouse, where they will speedily begin to opea 
their blossoms. 

The plants of the Mandevilla which I grew in pots were treated in the 
above manner, and I distinctly recollect that one of the specimens was very 
much admired, and produced a great number of clusters of flowers during 
August and September ; the other was a weak plant when received from the 
nursery, and produced but a few clusters, owing doubtless to its having 
been stopped back later in the season than the stronger specimen, both were 
planted in the conservatory the following spring, where they have been so 
satisfactory that I'have never cared to attempt cultivating it as a pot plant. 
Those, however, who possess a conservatory or greenhouse where climbers 
can be grown will find the rafters the best possible situation for its growth, 
especially if the roof of the house is kept close, and the roots can be af- 
forded a moderate space in a border composed of light sandy loam, which is 
the soil I would also recommend for its pot culture. 

Whether in pots or turned ont in the conservatory border, the soil should 
be kept rather dry after flowering, and till it may be desired to start the 
plants into growth in spring, and severe pruning is absolutel}'' necessary to 
keep the plant within bounds ; the young wood should be cut back to the 
last joint, except in the case of plants that may not have attained the de- 
sired size, and plenty of water should be given to keep the border in a 
healthy moist condition during the growing and flowering seasons. 

It is readily propagated by means of cuttings of the shortest jointed 
wood, taken when ra.ther firm, and planted in light sandy soil, covered with 
a glass and placed in a gentle bottom-heat, but the plant seeds very freely, 
and thus afibrdsan easy means of increasing it to any extent. 

Alpha^ {in Gard. Chron., AprillZ.) 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 137 



AN ENUMERATION OF THE VINES OF N. AMERICA. 



(concluded.) 

6. V. ARANEOSus. Foliis lato-cordatis, sublobato-angulatis, inte- 
gris, trilobis aut quinquelobis, lobis acuminatis, dentatis, dentibus 
submucronatis, supra glabris, subtus aracbiioideo-villosis, villositate 
plus minus ferruginea. Racemis sululensis, baccis majoribus nigris. 

Hah. — In the upper parts of Georgia. Vulg. Fox grape. 

Stem moderately large and liigh. Leaves broad, cordate, sublo- 
bately angled, entire and three or five lobed, acuminate dentate; the 
teeth submucronate, above glabrous, beneath arachnoideo-villous, 
more or less ferruginous; in the older leaves this villosity forms into 
small tufts or Ivuots, and in the very oldest almost entirely vanishes, 
although in the youngest it is very thick and close. Racemes dense; 
berries of a middling size, -5 of an inch in diameter, black, often 
very swefet and agreeable. The leaves are sometimes 8 inches long 
and as many wide. 

This species is well worth cultivating. 

7. V. BIC0I.0R. Foliis lato-cordatis sublobato-angulatis acuminatis 
subintegris et tri aut quinquelobis irregulariter dentatis, dentibus 
acuminatis aut mucronatis supra glabris subtus pallidioribus, in ju- 
nioribus sparse arachnoideo-villosis. Racemis laxis, baccis parvis 
nigris. 

Hah. — From Pennsylvania to Virginia. V. ajstivalis, Darlington, 
Florula Cestrica. 

Stem moderately large and high. Leaves broad-cordate, sublo- 
bately angled, acuminate, subentire, and three or five-lobed, irre- 
gularly dentate; the teeth acuminate or mucronate, above smooth; 
beneath paler in the younger leaA'es, sparsely arachnoideo-villous, 
the villosity entirely vanishing with age. Racemes long, loose and 
compound; berries small, black, -3 of an inch in diameter, sweet and 
agreeable. 



' See rroceeiiings Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Feb. ISriS. 

IS 



138 THE FLORIST AND 

8. V. PULLARiA. Foliis glabris, ovatis cordatis acuminatis, ut plu- 
rimum versus apicem obscure aut profunde trilobatis rarius quinque 
lobatis sa?pe integris, insequaliter grosse dentatis, acuminatis. Ea- 
cemis longis raniosis laxis. 

Hub. — In Virginia and Maryland. Vul. Chicken grape. 
- Stem moderately large and tall. Leaves thin, smooth on both 
sides, polished, ovate cordate abruptly acuminate, be^-ond the mid- 
dle more or less tri-lobed, sometimes five-lobed, often entire, unequal- 
ly dentate; teeth large, acuminate; petioles and nerves beneath con- 
spicuously pubescent. Racemes long, compound and loose; berries 
small, -3 of an inch in diameter. 

9. V. RiPARiA. Foliis glabris ovatis cordatis acuminatis ante me- 
dium jilus minus trilobis sa?pe integris dentatis, dentibus latis de- 
pressis, brevi-mucronatis. Racemis laxis baccis parvis. 

Hc^. — In Georgia and Mississippi on the banks of rivers in over- 
flowed places. V. riparia Mx. V. dimidiata Rafinesque. 

Stem lar.;;e and tall. Leaves thin, smooth on both sides, polish- 
ed ovate, cordate, acuminate, more or less tri-lobed beyond the 
middle, often entire, sub-crenato-dentate ; teeth broad, flat, with a 
short point; the youngest leaves with a slight arachnoid pubescence 
beneath, petioles, nerves and margin pubescent. The leaves are 
sometimes five-lobed, the upper lobes with deep spathuliform sinus- 
es, the margin but little dentate. Racemes loose; berries small, -3 
of an inch in diameter, black and acid. 

This species, confounded by most authors with the next (if it has 
ever been seen by them,) is found only in the southernmost States 
on the margins of rivers, in places frequentl}- subject to inundation, 
whence its name among the inhabitants of the banks of the Mis.sis- 
sippi, Vigmde bottures; it very much resembles the next, but is easi- 
ly distinguished by its thinner leaves and the arachnoid pubescence 
on the under side of them in their younger state. 

10. V. ODORATissiMA. Foliis glabris ovatis cordatis acuminatis in- 
aequaliter crenato-dentatis dentibus mucronatis, ut plurimum versus 
apicem obscure trilobis. Racemis laxis, baccis parvis. 

Hah. — In the Northern States, in dry situations, generally on the 
sides of rocky hills. V. odoratissima Donn. V. riparia Pursh, Torrey 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 139 

and Gray, &c. V. scrotina Bartram, 1. c. seems to be V. cordifolia 
of Emerson, &c. V. montana, concolor, columbina, populifolia, odor- 
atissima and amara Rafinesque. 

Stem large and high. Leaves smooth on both sides, broad-ovate, 
cordage, acuminate, unequally crenato-dentate, teeth mucronate ; 
generally obscurely trilobate beyond the middle, nerves beneath 
very prominent, margin, nerves beneath and petioles pubescent; a 
small pubescent tuft on the axillse of the nerves of the under side of 
the leaves. Racemes long and loose, berries small, -2 of an inch in 
diameter, black, very acid and austere, ripening in November. 

This species is much cultivated in gardens on account of its fra- 
grant flowers, the perfume of which is exactly that of Reseda odor- 
ata. It very rarely produces fruit. I have found fertile individuals 
only on the rocky hills north of Hoboken, N. J. I have been in- 
formed that the Indians formerly used the juice of this grape for dy- 
ing blue. 

11. V. R0TUNDIF0I.IA. Foliis glabris nitidis rotundo-cordatis, acu- 
minatis nunquam lobatis grosse dentatis, dentibus acutia subiequali- 
bus, racemis parvis baccis magnis nigris, rubescentibus vel albis. 

Hab. — From Virginia to Florida. V. rotundifolia Mx. V. vul- 
pina Walter. V. acerifolia, vulpina, angulata, and veruccosa Ra- 
finesque. Vulgo Bullace grape, from its resemblance to the buUace 
or wild plum of Europe, corrupted into Bull grape. In Virginia and 
N. Carolina it is called Muscadine and Scuppernon grape. 

Stem moderately large, unlike every other species perfectly 
smooth even in the oldest vines. Leaves thin, smooth on both sides, 
polished, shining, most so beneath, round, cordate, never lobed, ac- 
uminate dentate; teeth large, subequal, acute, axilla" of the nerves 
beneath sometimes furnished with a small tuft of pubescence. Ra- 
cemes small, simple; berries large, -2 of an inch in diameter, round, 
black, reddish, or white. 

This vine most frequently produces fruit of a delicious flavor and 
Very sweet. In North Carolina much wine is made from the grapes, 
but generally it is spoilt by mixing it witli poach ])ran(ly or wlii.skey 
to increase its strength. Among the ignorant it is couiuiomIv tlio't 



MO THE FLORIST AND 

that no fermented juice of fruit can be kept for any length of time, 
miless it is adulterated "with alcoholic spirit. 

In the pine forests of Georgia the V. rotundifolia is found pros- 
trate, with stems scarcely 3 ft. long. 

12. V. PALMATA. Foliis ovato-cordatis utrinque glabris, profunda 
quinque lobatis palmatis, laciniis sublanceolatis, insequaliter lateque 
crenatis vel incisis. Racemis subdensis subsimplicibus baccis magnis 
albis gena cujarsea. 

Hah. — In North Carolina and on the banks of the Ohio. V. pal- 
mata Vahl. V. viirginiana Poiret. 

This grape, which is the true Bland's grape of former years, was 
once (30 years ago) extensively cultivated in the gardens of • this 
city, but has since been utterly lost. I cannot now find a single 
plant of it. It was perfectly hardy, bore profusely, and ripened be- 
fore the frosts. 

The above description is made from memory assisted by Vahl's 
and Poiret's descriptions. I have seen it growing wild in the moun- 
tains of North Carolina and have been informed that it was once 
common on the banks of the Ohio river. There is certainly no grape 
found in America that can be compared with it; in every respect it 
is equal to any variety of the V. vinifera, being very sweet and per- 
fectly free from pulp, and without that peculiar flavor which is more 
or less common to all other American species. 

The V. cordifolia Mx. I have never met with, at least a species 
corresponding with his description has never fallen in my way 
either in the North or South. It is said to extend from Pennsylva- 
nia to Florida. There is another small and sweet grape called the 
Orwigsburg which I have omitted, although said to be native, I could 
never satisfy myself that it was so. It has much the appearance of 
foreign varieties. 

Of the foregoing' species, those most worthy of cultivation are of 
No. 1, the Avhite variety, and the Isabella or Catawba, which would 
probably flourish in the coldest parts of Europe; Nos. 6, 1 1 and 12, 
all of which are sweet and agreeable, and furnish good wine. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL, 



141 



INDIGENOUS PLANTS. 



As the floral season has commenced we must give, as we promised, the 
names of the various plants indigenous to this neighborhood. At this time 
(April) all are in bloom from the very earliest. Draba verna is generally the 
first open, and Hepatica triloba and Epigjea repens, 

" And where the spring some happier verdure frees 
Laugb into light frank-eyed Anemones." 

Many of our readers, no doubt, like ourselves, are making additions to 
their herbarium, or it may be commencing one ; to these we would give the 
advice, " neglect nothing, no matter how common it may be." Do not leave 
your collection without Eanunculus acris, because it is "only a Butter-cup," 
or R. abortivus, because the flowers are not pretty — take Gray's Botany of 
the Northern United States, a book which you cannot do without, and pre- 
serve every plant you can find : you will learn more by collecting the plants 
and trying to get the names yourself, than by any other method. Beginners 
however must be careful not to jump at conclusions, or to guess at the names 
of plants, or they may find themselves very often laughed at ; they need 
not fear that, however, from real plant-knowers, for these know the diflBcul- 
ties in your way and remember their own mistakes. And here let me urge 
the fact, that knowing plants by name at sight does not constitute a botanist, 
any more than knowing a great number of people would make an anatomist. 

It has been said by plant collectors, that the Flora of the neighborhood of 
Philadelphia is one of the richest in this country, and certainly there are 
enough beautiful plants in flower from early spring until very late in the 
autumn, to satisfy any one who loves these most attractive of nature's pro- 
ductions. Among the plants now in bloom in this neighborhood are the fol- 
lowing — all of which we have cither seen in flower or have had reported 
to us : — 

Anemone nemorosa. Wood Anemone. Ranuneulacese. 

Hepatica triloba, blue and white. Liver-wort. 
Ranunculus acris. Butter-cup. 

" sceleratus. Cursed crowfoot. 

" abortivus. 

" bulbosus. 

Caltha palustris. Marsh marigold. 
Aquilegia Canadensis. Wild Columbine. 
Thalictrum anemonoidcs. Meadow rue. 

rodophyllum pcltatum. May apple. Berheridaccce. 

Sanguinaria Canadensis. Blood root. Papaveraccw. 



142 



THE FLORIST AND 



Aracese. 

Portulacacese. 

Saxifragaceae. 
It 

Prhnulacese. 
Violacese. 



Corydalis aurea. Golden corydalis. Furnariacese. 

Dielytra cuccularia. Dutchman's breeclies. " 

Arum triphyllum. Indian turnip. 

" " Var atrorubens. 

Claytonia Virginica. Spring beauty. 
Saxifraga Virginiensis. Early saxifrage. 
Chrysosplenium Americanum. American golden sax. 
Hedyotis (Houstonia) cserulea. Quaker-lady. 
Viola rotundifolia. Round-leaved violet — yellow. 

pubescens. Downy violet — yellow. 

striata. Striped violet — whitish. 

cucuUata. Hood-leaved — blue. 

ovata var. saggittata. Oval-leaved — blue. 

pedata. Bird's-foot — light blue. 

primulaefolia. Primrose-leaved — white. 
Dentaria laciniata. Cut-leaved toothwort — white. 
Arabis lyrata. American rock cress. " 

Draba verna. Early whitlow grass. " 

Capsella Bursa-pastoris. Shepherd's purse. " 
Epigjea repens, Trailing arbutus — pink and white. 
ErythroniumAmericanum. Dog's-tooth violet — yellow. 
Obolaria Virginica. Obolaria — pale blue. 
Lamium amplexicaule. Dead nettle — purple. 
Pedicularis Canadensis. Lousewort. " 
Antennaria plantaginifolia. Everlasting — white. 
Leontodon taraxacum. Dandelion — yellow. 
Benzoin odoriferum. Spice^bush. " 

Sassafras officinale. Sassafras — greenish yellow. 
Luzula campestris. Field rush. 
Geranium maculatum. Spotted geranium. 



Cruciferie. 



JJricacese. 
Liliacese. 

G-entianacese. 
Labiatas. 

Compositse. 
(( 

Lauracese. 

u 

Junoacese. 
Q-eraniacese, 



The CtjRCTJLIO. — To prevent the ravages of this insidious insect, which in 
this climate often commences its depredations as early as the last of May or 
first of June, by depositing its eggs in the young fruit, prepare a mixture 
made in the proportion of one bushel of wood ashes to a quart of soot, and 
one pound of flour of sulphur ; apply it in the morning while the branches 
and foliage are wet with dew, and in sufficient quantity to coat the tree. — 
This is a very effectual and cheap remedy. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 143 

- ■ ' -■ — 

Translated from the Comtes Rendus. 

INFLUENCE OF AMMONIA ADDED TO AIR UPON THE 
DEVELOPMENT OF PLANTS.* 

BY M. VILLE. 

On adding ammonia to the air we find the activity of vegetation to be 
much inci-eased. In the proportion 4,10,000 of the whole air this effect 
shows itself at the end of eight or ten days, and from this time its intensity 
steadily augments. The leaves, at first of a pale green, assume a shade 
more and more deep, until they become nearly black. Their foot-stalks 
grow long and straight, and their surfaces large and glossy. At last, when 
the growth has reached its maturity, we find that the product is much larger 
than that of the same plants grown in the pure air. This product is at the 
same time heavier and contains more than double the amount of nitrogen. 

Thus ammonia added to air produces two effects on vegetation — first, it 
favors the growth of plants ; and second, it renders them more nitrogenous. 
Thus in an experiment made in 1850, the product in pure air was 64.19 
grammes, and that in the air containing ammonia was 110.06 gr. The first 
contained 1.266 gr. of nitrogen and the second 4.313 gr. 

In 1851 the product in pure air was 68.72 gr. and contained 0.494 gr. of 
nitrogen. In the ammoniacal air the product was 135.20 gr. and contained 
1.501 gr. of nitrogen. 

I3esides these general effects produced by ammonia, there are others of a 
more variable nature dependent on special conditions, but which are not less 
interesting. Indeed, by means of this gas we are able, not only to increase 
the activity of vegetation, but even to modify its progress, to weaken the 
e.xercise of certain functions, and to increase, without limit, the development 
or multiplication of certain organs. 

If we expose the plant to the action of the ammonia some months before 
the time of flowering, its growth is more rapid, but is not accompanied by 
any disturbance of the usual succession of phaseS in its growth. It often 
happens indeed that plants, which when cultivated in pure air fail even to 
produce flowers, when grown in ammoniacal air produce matured fruit. But 
if we change the conditions of the experiment, if we wait until the plant is 
on the point of flowering before submitting it to the action of ammonia, the 
results are entirely different, the stem shoots up and sends out branches in 
every direction, clothes itself with innumerable leaves, and, if the season is 



* In our last volume we extracted a condensed account of i\I. Yille's ex- 
periments ; we have been favored by one of our lady readers with a transla- 
tion of the original article. 



144 THE FLORIST AND 

not too far advanced, tbe flowering, suspended for a Avhile, is resumed, but 
all the flowers are sterile. 

If we make tlie experiment upon a cereal whose hollow stem does not *d- 
mit of the production of new branches, the course of the phenomenon, the 
growth of the stem, crowned with its spike, is arrested^ and from the neck of 
the root there spring up clusters of stalks which soon overtop the paren-t 
stem. In this case also the plant bears no fruit. 

All these phenomena may be satisfactorily referred to the general laws of 
physiology. In truth all organized beings are subject to a law of compensa- 
tion which maintains harmony between the functions, and controls the de- 
velopment of the organs. "Whenever any organ receives sn undue develop- 
ment it is at the expense of some other organ, and if a function exerts too 
much activity, it is always at the expense of some other function. If the or- 
gans of growth, that is to say the stem, the branches and the leaves are de- 
veloped beyond a certain limit, it is at the expense of the organs of repro- 
duction; the flowers are sterile and the plant bears no fruit. In the experi- 
m'ents above described, the plant was at the moment of flowering exposed to 
the action of ammoniacal vapor — its influence determined the formation of a 
certain number of leaves. This sudden formation of new leaves destroyed the 
equilibrium between the functions of growth and those of reproduction, and 
caused the former to predominate over the latter. 

The action of ammonia does not operate with the same energy in all the 
stages of the growth of plants. The efi'ects are more marked from the time 
of germination to that of flowering than from this last period to the ripening 
of the fruit. This diff'erence is easily understood. Up to the time of flow- 
ering all the activity of the plant resides in the foliaceous organs; favorable 
influences determine the formation of an increased number of leaves, which, 
being the organs of absorption, add their eff'ect to the cause which has given 
them birth. After the flowering on the contrary, all the activity of the plant 
is turned to the organs of reproduction. Part of the leaves wither and fade, 
and those which remain are far from being as large as the first ; the result is 
that the surface of absorption is diminished. Furthermore, at this stage the 
plant is near the extreme limit of its development. These two considerations 
enable us easily to account for the less marked effects that ammonia produces 
during the second period of the life of plants. 

The use of ammonia cannot fail to become common in greenhouses. In an 
experiment where it was introduced into a greenhouse of Orchideee it was 
found to impart an extraordinary activity to their growth. The results ob- 
tained under these new conditions are so striking that the practical ques- 
tion may be regarded as settled. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 145 

During the great heat of summer, ammonia may occasion accidents. It 
would be well therefore, to suspend its use during the months of June, July, 
and August. Such accidents as have been observed alwaj's occurred under 
the same conditions, and were of a uniform character. They affect chiefly 
plants whose vegetation is far advanced. The leaves turn yellow, wither, 
and fall; even though the atmosphere may be saturated with moisture, the 
evil extends to a certain number of leaves at the top, and the plant dies. 
This effect is the result of a certain failure of equilibrium between jthe 
quantity of the elements absorbed by the leaves and the roots. It is 
through the roots that mineral substances are supplied to plants. If the 
absorption of these substances goes beyond a certain limit, the plants can- 
not use all that they receive and they form a saline efflorescence on the sur- 
face of the leaves. If after a heavy rain the weather becomes dry, we ob- 
serve frequent examples of this sort of efflorescence upon the large leaves 
of cucurbitaceffi. 

When under different circumstances, the activity of the leaves exceeds 
that of the roots, the absorption of organic elements becomes predominant. 
For want of a sufficient supply of mineral matter, these elements cannot be 
usefully appropriated. Then a remarkable eft'cct is observed, that which the 
roots cannot yield to the plant it obtains within itself; and there is a re-ab- 
sorption of the mineral substances of a certain number of leaves. In na- 
ture we often see examples of this re-absorption of the older organs to the 
advantage of those more recently formed. If we break off a plant of Purs- 
lain when it is in flower and put it on a sheet of paper in the shade, the 
vegetation continues, the seed forms and ripens. Now in this case the min- 
eral substances contained in the seed could not be derived directly from the 
soil, but must therefore have been drawn from the tissues of the plant it- 
self. 

The following conclusions may be drawn from the observations above de- 
tailed. 

First — In the proportion of 4.10,000 ammonia added to the air imparts 
to vegetation a remarkable activity. 

Second — A given weight of the product tliiis obtained contains more ni- 
trogen than that of the same plant grown in the pure air. 

We may add, that periods may be selected for the use of ammonia iii 
which its influence causes very different effects. 

First — If wc commence the use of ammoniii two or three months before 
the flowering of the plant, vegetation follows its usual course, and do dis- 
turbance takes place in the successive phases of its growth. 

Second — If we begin to supply the gas at the moment of flowering, the 
formation of flowers is arrested or I'ctarded, the plant covers itself with 
leaves but produces no fruit. 
19 



146 



THE FLOIilST AND 



FLOWER GARDENS. 

In a former number you gave an illustrr»tion of a flower garden, intencled 
to be cut out on grass. ' The present design is to be traversed by gravel 
■\Milks edged vthh box — a system preferred by manj on account of the paths 
being accessible at all seasons, if the walks are properly made, ■vvlvich is not 
the case when grass forms the path. The arrangement in planting also dif- 
fers from the last ; the large beds in the figure are chiefly for the herbaceous 
plants, with a few choice flowering deciduous shrubs, as Forsythia viridissi- 
ma, Weigela rosea, various Spiraeas, Deutzias, Tree Paeonies, &c., inter- 
mixed. A few evergreens kept in neat shape, will give variety ; Swedish, 
Irish, and other varieties of Junipers will be suitable. The Hemlock Spruce 
forms an evergreen ball under judicious pruning. The herbaceous plants 
should be arranged with care, the tallest in the centre, leaving space at in- 
tervals for the introduction of Dahlias, Salvias, &c., in summer. The small 
beds surrounding the centre may be filled with dwarf growing plants — the 
whole arrangement, when viewed from' the inside, showing a gradual rise to 
the extremities. 




HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 147 

The centre may be occupied with a pedestal and dial, surrounded with a 
small rockwork overrun with suitable plants. A better effect will be obtain- 
ed if excavated in the form of a basin, supplied with water from a jet rising 
in the centre. Tliis will depend upon the facilities for a constant supply of 
•water. Many beautiful aquatic plants could be kept in a basin of this de- 
scription. Tlie e(]ging of box must be kept closely trimmed ; if allowed to 
get large its eftect and use are destroyed. Where a small piece of ground is 
set apart exclusively for flower culture, designs similar to the above give it 
at once a distinctive character, and is the most economical with regard to the 
filling of the ground. Wii. Saundeus. 



NEW OR RARE PLANTS, 

FLOWERED FOR THE FIRST TIME THIS SE.ISON, AT SPRINGBROOK. 

No. V. 

When I commenced th^se notices, I had no idea that any one would sup- 
pose me to intend to notice only those recently introduced from their native 
places of growth; yet I have been asked in another journal by what right I 
have included Mhodostemma gardenoidcs in my remarks. So far as I can 
judge by an extensive perusal of the catalogues and advertisements of the 
leading nurserymen, and by ocular advantages in the leading establish- 
ments, there is not another plant in America besides our own. If not, and 
our plant is just imported into America, it is nezo. If it does exist, it is lit- 
tle known, and therefore rare. In either case it comes under the head I have 
chosen to remark upon. I aim at usefulness, making no pretensions to ab- 
solute knowledge. As we aim in this establishment at possessing all beau- 
tiful novelties as soon as they can be obtained, I had an idea that my failures 
or successes in their cultivation, or my experience of their value or worth- 
lessness might benefit some of the readers of the " Florist." AVith this "de- 
claration of my intentions" I will proceed to describe. 

Caladium BICOLOR. This plant has been in cultivation in the English 
gardens nearly eighty years, and in this country it has existed in some col- 
lections under the name of Arum discolor for a long time. It is not near 
80 common as it ought to be. It has been here three years, and recently 
flowered for the first time with us. Tlie leaves alone give it attraction; they 
are ovate, about 9 inches long by 6 wide, and are of a rosy-piidc color, with 
a border about half an inch of pale green. When a leaf is put under water 
it presents a beautiful changeable silvery appearance. The flowers are spa- 
thaceous, like all the Arum family, about 3 inches h>ng by 2 wide ; it is of a 
pure waxy white, with the spadix or central coIuhh: vl' njalc llowers straw 



148 THE FLORIST AND 

color. It is highly orloriferous, and will remain in a succession of tloom 
three or four weeks ; it is just out of bloom in our Victoria house ; it thrives 
•well in a turfy loam in a moist and shady part of a stove. While growing it 
requires an abundance of water ; when it shows sj'niptoms of rest, moisture 
should be in smaller proportions but never entirely withheld. Received from 
Mr. Buist. 

PiiysuRUS ARGENTEUS. Another plant the principal attrnctions of which 
reside in its foliage. These are of a pale glaucous green, netted very regu- 
larly with silvery veins, resembling in that respect our own Rattlesnake 
Thdntain [Goodyera puhescens.) The flowers are small, white, with a black 
line down the centre of the lip and lateral sepals, and numerously placed in 
a conical form on a spike six or eight inches high. It thrives well in our 
orchideous house in turfy peat ; it does much better in a small than in a large 
pot ; it is a very scarce plant, and generally known in the gardens as Ancecto- 
cldlus argenteus. Dr. Lindley, who is the leading authority in the matter 
of orchideous plants, makes it a Physurus. Imported from Messrs. Low, of 
Clapton. 

Chysis beactescenS. Another Orchidea, as beautiful in its flowers as 
the former is in its foliage. Our plant, imported from Low two years ago, is 
just now in flower ; they appear in threes, on a stem about six inches long, 
arising from near the base of the past season's pseudo-bulb. Each flower is 
about two inches wide ; the column and lateral petals are white and thick, 
and the large gibbous lip striped with a gamboge yellow. It thrives best in 
a basket of broken charcoal, moss, and decaying wood ; and when growing, 
loves the application of the syringe several times a day. It does not require 
a very high temperature, from 50° to 60° doing as well as any. 

Lantana LILACINA. This is a species, perhaps but a variety, with the 
habit of L. erooea. The heads of flowers are about the size of that kind, of 
a dull -white when they first come out, afterwards changing to a fine bright 
lilac. It is of the easiest culture, thriving in well drained pots of rich loam 
iu a warm greenhouse. It seems inclined to bloom the whole season as it 
grows, and in that case will prove desirable as a bedding out plant. Our 
plant was obtained last summer from Messrs. Hovey. 

Gardoquia Hookerii. This is not a neiv plant to our neighborhood; but 
far rarer than it ought to be. It is a small bushy greenhouse shrub, always 
in flower, but never profusely so ; the leaves are like box, and the flowers 
come out in the axils about li inches long, of a deep red color. It thrives 
in sandy loam enriched with a little decayed leaf soil. Like the former, I 
imagine it would make a good bedding out plant. Our plant was obtained 
from Mr. Peter Mackenzie, of Philadelphia. This plant is said to be the 
Cunila ooccinea of Nuttal. Its botanical characters seem to difier widely 
from those of our native Cunila mariana. Its calyx, though hairy at the 
mouth, is irregularly cleft, with unequal segments ; the upper lip of the co- 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 149 

rolla is horizontal instead of erect, and the stamens are curved into each 
other instead of being spreading. Will any of our botanical friends explain? 

Phyllocactus ceexatus. The genus cereus of Haworth, has been 'split' 
by Link, the German authority for all cactus aifairs. His "Phyllocactus" 
comprises the ^^alati" or section 7 of cereusm "Pfeiffer's JEnumeratio cae- 
tearum," and for all practical purposes may be distinguished as Cereuses 
with flat stems. The present species is the finest of the division ; my plant 
is small, but produced this spring one flower ; the tube was nine inches long 
before expansion; the mouth measures five inches across when fully open; 
the outer petals are of a cream color, the inner ones pure white. The habit 
of tlie pLint resembles P. Aclcennanii, but the branches are more notched or 
crenated. The flower lasted but about a day perfect, after it was fully ex- 
panded. It thrives well in sandy loam mixed with some leaf mould and lime 
rubbish, receiving an abundance of water while growing, and but just enough 
to keep it from withering in the winter. 

Camellia, A. J. Downing. There have been so many good, bad and in- 
difl'erent Camellias making their appearance lately that we are incredulous 
of the superiority of any new candidate for popular favour. A. J. Down- 
ing, which Mr. Cope received early in the spring from its raiser Mr. Becar, 
of New York, is of a different stamp to many of the new ones ; they are 
mostly of the imhricata class ; this is more in the way of Sacco. The flowers 
are beautifully cupped, resembling in form and color a well grown Hermosa 
rose. The first flower that opened with us was finer than those exhibited at 
the April meeting of the society, being borne on the strong central shoot — 
the latter being from two very weak side ones. It is proposed by the raiser 
to sell the stock by subscription, and with the proceeds purchase a full sized 
portrait of Downing for some horticultural society. 

PiMELiA Verschafeltii. The old p. dccussata is well known, and the 
P. spectahilh scarcely less so. This much resembles the latter in habit, but 
the flowers are of a pure white, each seeming dotted with yellow, in conse- 
quence of the position of its two yellow anthers. It was received last fall 
from Messrs. Lee, of Hammersmith, London, and thrives well in a cool green- 
house, somewhat shaded, in sandy loam with a little peat. 

Tetratheca IIIRSUTA. This phint is one of a very pretty tribe of plants 
from New Holland, called by Brown Tronanclaccx. This species is often 
called a Tremandra in the nurseries, and also Tetratheca IlugcUi. The 
leaves are small, about the size of box leaves, but soft and papery, the flow- 
ers are purple, and come out as the plant grows singly from the axils of the 
leaves. It seems to be a free bloomer. We received our plant early in the 
spring from Mr. Buist, and it commenced blooming at once and continues as 
it grows. It docs well in turfy sandy loam, in a cool greenhouse. 

Thomas IMeeiian. 



150 THE FLOEIST AND 

" I would be glad to see in the "Florist" some instructions about drying 
and pressing plants and flowers, and preparing them for a Herbarium. 

"J. M. S." 

If we had space we would like to give all the hest methods of do- 
ing this. The simplest way is to jDrovide yourself with two flat 
boards, of proper size, and a quantity of bibulous paper ; to our 
knowledge there is none manufactured for the purpose in this coun- 
try; in England several persons make it. Having obtained a speci- 
men, place it carefully between sheets of unsized white paper, ar- 
ranging the leaves and flowers so as to show the formation of both 
to the greatest advantage; place these sheets between folds of other 
soft paper, in sufficient quantity to preserve the plant from crushing 
by the boards, and apply pressure by weights placed above — it is 
thought by some that pressure should be limited at first, but with 
sufficient joaper any amount may be given. The quicker the opera- 
tion is performed the more perfect will be the specimen, and the 
colors will be better j)reserved. By frequent changing of the paper 
and by great pressure, a plant may be dried in twenty-four hours. 
A simple press may be made by passing a rope around the boards 
and twisting a stick in it, after the manner of a tourniquet. In a 
future number we will give fuller directions on this subject. 



The Gardeners' Chronicle is advocatina; the jrrowth of the Deodar for 
timber. A corresponent of that journal says : " It is very certain that 
Deodar wood from ,its fineness of grain, strength and durability, is one of 
the most valuable of the timbers of the Himalayas. 



CALENDAR OF OPERATIONS. 

MAY JUNE. 

Flower Gaeden. — The beds and borders filled with the plants intended 
for the season's blooming, will still require attention. As fast as these plants 
in masses grow, they should be pegged down to the soil and encouraged to 
grow over the whole of the ground. The earth is shaded better by this prac- 
tice and the plants grow more in proportion. A few plants of many things 
should be retained in pots, so that any vacancies that may accidentally oc- 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 151 

cur, by the maturity of annuals or any other cause, may be supplied. Dah- 
lias will now be an object of attention ; the best soil for them is a rich loam, 
rather moist, and the best situation a cool one. Talips, Narcissus, and other 
bulbs are frequently taken up as soon as they have done flowering; the leaves 
should be quite dry first. When taken up dry them gradually in a shady 
place, then put them in a cool place till wanted. Auriculas and Double 
Primroses are generally killed by our hot summers, especially after heavy 
rains ; if growing in a sunny situation some method should be devised to 
shade them. The same may be said of the Pansy; with the greatest care 
these plants will often die out ; attention should be paid at this time to in- 
sure a young stock, both by seeds and cuttings. In saving seed, select for 
that purpose the best flowers — those that arelarge, well-formed and of mark- 
ed colors. Carnations and Pinks should be layered or struck early, so that 
they may be well rooted before winter ; I usually commence when they are 
just going out of flower. There is a growing taste for the Pfeony; they are 
beautiful, and may be much diversified by hybridizing and cross breeding. 
Being in bloom now, attention can be given to the subject. The Hollyhock 
also is making great progress in popular favor; they prefer a rich sandy loam 
and a rather dry situation ; they are well adapted to our climate, and ought 
to be more general. 

Brompton stocks, German Double AVallflowers, and other i/ewm'a^s intend- 
ed for next winter or spring flowering, should be sown at once, if not already 
done. Evergreens may still be planted; if possible, choose a time before an- 
ticipated rain, or give a good watering afterwards. In the neighborhood of 
Philadelphia within the last few years, evergreens have suffered much from 
scale and red spider. AVhen these are noticed the trees should receive an 
occasional syringing with soapsuds. If the weather should become dry, some 
flower beds, or plants in beds and borders will require watering ; as a gen- 
eral rule this should be avoided as much as possible ; frequent waterings do 
little good — nothing brings on mildew sooner. Rather prevent the necessi- 
ty by frequent stirring of the surface soil, or even by shading, where prac- 
ticable. It is often a practice to put the grass mown from the lawns around 
the roots of some things as a mulching for this purpose. Whenever a wa- 
tering must be done, let it be thorough, a "once for all" kind. Roses are 
commonly recommended to be budded early in June; in my opinion it is too 
early in most circumstances; I have found more failures in my own practice 
early in tlie summer than late in the fall. I shall have more to say on this 
subject next month. Lawns and walks will of course be kept mown short and 
clean, and well rolled after every heavy rain. Tidiness in all things is more 
looked for, and indeed more apparent at this season than at any other period 
of the year. " 



152 THE FLORIST AND 

Plants, and Plant Houses. All plants intended to be set out in their 
pots and tubs should go out at once ; choose situations for them partially 
shaded. Some "go against" this talk about shade. Plants in the sun when 
in pots require a large amount of water, which is liable to injure them — 
•when in partial shade they are safe, though they may not bloom quite so 
freely. Of the two evils, choose the least. Those plants left in the green- 
house will require as much air as possible ; if desirable to shade the glass a ' 
little, rye flour and milk boiled together till of the consistency of whitewash, 
and placed on the outside of the glass on a hot day^ will stay ou for the sea- 
son; if its permanency is not objectionable, a thin coating of white paint is 
as good as anything. 

New Holland Plants, Heaths, &c., under glass, will require much atten- 
tion as to regularity of air and water; an}' sudden change in either is apt to 
produce mildew. Tie them out as they grow, to make uniform specimens, 
and stop back any shoots that m.ay push forth stronger than the rest ; many 
kinds seed freely, which is one of the best modes of propagating them. If 
they are to be stood for the season out of doors, provision should be made to 
guard them from heavy .rainsj 

In the Hothouse much the same attention will he required. The Achi- 
menea and Gloxinia will require a good supply of water, if the sojl was as 
rough as it should be, and the pots well drained. Some of the Achimenes, 
&c., make better specimens if pinched back a time or two. Any plant that 
has filled its pot well with roots, and is still growing vigorously, as Torenia 
asiatica, Pentas carnea, Clerodendrons, &c., may yet receive another shift. 
Most of these soft-wooded stove plants do much better with guano water 
once a week — about half a pint of guano to 5 gallons of water. 

Vegetable Garden. — If attention has been paid to former calendars, lit- 
tle remains but to maintain a succession of desired crops. The autumn crops 
of Cabbage, Brocoli and Cauliflower will require our attention next. A deep 
rich loam, rather moist and cool, will raise fine crops. In planting out these 
I make all the holes with the dibble first, fill them with water, let them stand 
a few hours, and then put in the plants. I do not water afterwards. While 
they are growing occasional manure water is Very advantageous. When the 
Celery has grown a few inches high, prick out into beds of rich soil in a moist 
shaded situation; it always does best when thus removed before its final trans- 
planting. It is a very good plan to sow a few Radish Beet about this time, 
as they will keep much longer good than those sown earlier. The hoeing, 
thinning and weeding of crops will of course receive constant attention ; 
wherever time can be afforded to apply manure water, most crops will be con- 
siderably aided thereb/. T. J. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 153 



FRUIT. 

In coritiriuation of our remarks on pruning grapes, tlie next system to be 
considered is '' alternate spurring." Tliis method is an improvement upon 
close spurring, and may be briefly explained as follows: In close spur prun- 
ing it is customary to cut tlie shoot down to one eye or bud, thus sacrificing 
more prominent and better developed buds farther from the stem. To ob- 
viate this, and at the same time secure the advantages of close pruning, it is 
becoming a practice with some of our most successful grape growers to se- 
lect a prominent bud and prune down to it without reference to its distance 
from the main stem, at the same time cutting out all the eyes below it ex- 
cept the one at the base of the shooc. When growth commences, of course 
these two buds thus retained will form two shoots, of which the one at the 
extremity is to bear fruit, the lower one merely to form a shoot to bear next 
year's crop ; if any fruit makes appearance it is promptly removed. The 
summer management of these is exceedingly simple ; the fruit-bearing shoot 
has its point pinched out two or three leaves beyond the bunch, and all sub- 
sequent growth checked in order to strengthen the fruit. The non-bearing 
shoot is also checked when it has made ten or twelve leaves ; and when the 
fruit is ripe the branch that bore it is cut clean out. The shoot left for next 
year will undergo the same treatment as its predecessor, viz. pruned to a 
prominent bud, and cut out all the others except the lower one. This sys- 
tem insures a larger amount of elaborating foliage than is the case with close 
pruning, and is probably the best that can be adopted whore a variety of 
vines are grown in a limited space ; but it is faulty so far that there is little 
or no extension of the* main stem, and also the small extent of foliage tends 
gradually to impair the longevity of the plant. 

On the other hand where permanency is an object, we incline to the opin- 
ion that the long cane renewal system is preferable to either of the modes 
mentioned. "We are aware that it is unfashionable at present, and scouted 
by those who, having a fanciful idea of the great gross feeding propensity of 
the vine, present it with everything in the shape of pianure that can be 
thought of, and are evidently more impressed with the size of the leaves than 
the size of the bunches. In the f ice of all this, and having had our own 
share in grape management, wo will piucced to describe what we consider 
the best method of grape pruning. 

The first year the vine should be allowcil to' extend almost at random, 
neither pinching oIT a lateral or a tendril; this will establish a strong base of 
roots. In the winter pruning this growth should be divested of all side 
shoots and shortened to eight or ten feet ; the second year this shoot will 
produce a few bunches of fruit. The leader from it should again be allow- 
20 



154 THE FLORIST AND 

ed to extend to the extremity of the rafter and then stopped; the side fruit- 
bearing shoots are to be stopped at the second leaf beyond the bunch, at the 
same time a shoot is to be encouraged from near the bottom of the cane, not 
subjected to any stopping whatever. In the winter pruning the shoots that 
produced fruit are cut clean out. and the two leading shoots cut down to 
suitable lengths as before. The third season there will be a crop of fruit 
the ■whole length of the rafter, but produced on separate canes, viz. the lower 
portion will fruit on the shoot encouraged from the bottom last year, and the 
top on the last year's growth of the older cane. The summer pruning now 
will consist in pinching the points out of the fruit-bearing shoots the same 
distance as before ; all growth should be checked on the lower portion of the 
old cane, except one shoot to be encouraged from the bottom, and at the 
•winter pruning the oldest -cane is removed altogether, and young one takes 
its ]]lace. By this means an old cane is cut out yearly, and a young one in- 
troduced. This in practice need not be rigorously adhered to, as the canes 
can be fruited two or three seasons on spurs. 

The advantages to be derived from a system of renewal are, 1st. The 
young growths that are produced yearly, keep the roots in constant healthy 
action, in consequence of the large area of elaborating foliage. 2d. The 
canes producing fruit can be managed on the spur method, and the fruit en- 
larged by close stopping, without injury to the health of the plant. 3rdly. 
It is considered that the fruit is less liable to mildew when produced on 
young, vigorous wood ; and 4tlily. The cutting out of a cane in winter 
after the leaves have performed their functions, strengthens rather than 
■weakens the plant. In close spurring the plant will ■•yearly show less and 
less vigour. On the contrary when managed as ;ibove, they will increase in 
strength, and send forth vigorous growths. This way of managing vines is 
not new ; indeed, it was at one time the prevailing mode, but since the in- 
troduction of excessively rich borders, and the consequent production of 
lu.xuriiint wood, a few heavy crops are produced, even although the canes 
are cut yearly as smooth as a walking-stick. We confess to having at one 
time a high opinion of spur pruning, but more extensive observation and 
experience has fully convinced us of its inferiority. In the case of vines 
trained under the roof of a greenhouse, or where other plants were in the 
body of the house, then we would adopt the alternate spur in preference to- 
any other, and even then would introduce a young cane every 5th or 6tli 
year, and cut the old ones out by degrees. Summer pruning and close 
stopping undoubtedly invigorates the present crop, but is injurious to the 
plant,, unless very skilfully managed. The summer management in this re- 
spect also depends very much upon the mode of winter pruning to be 
followed. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 155 

Peaches. Now is the time to steal a marcli on the "borer." Remove a 
little of the surface soil from about the roots of the trees, and if there is 
^much gumminess observable clear it away, and follow up the depredator, and 
if possible put an end to bis life. Prevention is better than cure. It is, 
indeed, doubtful whether the cutting and paring practised by many in order 
to find the worm, is not productive of more harm than good. Make a small 
mound of wood or coal ashes, lime or coal dust, round the stem, which will 
have a tendency to prevent the insects from doing further injury. Blistered 
leaves frequently make their appearance, and are generally considered to be 
occasioned by green fly. We consider these to proceed from sudden and 
extreme changes of the temperature, having observed its appearance when 
no fly was visible. x 

DisBCDDiXG. Where trees are growing very luxuriantly the extreme 
points of young shoots should now be pinched out, and any young shoot 
that makes its appearance where it is not wanted should be rubbed ofi". — 
Trees can be managed in this way so as to render winter pruning a trifling 
operation. We hope to live to see the time when all pruning will be per- 
formed during summer. 

MuLCUiNG. This is a very important and necessary operation, especially 
on young ami newly planted trees. A layer of short grass, manure, hay or 
straw, laid over the roots, will prevent rapid evaporation, and keep an equa- 
ble degree of moisture in the soil, and answer a better purpose than frequent 
applications of water. S. B. 



Glazing Saphes without Putty. — In your " Pietrospcctlve View of the 
Progress of Horticulture for 1852," you speak of a writer in the Philadel- 
phia Florist, who thinks the mode of glazing without puttying the glass, is 
new, and should be called "American." Whether you were the first to adopt 
it in this country or not, I cannot say; but this I do know, that it neither 
originated with you, nor with the writer in the Philadelphia Florist. Tiic 
mode has been practised, to my knowledge, over twenty years in England, 
and some of the handsomest hothouses in that country are glazed in that man- 
ner. I remember a carpenter making a number of hotbed sashes and glaz- 
ing them in this inannei% some twenty years ago; but the gardener for wliom 
they were made, refused to have them, and the carpenter had to take them 
back and putty in the glass. The system has never found much favor with 
builders of hothouses, more from a want of a thorough knowlcilgeof the pro- 
per manner of doing it than anything else ; and 1 have never employed a 
glazier in this country to whom I have not had to explain this method of set- 
ting glass, before they would commence willi the woik. The method has 



156 THE FLORIST AND 

some advantages over our common glazing, as you state in your remarks ; but 
it has disadvantages also; and wlien tlie rebates are very irregular, as is of- 
ten the case, in sashes made by machinery, find especially on curvilinear 
houses, as generally constructed, the ■work is bad. In fact, the method can- 
not be adopted, -n-ith any chance of making a good job, unless the rebate be 
regular and welf made. I have, the past year, glazed over two hundred 
sashes in this manner; and -when the work is properly execiited, I consider it 
the best method of setting small sized glass. But the system is neither new 
nor American; and I ara surprised that neither you, nor the Philadelphia 
Florist, knew this before. Yours, truly, R. B. IiEyciiAlis (inHovey's Ma(J.) 
Roxhury, Jan. 1853. 

We are very hajjpy to liave such a companion in ignorance as 
Mr. Hovey ; we believe that the S3'stem was mentioned in his ma- 
gazine before noticed in this, but we were not aware of it at that 
time. But if any person has been induced to try a better mode of 
glazing by what we said on the subject, Ave care not whether it be 
American or English, old or new, so that the good cause is advanc- 
ed.— Ed. 



PENNSYLVANIA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The stated monthly meeting of this Association occurrred on Tuesday 
evening. May 17, in the Chinese Saloon, Philadelphia, Dr. "VV. D. Erinckle, 
V. P., in the chair, 

The display on the occasion was one of interest, consisting of many fine 
specimens of greenhouse plants and esculents, betokening much skill in cul- 
tivation. Of the former a. few of the choicest might be noticed. In Mr. 
Buist's collection, shown by Thos. Fairley, foreman, were remarkably well- 
grown specimens oi Azalea MaitJandii, A. varicgata, Ixora coccinea, Alstrse- 
meria hicolor, Calceolaria, Bletia hi/acintJiioules, and a dozen pots of indigen- 
ous plants. J. F. Knorr's gardener, John Bell, presented a collection not 
in competition. A beautiful plant of Deutzia (/racilis, for the first time 
shown ; Nieremhergia gracilis, very pretty ; Scutellaria Ventenatii; fragrant 
Cestrum axirantiacum, Jasmimun gracile, a dozen Geraniums, as many Cin- 
erarias, 9-nd a number of Calceolarias of much beauty. Thomas Meehan, 
gardener to Caleb Cope, brought Physuriis argenteus, Ohysis bractesceng, 
both «e?(', and shown for the first time. Statice Dicksonia, rare. Allamanda 
nereifo,lic(, good specimen; Fahian,a imhricata and Fuchsia Diadem. Also; a 
dcsii^'n and baskets of cut flowers; in the latter was the 105th flower of Vic- 
oriq, Regia, from the origipal plant, and a basket of wild flowers. Isaac 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 157 

Collins, gardener to the President, had a large and fine plant of Euphorbia 
splendens. 

Wm Grassie, gardener to W. W. Keen, West Philadelphia, exhibited q, 
specimen of Iloya imperialis, new, and for the first time seen, 'a magnificent 
plant ; a new Pelargonium called Madame Rosaltii, of peculiar markings ; a 
fine specimen of Calceolaria magna lutea, and many other choice species. — 
James Bisset, gardener to Mr. Dundas, exhibited a fine specimen of Azalea 
variegata, Gloxinia, and other select plants. Adam Uber brought a large 
collection of Pelargoniums in the finest state of cultivation. A. Parker had 
a table of native plants. Thomas Meghran, gardener to R. Cornelius, ex-t 
hibited a handsome design and a basket of phoice flowers. 

On the fruit table were several dishes of grapes. From Mr. Cope's houses 
were the white Frontignac and Black Hamburg. From J. Fisk Allen, Sa- 
lem, Mass., a bunch of his seedling. Black Hamburg and seedling Musque 
verdel ; also the Grizzly Frontignac and Verdelho, parents of the seedling. 

And among the extensive collection of vegetables, were Cucumbers, forced 
Potatoes, Cauliflowers, &c., by Thomas Meghran, gardener to R. Cornelius. 
Fine Sea Kale, Cauliflowers, Tomatoes, Asjiaragus, &c., by Thomas Meehan, 
gardener to C. Cope. Rhubarb, of mammoth proportions, by Samuel 
Cooper — one leaf and petiole weighing three pounds and three-quarters. — 
Fine Rhubarb, two kinds, by Wm. Hobson. Wm. Jones exhibited a dish of 
French Beans, Tomatoes, and Beets. Enormous Asparagus, by J. M, 
Tage. 

Reports of the Committees for awarding premiums on plants and flowers j 
Pelargoniums — for the best and second best, to Adam Uber ; for the best 
six specimens, to Thomas Meehan, gardener to C. Cope. Tulips — for the 
best twelve to Thomas Fairley, foreman to Robert Buist ; for the second 
best, to Thomas Meehan. Plants in pots — for the best collection, to Thos. 
Fairley ; for the second best, to Thos. Meehan. Plant in a pot — for tho 
best, to Isaac Collins, gardener to Gen. Patterson, for Euphorbia splendens. 
Indigenous Plants — for the best display, to Thos. Fairley. Plants shown 
for the first time — to William Grassie, gardener to W, W. Koen, W. P., 
a premium of five dollars for Hoya imperialis, in bloom for the first time 
in this country, it is believed ; and to Thomas Fairley, a premium of three 
dollars, for a fine collection of Geraniums, exhibited for the first time. — 
Bouquet designs — for the best, to Thos. Meghran ; for the second best, to 
Thos. Meehan ; for the best hand bouquet, to Robert Kilvington. Basket of 
cut flowers — for the best, to Thos. Meehan ; for the second best, to Thomas 
Meghran ; for the best of indigenous flowers, to the same. A special pre- 
mium for a fine collection of plants, to James Bisset, gardener to James 
Dundas, and for a basket of indigenous flowers, to Thos. Median. 



158 THE FLORIST AND 



On Fruits— Grapes—for the best three bunches, the White Frontignac, 

• to Thos. Meehan, gardener to C. Cope. The Committee noticed specimens' 

of two fine Seedling Grapes, from John Fisk Allen, of Salem, Mass., which 

they think worthy of a more detailed notice in their next ad interim 

report. 

On Vegetables— CMCMm5ers— for the best brace, to Thos. Meghran.— 
JRhubarb— tor the best twelve stalks, and for the second best, to Wm. Hob- 
son. Asparagus — for the best twenty-four stalks, to James M. Tage ; for 
the second best, to Thos. Meehan. Feas — for the best half peck, to Thos. 
Meghran. Potatoes — for the best half peck, to the same. For the best 
display of Vegetables by an amateur, to Thos. Meghran ; for the second 
best, to Thos. Meehan. And a special premium to Samuel Cooper, for a 
very fine display of Rhubarb, brought in too late for competition. The 
Committee called the attention of the Society to a dish of French Beans> 
Plum Tomatoes and Beets, shown by Wm. Johns. 

Ad Interim Repokt. 
The Fruit Committee respectfully submit, as usual, an ad interim Report 
on the specimens of Fruits submitted to their examination since the last 
meeting of the Society : 

From Charles Kessler, of Reading, Pa. — Tlie Pfeiffer Apple — noticed 
and described in the Report for April, but not then sufficiently mature for 
testing, has since been examined, and is regarded as of '■'■good" quality. 

From John Cforgas, of Delaware — The Freeze and Thatv Apple — grown 
on the farm of his father, in Roxbury Township, Philadelphia County, 
Pennsylvania. Size medium ; conical ; profusely striped and mottled with 
bright red on a yellow ground, with a number of light dots, and frequently 
one or more white splashes near the base ; stem three- fourths of an inch 
long, slender, inserted in a wide, deep, acuminate cavity, partially russetted ; 
calyx small, closed, set in a moderately wide, superficial, wrinkled basin ; 
flesh of fine texture, but deficient in flavor, and on that account can scarce- 
ly be considered of "good" quality, if the specimens were cut at the proper 
time. Mr. Gorgas informs us that it may be loft on the tree till it repeat- 
edly freezes and thaws, without sustaining injury : hence the name. 

From Charles Kessler, of Reading — A Red Apple — below medium size, 
which originated on the premises of Mr. Hains, of Pricetown, Berks County, 
Pennsylvania. Form roundish oblate ; skin thin, striped and marbled with 
bright red, and marked with numerous whitish dots near the crown ; stem 
loufT, rather slender, inserted in an open, deep cavity ; calyx large, set in a 
wide, rather deep, slightly plaited basin ; the bright red stripes remain im- 
printed on the fruit after the delicate skin has been removed; the coloring 
matter penetrating and partially staining the otherwise whitish flesh, which 
is exceedingly tender and of fine texture; flavor agreeable; quality '■'■very 
good." 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 159 



From Charles Kessler, of Beading— The Speclded 0%— from Oley 
Township, Berks County, Pa. This Apple is said to be beautiful when in 
perfection, and usually one-third larger than the specimens sent to us. 
Size two and a half inches by two and five-eighths ; roundish; striped and 
mottled with red on a greenish yellow ground, and thickly covered with 
large white dots, most of which contain a russet speck in the centre ; stem 
three eighths of an inch long, by one-tenth thick, inserted in a very narrow, 
acute cavity, sometimes russetted; calyx small, set in a shallow, furrowed 
basin; seed long and of a light yellowish brown color ; flesh rather dry and 
mealy, but with a pleasant flavor ; being over-ripe, an accurate judgment 
could not be formed of its quality. 

From Charles Kessler, of Heading — ^4. large greenish yellow Apple, 
with a faint brown cheek; roundish, inclining to conical, and somewhat an- 
gular ; stem short, rather stout, and fleshy at its junction with the branch ; 
cavity acute, narrow, russetted in the rays ; calyx small ; basin moderately 
deep, not wide, furrowed ; flesh tender, juicy ; as the specimens were over- 
ripe, the quality could not be accurately ascertained. 

From Charles Kessler, of Reading — Neiutoivn Pippin, from Berks 
County ; large ; roundish oblong ; greenish yellow, with faint broad stripes 
of red on the side exposed to the sun. Not true to name, and not equal in 
quality to the genuine Newtown Pippin. 

From Mr. iSlingluff. — Beautiful specimens of pears, from a tree pur- 
chased for the Catillac,. but which proves to be Uvedale's St. Grermain. The 
latter is distinguished from the former in being pyriform ; while the Catillac 
is broadly turbinate. Both are valuable onij' for culinary purposes, and 
one of them (Uvedale's St. Germain) is familiar to us under the name of 
Found Pear. 

From Jonathan Baldwin, of Bowningtown. — Pears labelled St. Germain; 
which we regard as not true to name. They were not in good condition when 
received, and we were consequently unable to test their quality. Mr. Bald- 
win, however, who is a distinguished pomologist, has expressed so favorable 
an opinion of the variety, that we have drawn up the following description 
of it, from the specimens lie sent us : large ; obovate pyriform ; greenish 
yellow, with a brownish red cheek ; stem an inch long by one-sixth thick, in- 
serted without depression ; calyx set in a deep, narrow, sometimes wide ba- 
sin ; seed very large ; flesh yellowish white, juicy ; specimens not in a con- 
dition for us to determine the flavor and quality. 

From Br. Bertolet, of Oley Township, Berks County, Pa., through 
Charles Kessler, of Reading. — The Boas Apjjlc, which was introduced into 
Oley, about flfty years ago, by the llev. Mr. Boas, of Heading, from Exe- 
ter Township, where it is known as the Keltcr: Jledium size; roundish ob- 
late ; deep crimson in stripes of diflerent hues, with one or more whitish 
yellow blotches near the base, sometimes only faintly striped with red on a 
greenish yellow ground ; stem very short and thick, inserted in a moderately 



160 THE FLORIST ANt) 



deep, not very wide cavitj ; calyx set in a plaited basin variable in size nn^ 
form, sometimes superficid and wide, sometimes rather deep and narrow ; 
core small ; seed very smdll, plump, acuminate, greyish brown ; flesh yel- 
lowish white, crisp; flavor pleasant ; quality "very good." Said to be along 
keeper* Six contributing members were elected; On motion aidjourried. 

T. P. James, Etc; Sec. 



THE GARDENERS' SOCIETY. 

$he second Annual e'xhibition of this Society, was held in the upper and 
loSver Saloons of the Chinese Museum, commencing on Tuesday, the lOtli 
irist., and continuing open until Friday evening. The object of the associa- 
tion is to form a fund for the relief of sick and infirm gardeners and their 
families. The weather during the week was rather wet, thus preventing so 
large an attandance as might have been expected. The upper Saloon and 
the' nliddle range of tables in the lower Saloon, were occupied by collections 
from! the houses of the amateurs of the city and its neighborhood. Beauti- 
ful specimens of the exotics which are cultivated here, from the tall and 
graiceful Acacia), to the humble Lycopodium, with its beautiful shades of 
green, the rare Palms and Conifers, the singular and gorgeous Orchids, all 
added to the display. From the principal nurseries around were displays of 
blooming plants for sale ; at this season the roses make the most interesting^ 
display. The Calceolarias and Cinerarias, from Mr. Richardson, of New 
York, were on a side table, and were much admired. Among the new and: 
Beautiful plants exhibited were Saccolabmm guttatum, an Orchid in Mr.' 
Dundas's collection; and two beautiful specimens of Cattleya from that of 
Br. James Rush; Mr. Ferguson, of Laurel Hill, had a fine plant in bloom* 
of Fortune's double yellow rose, which has been condemned by most of our 
gardeners ; but this specimen went some way towards changing their opinion 
of it. Taken altogether the display was a very creditable one, and we 
hope that the funds of this useful institution were benefitted by it. 

-♦ 

Mr'. J. F.-^We arc sorry to have ofi'ended you, but we cannot expect to 
please every one — we must do the best we can ; the fact of all your com- 
munication not being published, does not intimate that it was not worthy. 
The editor is certainly young,- but as you have made more sound on this 
occasion than we have, we really don't see the application of your remark 
about empty vessels. We cannot return communications, as we do not 
preserve them ; it is not the rule of any paper to return them. 

Erkata in Garden Memoranda, p. 117. In the notice of Bartram, for 
"Qaercus alba, 13 feet in circumference and 5 feet high," read 85 ; and for 
" British Oak, I. pedunculata, 7 feet in circumference and 3 feet high," read 
83. 




Fortune's Double Yellow rose. 



AID EORTICULTUEAL JOMML. 

Yol. II.] Philadelphia, June, 1853. [No. 6. 

FORTUNE'S DOUBLE YELLOAY, OR WANG-JANG-VE ROSE. 

The common name of this rose indicates with sufficient clearness 
its origin. The following details will make known both its history 
and its merit as an ornamental plant. 

"The Rose about which you ask of me an account," writes Mr. 
Fortune to Messrs. Standish & Noble, "was discovered by me in the 
garden of a rich mandarin at Ningpo. It entirely covered an old 
wall- At the time of my visit the brilliant masses of its yellow 
and salmon flowers produced the most wonderful effect. The Chi- 
nese call it Wang-jong-ve or yelloyv rcse. lis flowers however, vary 
somewhat in color, a circumstance to my taste, very advantageous 
to the beauty of the bush. I thought it distinct from all known va- 
rieties, and certainly from all those of China. It is admirably 
adapted for covering the walls of a garden, especially if the rich- 
ness of the soil permits it to attain its full development and reveal 
all its beauties." * * * * "Now that the enlightened culture of 
Messrs. Standish & Noble has given it all advantages, there is no 
doubt but that it will take a distinguished rank among our flowering 
roses." 

To understand a part of this last sentence, it must be known that, 
when this rose first flowered in England, on account of a bad sys- 
tem of cultivation, it showed itself much inferior to its reputation, 
and judged by these first appearances, was considered as shy-flower- 
ing, and indifferent in shape, in size and in color. From this judg- 
ment Messrs. Standish & Noble can happily appeal. Thanks to 
their system of cultivation the bush jiroduces in abundance these 
beautiful flowers of which the original colors, says Sir W. Hooker, 
cannot be faithfully reproduced in painting, and which is compared 

to a ground of amber delicately washed with a tint of carmine. 
^1 



162 THE FLORIST AND 

The flowers of this rose not being known but in the double stated 
it is almost impossible to determine botanically if it was derived by 
way of seed from a wild species or a cultivated Tariety, or whether 
it is the product of hybridization. The question must therefore 
rest, until more ample information is obtained. 

J. E, Planchon. 

The judgment of American rose culturists has been liitherto 
unanimous a.gainst any merit in this rose ; perhaps proceeding frora 
the same want of proper culture from which it suffered in England. 
Messrs. Standish & Noble say that the want of success of the first 
attempts in its cultivation proceeded from the fact that the shoots 
were shortened in as for ordinary standard roses. To diminish the 
branches of one .year, is to take aAvay the bloom; as with this, as 
with the Persian Yellow and Banksian roses the flowers are borne 
on the wood of the preceding 3'ear. The number of the shoots 
must only be diminished, and the rest not at all shortened. With 
this simple precaution, joined to the choice of a rich soil, the plant 
becomes very free-flowering." 

The Horticultural editor of "The Soil of the South," a valuable 
paper published at Columbus, Georgia, in the last issue says of this 
rose, "This gem of the Celestials has opened its petals and is more 
than we ever dreamed of m beauty ; though not as large as the 
LaMarck, or quite as double, it is of the most exquisite yellow. The 
Cloth of Gold does not compare with it. It is a free grower, having 
already made wood four feet long this season." After such praise 
it cannot be so' utterly worthless as some have represented it to be. 

Ed. 



NOTES ON ROSE CULTURE, 
BY A LOVER OF ROSES. (Continued.) 

To those who are entirely unacquainted with the true color, har- 
diness, quality, &c., I conceive the following will make a fine as- 
sortment, laying aside all puffs of sellers, growers, and catalogue 
makers — age or price. I may also be allowed to begin with the 
family that I am most partial to ; although I grow more than 50 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 163 

— ^ 

sorts I am satisfied that two thirds of them are quite dispensable, re- 
ducing tbein to a dozen and a Iialf : admitting these, -vve have left 
tlie following very desirable sorts of Bourbons : . 

Acidalie, nearly white. 

Desgaches, satin rose- 

Dupctit Thouars, bright crimson. 

Desfosses, Avaxy pink. 

George Cuvier, large carmine. 

Henry Clay, large, bright rosy red. 

Herriiosa, pale rose. 

Lavine d'Ost, waxy pink, in large clusters. 

Levesoa Gower, large, pale purplish rose. 

Malani Angelina, creamy white. 

Madam Newman, large bright rose, very fragrant, does not open 
well in the earl_y part of the season; often called monthly cabbage. 

Mrs. Bosanquet, creamy blush. 

Paul Joseph, bright scarlet, crimson. 

Prince de Joiuville, purple crimson. 

Queen of Bourbons, creamy blush. 

Souvenir d'Anselm, or Enfant d'Ajaxxio, bright red, fragrant, and 
a good climber. 

Souvenir do la Malmaison, very large, blush, with a pink centei-. 

Vicomte de Cusey, \evy large, rosy carmine. 

Some, I dare say, will think that theu* favorites are lef^ out, but 
amongst so many there are numbers similar ; Ucrmosa, Pierre de 
St. Cyr, Herseline and Marianne, are all pink colois. So are the 
following bright crimsons, Souchet, Dupetit Thouars, Julie de Fon- 
tenellc, Prince de Joinville, Dcuil du Due d'Orlcai;.'^, and splondci s. 
Madam Desprez, Marquis d'Ossay, Lavina d'Ost, and Madam Aude 
are also in close family likeness. Those who wish a few good 
climbers with Souvenir d'Anselni, should add Bouquet de Flore, La- 
dy C:.nuing, and Triomphe de la nurliere. IMaiiy admire Gk>ire 
de RosLnnene for a climber, but it is ,«o simple in its blossoms; 
thouMi its profu.seness of bloom and brilliancv of color in some de- 
orce compensate for its deficiency of form. If the Bourbon roses 
had only more fragrance (which few of them linve) (hey would be 
the o'cneral favorites of all rose lovers, I'or tlie\- enmljiue every 



164 THE FLORIST AND 



color, are constantly in bloom and very perfect in form, and whether 
grown as dwarfs, standards or Pillar plants, they are beautiful the 
whole growing season , 

Tea Roses. These possess all the fine characters of beaiity and 
fragrance, but are A'ery deficient in variety of colors, being nearly 
all white to deep rose, no i-eds nor crimsons. Another drawback 
upon their general gai-den culture with us is their tenderness. They 
must have a dry sheltered situation, and be well protected in win- 
ter with brush, leaves, litter or cedar branches. My best plants jire 
on a mound where they are entirely shaded from the sun in winter, 
and I assure you they command much admiration, and my frieifids 
esteem them above all others for their delightful perfume. Nothing 
that I have yet seen can compare in that with the magnolia rose, 
its fragrance is not excelled by any. There is one drawback to the 
general culture of this class of roses, they are rather delicate and 
are often killed to the ground ; in this vicinity they must have very 
rich, light sandy soil, 'keeping thera moist in summer and dry in 
winter. We grow ov>!r 40 sorts, n^any of them very similar, and a 
few not worth notice compared with the following, that are very 
splendid. 

Adam, flesh color, very large and pendulous, rather tender. 

Antherose, very large, creamy white, a strong hardy grower. 

Bougere, waxy blush, very large, blooms best in warm weather, 
a strong grower and hardy. 

Caroline, bright pink, large flower. 

Comte de Pafis, very like Botigere, but palei', and of the finest 
formation. 

Devoniensis or Magnolia Rose, creamy white, with a pink cen- 
ter, large, and pecnlifirly fragrant ; I do not think there is a rose of 
more agi'eeable odor; rather tender, 

Hippolyte, white, a strong grower and profuse bloomer. 

La Sylphide, creamy buff, 

Madan; Bravy, pure white, very large. 

Mareschal Bugeaud, salmon color, a strong grower. 

Maria, large, bright pink. 

Safrano, beautiful orange, desirable for its bud only, for when 
fully expanded it is yexy simple. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 165 

Soiiveair d'une Amie, an improvement on Princess Maria, a strong 
grower of a rich rose color. 

Triomphe de Luxembourg, large, salmon color, desirable for its 
free growth and profuse bloom in hot weather. 

Vicomte de Gazes, J^right yellow, of rather weak growth very 
distinct. 

There are several others of equally fine character and beauty that 
are nearly related to some of the aboA'e ; for instance, Madam Wil- 
lermoz, Nephetos, and Clara Sylvain are three fine whites. La Reine, 
Goubault, Moire, and Lyonnais are all fine, and approach Mareschal 
Bugeaud or Triumph of Luxembourg. I succeed admirably wit h 
the Tea Roses budded on low strong stocks; they are more hardy, 
make fine strong growths, and their heavy pendulous flowers are 
kept from the ground ; being convinced of this, I am endeavoring 
to have them all on stocks about 18 inches or two feet high. Those 
who grow them in moi-e favored clijnates should procure them aU 
gn their own roots or budded very low. 

[To be continued.'] 



LESCHENAULTIA FORMOSA. 

This although by no means a rare plant, is very rarely seen in 
good health. To produce it in perfection requires a little more 
careful treatment than is given to an Abutilon or a Salvia. There 
is no real difficultj' in the management of New Holland plants, pro- 
vided a proper course of culture is pursued. Although the weather 
is neither brighter nor warmer here than in man}^ parts of Austra- 
lia, still it is found necessary under artificial treatment to shade and 
protect them from the direct influence of the natural atmosphere at 
certain seasons. It is too much a practice to treat all plants alike. 
Have you got all yom- plants out yet? is a question frequently asked 
about this time, and one I cannot understand. In a collection of 
greenhouse plants at all worthy of the name, a constant change and 
re-arrangement is requisite, some requiring full exposure to the at- 
mosphere, others young and tender requiring artificial atmosjihcre 
suited to their conditions. The growing season even in the most 
arid and warm climates is characterised by frequent rains, and still 



166 THE FLORIST AND 

moist atmosphere. The approach of the dry season induces matu- 
ration of growth. The aridity of tlie air and intense heat of the 
sun, solidifies the tissue to a degree seldom attainable under artifi- 
cial cultivation, and vegetation is thus enabled to withstand ex- 
tremes both of heat and cold. Hence plants of Acacias, Hovea, 
Eucalypti and others, in their respective countries are subjected to 
many degrees of frost without injury. 

In greenhouses, circumstances ai-e widely different; although much 
may be done in imitation of this natural treatment ; by a gradual 
withdrawal of water duiing autumn, until a perfect state of rest 
was induced, I have subjected many hothouse plants to a few de- 
gress of frost without any apparent injury. Under similar treat- 
ment orange trees have been subjected to 12 deg. of frost and re- 
mained unhurt. 

It is obvious that proper treatment during the growing period is 
the most important item in the culture of exotic plants. One mau 
will Sethis Camellia plants out of doors Avhile they are making a 
growth, the .young shoots are dried up ; an efl'ort to a second growth 
is, made which is not properly matured, and flowers are produced 
sparingly if at all. Another will keep his jilants in a somewhat 
shady house, well supplied with atmospherical moisture, until the 
young shoots show sj-mptoms of ripening. Exposure to a drier at- 
mosphere at this period will still further check growth, and conse- 
quently favor a disposition to form flower buds. I have repeatedly 
observed that the most healthy and vigorous camellias and at the 
same time producing the greatest quantity of large well-developed 
flowers, were never exposed to the full influence of the weather, 
still it is not a tender plant. Planted in the open air in this lati- 
tude, it proves as hardy as the common Kalmia and Rhododendron, 
and has stood unprotected for the last nine years. 

There has been too much importance attached to the empirical 
composition of soils, under the supposition that each kind of plant 
required a peculiar combination of earths to maintain a healthy ex- 
istence. I am not aware of the facts upon Avhich the supposition is 
founded. If we take nature for our guide we Avill find plants grow- 
ing with equal luxuriance upon soils of a widely different charac- 
ter. I apprehend that skilful culture depends much more upon the 
physical condition and arrangement of the soil, and its relation to 
air and water. Some plants affect a dry and exposed locality, 



HORTICaLTURAL JOURNAL. 167 

others luxuriate in situations where these conditions are reversed. 
An interchange of soils would not be followed by any striking dif- 
ference but any attempt to grow the upland plant in the wet, 
shady bottom, would i3rove a decided failure. 

The principal feature in the culture of the L. Formosa is to se- 
cure it a shady, moist situation, in early summer, and protection 
from drying winds. A situation such as I recommended for Heaths 
at p. 39, will suit it admirably. In fact the whole tribe of New 
Holland and Cape plants, as Boronias, Epacris, Ericas, Pimelia, Eu- 
taxia, &c., require similar conditions while growing. WheQ growth 
is completed freer exposure will then be beneficial. These points 
of culture are generally recognised by practical cultivators. It is 
quite possible to keep plants alive under careless or indifferent treat- 
ment, but those who desn-e to see their plants in vigorous condi- 
tions, will not consider that a few months protection during winter 
is all that a plant requires. With some, "A plant's a plant, although 
there's no life in't." 

A fibry, sandy soil, largely mixed with pebbles, charcoal, &c., to 
insure porosity, seems a suitable soil for all greenhouse plants, the 
present subject included' thorough drainage is indispensable. A 
well drained turfy soil, protection from cold and arid winds, anci 
picking off all flower buds while growing, watering only when the' 
plant requires, and judicious pruning to form a handsome plant, will 
insure one of the most beautiful of greenhouse plants, both in fo- 
liage and brilliancy, and retention of its flowers. During winter 
it requires a season of rest, and should then receive a minimum' 
supply of water, otherwise a sickly yellow foliage will be the conse- 
quence, and an irrecoverable diseased condition will inevitably fol- 
low. Wm. Saunders. 

Baltimore, June 3, 1853. 



MANAGEMENT OF THE NECTARINE. 

Dear Sir : — If the "Florist" had done nothing since its com- 
mencement besides directing attention to the advantages of summer 
pruning, many of its readers would be amply rewarded. I am not 



168 THE FLORIST AND 

of opinion that winter priming will ever, or ought to be, entirely 
superseded ; but in our countrj- it will certainly do so to a very grfeat 
extent; Summer pruning; by reducing the quantity of foliage,- 
checks luxuriance, and induces fruitfulness ; while winter pruningy 
especially if effected early, lessens .the quantity of wood to be sup- 
ported by the roots, and thus induces a luxuriance not to be Other-" 
wise obtained. Without entering into the physiology of this mattei" 
which will be apparent to all acquainted with the functions and of- 
fices of leaves, wood, and roots, I will proceed to detail the mannei- 
in which I apply the principle in the cultivation of the rlectarine. 

Suppose the plant to be one year old from the bud, and required 
to be planted against the back wall or trellis in the nectarine house; 
I should have it planted immediately after the fall of the leaf, and 
cut down at once to three or fotir good eyes above the place of 
working, or bud. By this I shoiild get three ver}' luxuriant shoots 
the following year, to form the skeleton of the "fan" on which 
form to train it. Fruit for the first three years of the life of the 
tree is a secondary object, the chief one being to obtain a vigorous 
tendency ; therefore, the shoots obtained from the first year's winter 
pruning are suffered to grow as much as they will, no "finger and 
thumb" Avork is employed, every leaf and stem is carefully preserved 
to aid in collecting material for the strength of the main branches. 
A very common idea is, that "strong shoots are robbers." No 
such thing— every leaf and branch above a given point on a tree 
strengthens that part which runs below it. After the fall of the 
leaf, the last year's growth is cut in to within a few eyes of the 
former year's growth, as that season's had been done before it ; and 
the following season's growth will require the application of the 
principles of summer pruning. An eye will then have to be kept 
to the desired form of the future tree ; and after selecting such 
shoots as they burst forth, to be retained, the remainder, that are 
not required, are taken out entirely — '"disbudded." Thisjs the on- 
ly season in which I jsractise disbudding, or removing shoots en- 
tirely that are not wanted the next season. Thus, the third winter, 
provided soil, water, and other circumstances have been favorable, 
We have a luxuriant, healthy tree capable of bearing fair crops of 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 169 

fruit for half a century. Wherever more ■wood is required, the 
shoots in the immediate neighbourhood are shortened ; the rest, 
designed to' bear fruit, are left their full length. When the leaf 
buds burst the fijllowing spring, I carefully note what shoots are re- 
quired for fruiting purposes next season ; and when those I do not 
require have pushed about six or seven leaves in length, I pinch 
thera back to about three, so that my trebs are covered the whole 
season with shoot-like spurs, each beiiring about three leaves. Some- 
times, if very luxuriant, the pinched off shoots will burst again, 
when these secondary ones are pinched back to one, or taken out 
entirely, especially if at the top of the tree. These stopp'd off 
shoots never increase much in diameter ; their leaves are employed 
in strengthening the trunk, or in the formation of leaf buds. It is 
curious to seb tliem, if left till the spring, covered with spurs, 
giving the tree at a distance the appearance of a Plum, These are 
however, mostly cut off in the winter pruning, which cutting back 
of spurs is the only winter pruning they generally receive. Some- 
times a tree from overbearing, or some other cause becomes weak ; 
in that case as little summer pruning as possible is performed. 
From our trees, extending along th'e back v,%all of the nectarine house 
70 feet, my winter prunings would not fill a bushel measure. 

It will 1)3 observed that my sj'stem does away with two things, 
very gener.illy followed in nectarine management,' nameh% tvintcr 
pruning, and summer or spring disbudding — it is how pretty well un- 
derstood that if wood be the object and not fruit, prune in the 
winter ; on that score the advantage of mj' system will be apparent. 

The evils of disbulding are also being perceived by cultivatoi\s, 
the trees receiving a very injurious check from the sudden loss of 
such a mass of foliage. This has latterly become so apparent, that 
all good cultivators take several days for (he opei-ation, taking off 
but a few each time. This system docs a'.vay with this disadvan- 
tage also. In fact it seems to me to he as perfect r.s possible. Those 
who have seen the' specimens of truit that obtained the society's high- 
est prize last September, will bear witness to flic equr^Uty of the 
fruit, and I shall be happy at any time to exhibit the i'lealth and 
22 



170 THE FLORIST AND 

beauty of the trees to any who may pay a visit to Springbrook for 
the purpose of seeing trees managed on this system ; trees too that 
I had been advised by experienced horticulturists in times past to 
get removed, because they were beheved to be worn out and "done 
for." The system is, of course, equally applicable to the Peach. 

Thomas Meehan. 



The Gardener's Chronicle extracts from a new work on the 
vegetable cell by Von Mohl, the following remarks relating to the 
longevity of vegetation, which contain so mifch information, that 
we should consider ourselves as defrauding the readers of the Florist, 
if we did not copy them into its pages. 

" The peculiai'ity of their organization, nnd the unlimited power of growth 
of plants, offer many difficulties to the definition of the duration of pl;ints, 
and have given rise to many incorrect theories. Every individual cell, and 
every individual organ, has a determinate end to its life; hut the entire 
plant has not, since the individual' shoots run through their periods of de- 
velopment quite independently, and only share in the weakness of age of 
the older organs when these are no lon'ger able to convey to the young shoots 
the needful amount of nourishment, in iThich case tlie latter do not die from 
deficiency of vital energy, but are starved'. If therefore, depends wholly 
upon the mode of growth of a plant whether this occurs or not. When a 
plant possesses a thallus spreading horizontally by the growtli of its circum- 
ference, it can annually extend itself into a larger circle, after the old parts 
in the centre have been long decayed, as is seen in old' specimens of crus- 
taceous Lichens, in the fairy rings caused by fungi, &c. In like manner 
when a higher plant has a creeping stem, and possesses the power of send- 
ing out lateral roots near the vegetating points, and m this way conveys 
noun.vhment directly to the young terminal shoots, the letter are wholly in- 
dependent of the death of the older parts of the stem and of tlie primary 
I'oots, and there exists no internal cause for death in such a plant. It is 
truly a different plant every new year and vegetates in a new place, but there 
IS no definite boundary between it and its predecessors; such a plant is like 
a wave rolling over the surface of a sheet of water ; it is every moment 
another and yet always the same. Thousands of inconspicuous plants, of 
Mosses, Grasses, Rushes, fcc, have vegetated in this manner upon peatbogs 
and similar localities perhaps foF thousands of years. Plants with upiight 
stems are placed in much more unfavourable circumstances. It has been 
declared of these also, and particularly of the Dicotyledonous trees (De 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 17.1 

Candollk, 'Pliysiologie Vegotale,' ii. S84), that thej' have no internal cause 
for death, but I helieve incorrectly. Examples of very old trees, such as 
Db CaNDOLLR cGllocted (e. g. Taxus 3000, Adansonia 5000, Taxodium 6000 
years old, &c.,) 01117 prove, naturally, that death occurs at a very late period 
in many plants placed in favourable circumstances, but not that it does not 
necessarily happen. To me there appears to exist in all trees, whether they 
belong to the Dicotyledons, or, like the Palms, to the Monocotyledons, au 
internal cause which must produce death in time — namely, the increasing 
difficLiUy of conveying the necessary quaatity of nourishment to the vegata- 
tiag point, resulting from the ,elonga,tion of the trunk from year to year. 
Even when the force whicli carries the &ap up suffices to raise it to 200 feet 
or more (many Palms, as Cerosylon andieohi, Areca oleracea, attain a height 
of 150 — 180 feet ; some Conifcras, e. g., Pinus Lambertii, Abies Douglasii, 
of more than 200 feet), yet a maximum is reached there, and the terminal 
shoot is less perfectly nourished every succeeding year, becomes stunted 
more and more, and the tree at length dies. 

" If we are surprised at the intensity of the vegetative force of individual 
plants, in consequence of which it re-appears with new, unweakened energy 
in every bud, so must we marvel at the force committed to so simple an or- 
gan as a cell is, if we reflect what an influence it exerts upon the total 
economy of nature, as one of the grandest of phenomena. The plant lives 
almost solely upon inorganic substances; its cells are chemical laboratories 
in wliicli these -are combined into organic compounds. The plant prepares 
in this way not only the nuti-iment required for its own development, but also 
the food on which the entire animal kingdom depends. But plants not only 
nourish animals, they maintain the air in a fit state for their respiration, 
since their breathing process removes carbonic acid from the atmosphere and 
replaces it by oxygen gas. 

" In all these functions the plant is thoroughly dependant upon the outer 
world ; its food is brought to it without its own co-operation, by water and 
air ; its respiration takes place without activity of its own, through a peue. 
tration of its substance by gases with which it is in contact, in consequence 
of a physical law; not even does its internal circulation of juices de- 
pend on a meclianical activity of a circulating system ; tlius every necessity 
for motion is removed. It is true we here and there meet with movements 
in this or that organ, but these, occurring isolated in the vegetable kingdom, 
are also altogether of subordinate kind in the individual plant. They also are 
committed to the cells. ****** 

"Thousands of experiments," ( says Professor ^lold,) "have shown that 
the young shoots of old trees, when used as grafts, slips, &c., furnish as 
strong plants as the shoots of young trees; even in tlie Palms ( Phoeaix 



172 THE FLORIST AND 

dactjlifera) experiment has sliovvn tliat the apex of the stern, -when its vege- 
tion begins to slacken in an ohl tree, grows again into a strong tree wbeij 
cutoff and planted in tht- eaith. Not one single e.xperiineijt speaks in fa- 
vour of the opinion pioniulgated by Kkiget, that all parts of a tree have » 
common end to their lifV, ami that the different trees which have been raiser) 
from one and the snine tree by grafts, decay about the same time as the 
parent plant. A Avhple series of cultivated plants (I -will only mention the 
Vine, the Hop, theltaliim Poplar, and the Weeping Willow) are propagatp^ 
by division, without any decreased power of vegetation ever being seen. 
Nothing was in greater contradiction to the laws of vegetable life, than the 
frequently expressed opinion, that the Potatoe disease of recent years was tq 
be ascribed to ^ degeneration of the Potatoe plant, arising from the unr 
ceasing propagation by tubers." 



THE ROSE "KING OF THE PRAIRIES." 

KENSINGTON JUNE 10, 1853. 

Dear Sir: — On a visit to Baltimore last week I was presented witii 
a flower of the above Rose by Mr. Samviel Feast. He says that 
this is the third time it has bloomed with him, and is a source of 
pleasure to him every time it blooms. As its name imports, it is the 
King of the Prairie roses, being superior to any of the other va- 
rieties of its tribe ; having the fragrance of the Damask, form cup 
shaped, colour bright peach, darker in the centre, bud of a long con- 
ical shape which at the ppening of the flower is beautiful. Mr. F. 
says that, as it opens it shows a few small petals of a lighter colour. 
The outer petals, twenty-five in number, are of a fine form, slightly 
turning back, which gives the rose a globular shape until fully ex- 
panded, 

It is superior to Prairie Queen in every respect except in growth, 
as far as I could see, and even in that Mr. F. says it equals it ; there, 
were some shoots at the time I saw it, which appeared to warT 
rant his assertion ; but every body knows him, consequently we 
take his word for it ; but I am satisfied that the flower is sweet, and 
is larger and more pleasing to look upon ; all the others are either, 
destitute of fragrance or are somewhat offensive to the smell. In 
fine, for a rpse which is required to cover a large space in a short 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL, 173 

time, and which lacks none of the qualities of a good rose, the 
King of the Prairies is the only one I have had the pleasure of seeing. 

Truly Yours, James Ritchie. 



NEW OR RARE PLANTS, 

FLOWERED FOR THE FIRST TIME AT SPRINGBROOK, THIS SEASON. 

NO. VI. 

Rhododendron Gibsoxii. This ia a very peculiar looking species. 
The foliage and appearance of the plant are such as we might imagine a cross 
between R. ferruginea, and R. pitnctatu7n to produce.' The flowers are 
larger than the finest Azalea indica alba, and so much resemble it, that we 
have to look for its small, almost absent calix, before we are sure that it ig 
not an Azalea. There is a greenicJmess in the throat, and a pink tinge on 
the outside of the corolla which the white Azalea has not — its habit is strag- 
gling, and the flowers only appear in threes. It is >vorthy of a place in all 
.collections from its peculiarity as a Rhododendron — it tlirives well with me 
in a sp,ndy loam with a little leaf mould, in winter kept just above freezing 
and always in the shade. 

EoPATOXiiUM Canescens. If any recollect the old Ageratunj Mexicanum 
fhey will have an idea of this plant ; it is diff"erent from that in its foliage 
and the flowers are more numerous and compact. It is a very free bloomer 
and will grow well in any ordinary treatment. I have no doubt it will prove 
a valuable addition to our stock of white flowering plants for bedding out — • 
pur plant was obtained from Mr. Buist. 

SiPHOCAMPYLOS NiTiDUS. A miniature species with deep green shining 
leaves, not over an inch in length, and flowers about the same length, and 
of a bright yellow and scarlet colour, appearing from the axils qf the leaves 
of the young growth. It is not a showy plant, but when grown as a Cen- 
fradenia, with numerous shoots and bushy, would be considered pretty. It 
is easily grown, but is a "rare old plant" for the red spider — obtained 
through Messrs. Hog"; of New York. 

Dendropium densiflorum. This fine orchid has lately bloomed in sever- 
jal collections in Philadelphia, The flowers come out in clusters of about 
twelve flowers, each about the size of an ordinary bunch of grapes. Eeach 
flower is three quarters of an inch across, of a deep orange yellow — the lip 
is nearly circular, and finely fringed. It is easily grown in a moist partially 
shaded atmosphere, in pots or baskets of moss, old bark, and broken chaT- 
jcoal, and in a temperature of 60° — introduced from Low of Clapton. 



174 THE FLORIST AND 

Phaius albus. a fine terrestrial orchid imported last year from Messrs. 
Loddiges by Mr. Cope. The flowers are white, terminating the young 
growth. Its color renders it desirable, but it is much inferior in beauty to P. 
Wallichianus, or P. grandifolius (Bletia Tanker villoe). If the latter were 
■white, it would throw our present species far into the shade. It grows well 
•with me in mossy fibry peat in the orchid house. 

Cattleya forbesii. Another orchid that has also bloomed in Philadelphia 
collections. It is inferior in beauty to most Cattleyas, but yet a handsome 
orchid. The sepals and two lateral petals are green ; but the lip larger 
than a good sized thimble — is of a yellow color, striped and netted with an 
orange brown.. It grows well on a block of wood, slightly covered with 
coarse moss in the orchid house — imported last year by Mr. Cope from 
Messrs, Loddiges. Thomas Meehan. 

NEW plants in bloom AT MR. J. F, KNORR's, IN WEST PHILADELPHIA. 

Delphinium Beauty of Charonne, This truly beautiful hybrid was 
.shown in bloom at the April meeting of the Pennsylvania Horticultural So- 
ciety, by jMr. Knorr's gardener, it is now in bloom for the second time in 
Jiis garden — for size of flower and excellence of color it is unequalled ; 
the color being fully equal to that of Salvia patens. 

New Roses. Marhree (T E nghien, This annual rose, having the habit of 
Harrisonii, was iinported from Mr. Van Houtte in the winter of 1851-2 — it 
bloomed then .and was planted out — this year its bloom has been very 
abundant, and fully equal to the figure in "La Flore des Serres." Its color. 
is salmon marbled with lake. It is semi-double and not of long duration — 
our hot suns are doubtless very prejudicial to its beauty. 

Narcisse de Salvandy. A new monthly rose, of a deep crimson colour, 
veined and margined with pure white— a very curious rose, and an attract- 
ive one. 

Gloxinias. An excellent collection of these charming plants is in flow- 
er — we notice, Maria Van Houtte, and a large pale blue seedling, raised 
by Mr. James Bisset — among the new varieties, Fyjiana grandiflora, the 
best formed one yet seen, with a glossy dark purple throat; Franhlin, a 
white, striped in the throat with light purple— ^Zez. Werner, a fine pink^ 
Wendlandii, having leaves variegated with white and small light purple 
flowers — several other novelties are coming into bloom which we will notice 
in future numbers. A number of the German daisies, imported last fall from 
Mr. Van Houtte of Ghent, are in flower — among them are some very fine 
quilled and fringed white, and one white variety with petals equal in 
shape and imbrication to a fine Camellia. The variegated sorts are equally 
attractive. ' 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 175 



THE FUCHSIA, 

When -n-ell grown, few plants are more admired than the Fuchsia; or, when 
■well selected with regard to distinctness, make a better display on our exhi- 
bition tables; and yet, if we may judge from what are annually brought under 
our notice, growers seem to have paid and are still paying little attention to 
its cultivation. On all sides improvement in other things is manifest, each 
season being an advance on the preceding one in this respect, but the poor 
feeble and attenuated Fuchsia appears to be an exception. I well remember 
at the exhibitions of a society held at Wanstead that for years the' Messrs. 
Fraser periodically staged collections of Fuchsias, which at that time were 
fair examples of growth and skill ; they were sliort-jointed, well-furnished 
with bold foliage, compact pyramidal, and abundantly flowered ; these are 
the kind of plants one expects to see on a show day. I would ask, has a 
single specimen been S'hown of late combining these requisites? At the' Sur- 
rey Zoological Gafdefts, and at the Vauxhall shows there have been at one 
time not less than perhaps a dozen collections^ numbering at least 109 plants, 
and I may safely assert that scarcely one of that number could lay claim- to 
fine growth ; large plants are not what is wanted, if obtained at the expens*e 
of all other necessary points. As a beginning, give us plants say two feet 
high and about the same tlirough, free, and unrestrained, well furn-islied with 
branches and laterals at close and reguLir distances around the centre stem-, 
anil these so short-jointed and clothed with foliage that a comparatively solid 
bush is presented; tiien, and then only, may we expect to find a plant pro- 
portionately and adequately flowered. Contrast with the above a Fuchsia, 
feeble and elongated, say in a'n> 11-inch pot, with a stake some five feet in 
length stuck in the centre; it is tied to this stake at intervals of every nitie 
or twelve inches; at a goodly d'istaace above the pot a stray sid'e branch pro-'- 
trades, at the end of which som-e five or six flowers may be seen weighing it 
down to the rim of the pot as a resting place. Other branches, of the same 
description, may be found further Up the stem, on the summit of which is a 
drooping tuft of fl-owcrs; and this is a picture of a modern grown Fuchsia. I 
could wish to see closer attention paid to dilTerences of constitution in Fu- 
chsias; this is a point more especially to be considered now, when the trade 
is sending out new varieties. Tiie soil, for instance, sliould not be all of one 
consistence; for wliat will suit one sort may not answer another. Peat, loam,- 
loaf-mould, and silver sand should be the ingredients of your mixture, which 
should be made suitable to the wants nf the particular plant you are potting, 
rather than to answer the whole collection ; for varieties, naturally robust 
and vigorous, would starve on a diet which would surfeit less robust kinds. 
Fuchsias may with propriety bo divided into two classes — the one, dnrk- 
wooded and slender in habit, with a disposition to form long joints; the other 



176 THE FLOKiST AND 

soft-wooded, i.e. green, robust, and short-jointed. Is it not wrong, therefore, 
to pot these differently constituted plants in tlie same mixture ? 

Suppose a few spring struck plants, in 2-inch pots, to have been lately re- 
ceived from some nurseryman, and that a shift is necessary; before you com- 
mence, separate your plants into the two classes above alluded to — probably 
the first, or dark-wooded, will consist of the Gem of the Season, Commodore, 
Perfection (Banks), Cortona, Nil desperanduto. Dr. Lindley (Banks) Grandis, 
Terrio, Clapton Hero, Splendissima, Ajax, Miranda (Turner), Scarletinare- 
flexa. Dr. Smith, &c., &c.; while the soft-wooded kinds may include Lady 
Emily Cavendish, Amy, Empress, Hebe, Nonsuch, Napoleon,- Joan of Arc, 
Ariel, Gigantea reflexa. Beauty of Deal, Dr. Grosse, Expaiision, Esteem, 
Prince Arthur,' &c. When so separated, give the former nice light compost; 
the latter, stronger ingredients;' and the slender-habited varieties should not 
receive so liberal a shift as their more robust associates. A cooler situation 
should also be given to sorts of naturally slender habit; while lo the stronger 
kinds, heat, moisture, and a stiffer compost may be afforded ; and thus, by 
assimila;ting the' treatment to the wa'Ats of the plants, better results will be 
attained than we have lately been in the habit of getting. As' to the routine 
6f after culture, it is not my wish to' enter, but the grower who considers 
well before be acts will not be at a loss to manage that part of the business. 
Let us hope, after this notice, to see I'uchsias brought forward in better con- 
dition- than we have ever hitherto seen them. — J. E. [Garcl. Chron.) 



RESULTS OF TILE DRAINING. 

Messrs. Editors : — As you have published John Johnson's account of bis 
success in under tile draining, you may also in corroboration tell your farm- 
ers that a miller here says thut the only perfect white wheat he has bought 
<ihis year -n'as the crop of this same John Johnson, grown on those tile or 
pipe draining fields. Owing to the amelioration of the soil by draining, the 
wheat ripened a fortnight earlier than that of his neighbors ; its rapid 
growth completely distanced the insect ; yet the uninitiated farmer would 
say, after viewing the rolling surface, that it needed no drains. 

Our farmers generally at this time grow the Mediterranean -wheat, which 
ripens early and escapes the fly ; but it will not make extra or good family 
fiour. The result is that our millers can no longer depend on this once 
famed wheat country to supply them with the de quoi to make good flour. 
But I am glad to say that hundreds of our best farmers are beginning to try 
Mr. Johnson's" experiment. Our tile maker, Mr. Whartenby, cannot now 
begin to burn his kilns as fast as the pipe and tile are required. He will 
■work another machine this summer, and increase the number of his kilns. - 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 177 

Your leader of the 1st STajj in reply to professors of chemistry, was to 
the point. It would seem as though the Almighty denied rain to the Pe- 
luvian Islands, to fit them for the store houses of nitrogen, to supply its 
waste in the other portions of the globe. It does not take half a chemist to 
discover that Guano is more strongly azotised than any other animal excrement, 
and that it contains k'ss of tlie phosphate to its aZote (nitrogen) than any 
other known manure, not chemically prepared ; hence the assertion that 
"Guano is chiefly valuable for the phosphate of lime it contains," may 
seem stranjie, if not outre, coming as it does from a man with a handle to 
his name. But it is no argument to invalidate the capacity of the man, 
for I presume there is not a professor in our land Worthy of the name, who 
will not confess at the age of sixty, that he was a babe when he first re- 
ceived his diploma. He who is capable and loves to learn, learns fastest af- 
ter he begins to teach others ; if it was not so the schoolmaster would soon 
become a dogmatical pedagogue, a blind leader to the blind. It is far better 
to commit inadvertant blunders, which may be easily corrected even by our- 
selves, than to spend time hunting up obsolete authorities to confirm us and 
our readers that we are right, when a very little study of nature's simple 
lessons would convince us that we were wrong. 

Methiuks the day is at hand when farmers will begin to feel themselves a 
privileged class, not the the mere blind drudges in nature's great laboratory^ 
but intelligent co-workers with her, with that faith in her infallibility which 
lightens labor and gives success to every experiment. Tell a man how he 
misapplies his labor, wastes his manure or suffers it to deteriorate by the loss 
of that organic matter which is as volatile as it is indispensable to vegetable 
nutrition, and he may assent to the truth of your doctrine; but it will be 
evident that its importance has not either penetrated his mind or affected 
his will ; but when he sees his neighbor reap the immediate benefit of a bet- 
ter system, his prejudice lets go its hold, and he becomes a zealous convert 
to a better practice. Last fall a man living at Bufl'alo sent liere for a 
quantity of pipe and tile to drain a lot of IS acres of intervale land on 
Buffalo creek, four miles from the Lake. When he was putting down these 
tile two farmers rode up to the fence; one said ta the other, '-What 
on earth are they doing with those pieces of earthen ?" '' I don't know," 
was the reply. "I suppose they are for some kind of steam works." The 
man who tilled that lot the year before, ridiculed the idea that it required 
draining ; he said it was all sandy loam but the low clayey patch next 
the plank road, that the water never stood on any part of it the next day 
after a rain ; that even the clay patch always got dry enough to plow by 
the middle of May. This spring he saw that field plowed early in April, 
clay and all; so incredulous was he that the clay was dry enough to plow, 
23 



178 THE FLORIST AND 

that he examined the furrows with his hands ; seeing is believing, but feel- 
ing.to him was tlie naked truth. " Why," said he, his eyes starting to their 
sockets, "I never saw tliis land at any season in such fine order before ; I 
have not yet been able to plow a furrow." 'Tis needless to say that this 
man of stubborn unbelief, who could not be converted perhaps by ail the 
professors in Christendom, was now changed "in the twinkling of an eye,' 
to that true faith which is henceforth to animate him, to give Lis bone and 
muscle only to a better practice. Ere long I take it the two farmers will 
not need the same miracle to teach them the difference between draining 
pipe and steam pipe. S. W. 

Waterloo, JV. Y., May 1853. . ' " 



CALENDAR OF OPERATIONS. 

JUNE JULY. 

FRUIT. 

Grapes Inn-doors. — Mildeiv. — This is an insidious enemy to the grape, 
and one that i-equires constant watching and vigilant action on the part of 
the cultivator ; remedies for its eradication are, fortunately, simple, and easi- 
ly applied. We believe, however, both from published opinions and conver- 
sations held with experienced grape growers on the suliject, that there is di- 
versity of opinion with regard to its cause. Currents of coM air, damp winds, 
too much moisture at the roots, an over-supply of atmospheric humidity, and 
the reverse, have all been attributed causes of its appearance. We take our 
stand upon the latter, and firmly believe that it proceeds from a deficiency 
of moisture in the air. Reasoning by analogy, we find that the gooseberry 
attains greatest perfection in cool, moist climates. In this country, Avhere 
there is less moisture, it becomes mildewed. Late sown peas are generally 
rendered useless from the same disease, which is prevented by abundant wa- 
terings. Grapes that are forced in early spring, and consequently ripe be- 
fore the summer aridity occurs, are never mildewed. In the first volume of 
the "Florist," an instance is recorded where its increase was prevented by 
keeping the grapery well closed to exclude external air, the interior being 
kept damp by liberal sprinklings of water. Mildew is so associated with 
dampness and decay, that it appears unreasonable to suppose conditions ex- 
tremely opposite can produce it. There is, however, a species of mildew 
"which is produced by a dry air acting upon a delicate surface of vegetable 
tissue," (Lindley) ; and it is tills mildew, we think, that affects the grape. — 
The native kinds are seldom affected — their thick skins are proof against its 
attacks. Currents of cold air are a reputed cause ; currents of hot, dry air we 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 179 

coasider ne.-irer the truth. A moment's consideration would remind us that 
currents of cold air are *' few, and far between," during the month of July. 
That aiidity has to do with it might be surmised from the repeated observa- 
tion of its appearance being first detected on the lower part of the house, if 
the front ventilators are opened ; and a very frequent recommendation to 
keep that portion of the house closed, thus preventing a rapid evaporation of 
moisture. We have in many instances seen Black Hamburgh grapes fruit- 
ing in the open air ; but with one exception, they were renderd useless by 
mildew. In the exception alluded to, the fruit was clean and perfectly ripe, 
though badly colored. The vines that produced them were trained on a cir- 
cular-topped arbor, the waste water from a pump ran down the centre of the 
arbor, which was rarely dry ; consequently there was a continual evaporation 
arising about the fruit. Tlie situation was, perhaps, otherwise favorable, 
beintr shaded from afternoon sun. We are aware that these remarks do not 
coincide with the generally acknowledged origin of mildew ; but dur observa- 
tions lea<l.s us to these conclusions. We will be glad to learn froiu the expe- 
rience of others, if our opinions are erroneous. 

Happily, however, there is an antidote. Sulphur is an established pre- 
ventive and cure. It may be applied in various ways — sprinkled thickly 
on the ground, or thrown with an engine on the plants will arrest its pro- 
gress. Unslacked lime and sulphur mixed in water, give a solution which 
has been used with success when syringed over the plants. 

Grapes Out-doors. — Attention to tyir.g up, pruning and thinning will 
now be required. There cannot be a more mistaken economy than over- 
cropping; a heavy crop never ripens well, the plant is weakened from over- 
exertion, and the wood produced will be weak and not properly matured, and 
several years must elapse before the plants recover sufficiently to bear an 
average crop. On weak, low shoots one bunch will be enough to leave ; all 
others cut off. Higher up on the plant, where the growths are stronger, two 
may be left. On all except leading shoots, pinch out the tips six tiv eight 
leaves beyond the fruit, tying all regular and securely. The occasional ap- 
plication of soapsuds, or other liquid stimulant, will be favorable, especially 
during dry weather. 

Strawberries — after the crop is gathered, if intendol to fiuit another 
year, should be kept clear of runners and weeds, and receive occasional stir- 
rings between the rows, especially after heavy rains. If an opportunity can 
be embraced immediately before a shower, of giving them a soaking of ma- 
nure water, the tnmlile will be well repaid. It is a practice with many to 
allow the young [ilants to establish themselves betwei'n the rows, and destroy 
the old ones in the fall. Where this is intemled, the open space should re- 
ceive a heavy coating of well decomposed manure, and cover in deep and 
thoroughly. When .space is limited, and not convenient to occupy a separate 



180 THE FLORIST AND 



piece of ground with a new plantation, this s\'Stem does very well for a few 
years — provided the soil is well enriched, and kept in good condition. 

Raspberries. — We have found it a good practice to thin out the young 
shoots about this time, leaving five or six of the best growths, and clearing 
away all the others. Those that are left will gain additional strength, and 
their development will be still further encouraged if ihe bearing wood is cut 
out as soon as the fruit is all gathered. 

Surface Stirring. — No careful cultivator will permit weeds to overrun his 
fruit garden ; but even although the soil be tolerably clear of weeds, the sur- 
face should be stirred from time to time to allow the admission of atmosphe- 
ric air anc'. moisture to the roots. We have frequently remarked that the 
physical texture of the soil for fruit trees is of much more importance than 
its chemical constitution. The soil for a fruit garden may be made too rifch 
by the application of manures ; and when this is the case the trees will grow 
luxuriously, but will not fruit. Nothing in the shape of manure can compensate 
for a deficiency in the porosity of the soil; a bulky, undecomposed mass of 
organic substances, such as barn-yard manure, applied to an adhesive, clayey 
soil, will have a tendency to impart a degree of friability. But in these times 
of concentrated essences, porosity must be secured by other means. Drain- 
ing is the fundamental auxiliary in conjunction with deep cultivation. Gua- 
no, poudrette, and other artificial manures can then be advantageously ap- 
plied in small quantities annual!}', towards the end of the season, burying it 
slightly to prevent in some measure the loss of gaseous matters. A soil 
managed in this way may be kept in fine condition during summer by a sys- 
tem of deep surface stirring, more particularly after heavy rains, which con- 
solidate and harden the surface. The more air in the soil the less will it be 
effected by drouth. 

Tliese general remarks may meet the wishes of your correspondent who 
inquires about soil for seedling fruits. S.B. 

FLOWER GARDEN. 

I promised in my last to resume the subject of budding Roses, as there is 
perhaps no one subject of American floriculture less attended to. Any one 
acquainted with European gardening must very much miss the '' standards," 
the miniature tree roses which there abound. To account for this we are 
told that the English dog rose, (Rosa canina,) on which they are worked, is 
not adapted to our climate, and that whatever are worked on them soon die 
out. This is undoubtedly true of imported trees, especially when planted in 
an exposed situation. The stem becomes "bark-bound," and frequently 
dies down below the bud, and suckers so abound that the energy of the stem 
is materially weakened, and frequently the whole dies off. But if a strong 
sucker is led up, and the rest taken oft', and when it becomes of a proper 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 181 

height and condition, budded with a kind adapted to it, it will succeed per- 
fectly, never dying down, or being otherwise than healthy in sunshine or 
shade, if only common attention be paid to keeping off the suckers that will 
come up. This shows the necessity of raising our own stocks; and those 
who have specimens of the dog rose, (and few who have roses but can raise 
up one) I would recommend to let one or more go to seed for that purpose. 
They would be at least two years from the seed even under favorable cir- 
cumstances, before they would be in a condition to work as standards ; but a 
stock once obtained, can by sowing a few every year, be readily kept up. — 
There is no other kind fit for general use as a stock for standards, as the 
much-of-late vaunted ilcnettii stock suckers worse than the dog rose when 
trained up for a standard. Its recommendation is, that it is easily propa- 
gated, and late {71 the fall other roses take easily on it. In ray experience I 
find rose buds take best about "peach-budding" time, or (in this district) the 
beginning of September. The perpetual kinds, or Remontants, deserve more 
extensive cultivation; their first crop of flowers should be cut off" immediately 
they begin to fade, in oider to produce a succession. Another thing not to 
do, is, to take up layered Carnations as soon as they are rooted, as frequent- 
ly recommended — let tliem stay till late in the fall. Dahlias in beds often 
look very pretty when pegged down, covering entirely the surface of the 
ground. When growing in a ■warm or dry situation they produce finer flow- 
ers on this system, as the ground is kept moist and cool. 

Green House. 

The Pelargonium will, in most collections, be going out of flower. If they 
have been grown in the house they should have all the light and air possible, 
in order to ripen the wood well before cutting them down. A great deal de- 
pends on this, if large, well-grown specimens are desired, as the buds do not 
"break" well on ill-ripened wood. To prolong the flowering period of the 
Fuchsia, keep the house in which they are growing cool and moist ; to do 
this, shade well, and syringe two or three times a day. The German Daisies, 
which are now coming into such deserved request, are better turned out of the 
frames in which they have been flowered into a frame with a north aspect, 
where they can be kept froin'the sun, cool and moist. They are, however, 
impatient of close confinement; now is the time to propagate them by offsets. 
Neapolitan and Tree Violets, indispensable winter flowers, should also be treat- 
ed in the same way. Pansies, Cinerarias and Calceolarias, as they root, 
should be potted 'and placed in similar frames, and the seeds of selected kinds 
so»vn there as fast as they ripen. Chrysanthemums should never be allowed 
to get matted in tlieir pots, but be constantly repotted into very rich soil, as 
they grow very dwarf; and handsome plants of tlic old largo kinds may be 
obtuiut'd hy layering ilown luxuriant shoots of plants growing in the open 



182 THE FLORIST AND 

borders, just before they show flower buds, into 4-incli pots. In a few weeks 
they will be rooted, when they may be taken off and treated as tlie others. 
To assist in keeping up the summer interest of the greenhouse, a good stock 
of Begonias should be obtained ; few insects care to touch them, while some 
of tliem are always in flower, and others successively. They are of the easiest 
culture, and do better in than out. In American nurseries many kinds can 
be obtained, amongst the handsomest of which are B. Evansiana, nitida, in- 
carnata, manicata, Hydrocotylifolia, sanguinea, coccinea, odoi'ata, parvi- 
flora, fuchsoides, and albo-coccinea. B. cinnabarina, considered one of the 
handsomest, has been introduced ; but I believe has not been yet let out by 
the nurserymen. It would greatly tend to encourage the growth of these 
useful summer house-blooming plants, were our horticultural societies to offer 
premiums for the best grown specimen at each of their monthly meetings. — 
All plants kept in the house will need constant syriiigings and attention to 
keep down the insects. 

Hot and Okchide/E House. 

Hothouse plants do not require a liighor temperature than greenhouse 
phmts at this period ; but they must have a moister atmosphere to do fii'St- 
riite in. Indeed, some kinds, as Mediuillas, Ixoras, Brunsfelsias and Plero- 
tri;is, do but ill in a greenhouse atmosphere in summer. The syi'inge sho»ld 
therefore be applied very freely, as the air necessary to keep down the tem- 
perature dries the atmosphere very much. Orchidetc, are generally kept 
much too hot in summer, as well as too close. Air should be given from the 
top sashes whenever the temperature does not fall below G0°; in warm nights 
also they may be often left open. The glass should be kept shaded, as it 
is almost impossible to keep up the necessary moisture otherwise with so 
much air ; some means should be taken to keep an evaporating surface near 
them, as well as to give them frequent syringings. Never allow the temper- 
ature to go above 80° — a high moist temperature will destroy an orchid 
sooner than anything I know. Renanthera coccinea, Dendrobium aggrega- 
tum, most of the Cattleyas, and hard-leaved Epidendrums do not flower well 
in the shade ; they should be put as near the glass as possible. 

Vegetable Garden. 
About the end of June the main object of the gardener will be his Celery 
crop. There are many ways of planting ; the best, in my estimation, being 
the single row system. The earth in the ditches cannot be dug too deep, nor 
the manure too abundant ; that from the cow yard is to be preferred. Euta 
bagas, or Swede Turnips, should be sown about the same time; and where 
Turnips are desired early, a few may be sown in a cool situation. The great 
pest — the fly — has not yet been subdued by any one of the nostrums yet in- 
vented ; a first-rate plan, where the crop is not very extensive, is to water 



HORTICQLTURAL JOURNAL. 183 

them early every morning in their earliest infancy, -with a very coarse nose 
on the watering pot. This is effective in two ways — first, the water coming 
heavily on the soil carries the insect with it, burying many in the soil, while 
the plants are encouraged to grow rapidly beyond their power. Endive 
should be sown in a bed of light rich soil early in the month— it is beginning 
to be an indispensable winter salad. Attention will still be required to suc- 
cession of crops in Peas, Beans, Corn, Radishes, Lettuces, &c. T. J. 



PENNSYLVANIA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The stateil meeting of this Society was held in the Chinese Saloon, on 
Tuesday evening, June 21st, 1853. General Patterson, President, in the 
chair. The display for June was a remarkably fine one and much com- 
mended by the visitors. A few only of the objects worthy of special atten. 
tion will here be noticed. In Mr. Buist's collection were the \Medinilla 
magnifica, a beautiful specimen of the Melastomacea, bearing a handsome 
cluster of pink flowers, and Tecoma jasminuidcs rosea, both new and of 
recent introduction, and now for the first time shown. In Frederick Len- 
nig's were Clerodendron Bethunianum and Medinilla Seiholdtii, new and 
for the first time exhibited; also G-ardenia Stanletjana, a fine large specimen 
with flowers and numerous buds, and a collection of Gloxinias. In John 
Bell's, West Philadelphia, were Delphinium ITendersonii, Sipliocampylos 
nitidus, Achimenes Baumannia, A. grandidissima, Escheriana grandiflora, 
Tillandsia species from Cuba, and six Gloxinias, all new and seen for the 
first time before the Society. In Mr. Cope's were SipJwcamphylos nitidus 
oaA Uranthemum semperflorens new and of recent introduction; also fine 
Fuchsias and a dozen choice plants, with beautiful cut Carnations. Mr. 
Dundas' gardener brought a fine array of beautiful Fuchsias and Gloxinias 
of the finest sorts. W. W. Keen's, of W. P., had six select Fuchsias and a 
dozen of choice standard plants. H. Pratt McKean's gardener, of Torres- 
dale, presented six of the finest Fuchsias shown. Robert Cornelius' gardener 
had a very fine grown specimen of Campanula pyramidalis. Thomas F. 
Croft sent a collection of cut seedling Verbenas of merit. Thos. Mechan^ 
gardener to C. Cope, exhibited a basket of cut flowers, displa^'ing in the 
centre a fully blown flower of the Victoria regia, the 113th from the same 
plant. Designs, baskets and bouquets were shown by Thomas Meghran, 
gardener to R. Cornelius, Thos. Mcehan, Mr. Cope's gardener, John Bell, 
Robert Kilvington and from the garden of J. L. Goddard, W. Philadelphia^ 
all in fine taste. The fruit table presented a tempting spectacle, containing 
Black Hamburg and White Frontignac Grapes; I'eachcs — varieties, Eliza, 
Druid Hill, Early York and Geo. -Ith. Nectarines — Downton, Early Newing- 



184 THE FLORIST AND 

ton and Pitmaston varieties ; and tlie Shanghai Peach, believed to be ex- 
hibited for the first time in America, from the conservatories of C. Cope, 
Three bunches of the White Sweet Water Grapes, froffi Eden Hall. A rich 
display on nine dishes of Cherries, from IMrs. J. B. Smith, consisting of the 
Royal hative, Bigarreau Cocaret, Burr's Seedling, Gobet, Belle Magnifique, 
Royal, Montmorency, Griotte and Mayduke. Isaac B. Baxter had the 
Gros hative, Guigne noir, Blackheart and Maydnke Cherries, a dish of the 
Col. Wilder Raspberry. Gooseberries 32 to the pound. White and Red 
Currants. J. F. Knorr, four .kinds of Currants of the best sorts. J. M. 
Page, a dish of Moyamensing Strawberry. Wm. Hobson, the Early Rich- 
mond and Black Tartarian Cherries. Dr. Brinckle, Raspberries, viz: the 
Mrs. IngersoU, Mrs. Wilder, Gen. Patterson, Longworth, Emily and No. 
35 H. Dr. J. K. Mitchell, seedling Raspberries. R. Cornelius' gardener, 
Hovey's Seedling Strawberries. 

The two large tables of Vegetables were fariiished from the gardens of 
C. Cope and R. Cornelius ; much credit is due to their gardeners for such 
fine esculents presented. James Ridings exhibited a very interesting case 
of pestiferous insects collected by him this season, which attracted attention ; 
it contained Borers of the Ma))le tree, the Linden, the Apple and Quince, 
the Cherry and Locust, the Ash, the Locust, the Cherry and Ash, the 
Peach, the Currant and Gooseberry and the Squash. 

Premiums awarded on the occasion were : 

By the Committee on Plants and Flowers, viz : Gloxinias — For the best 
six to James Bisset, gardener to James Dundas ; for the second best to John 
Bell, W. P. Fuchsias — For the best six to A. Burnett, gardener to H. 
Pratt McKean. Plants in Pots — For the best twelve to Thomas Fairley, 
foreman to R. Buist ; for the second best to AVm. Grassie, gardener to W. 
W. Keen ; for the third best to John Bell. Plant in a Pot— For the best 
grown specimen Gardenia Stanlei/ana, to John Pollock, gardener to F. 
Lennig. Plants shown for the first time — A premium of $5 to Thomas 
Fairley, foreman to R. Buist, for fine plants in bloom of Ilcdinilla mag- 
nifica and Tecoma jasmiiioides rosea; a premium of three dollars to John 
Bell for Delphinium Hendersonii, six very beautiful Gloxinias and two 
Achimenes ; a premium of two dollars to John Pollock, gardener to F. 
Lennig, for Clerodendron Bcthinianum and lledinilla Sieboldii ; a premium 
of one dollar to Thos. Meehan, gardener to C. Cope, for Uranthemu7n 
Semperflorens and Siphocamphylos nitidus. 

Bouquet Designs — For the best to Thos. Meehan ; for the second best to 
Thos. Meghran, gardener to R. Cornelius. Basket of cut flowers — For the 
best to the same; for the second best to Robert Kilvington ; for the best 
of Indigenous flowers to Thos. Meehan ; for the best hand bouquet to John 
Bell; and a special premium of one dollar to Thos. Meehan for a box of 
Carnation flowers. The Committee notice as deserving special attention, a 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 185 

very fine specimen in John Bell's collection of Delphinium Beauty of Clia- 
ronne, a hardy herbaceous plant recommended as a very desirable bloomer 
of great duration. 

By the Committee on Frriits. For the best Black Hamburoj and White 
Muscat of Alexandria Grapes, to Thos. Meehan, gardener to C. Cope ; for 
the best Cherries, Barr's Seedling, and for the second best Belle magnifique, 
to Francis Guoin, gardener to Mrs. J. B. Smith. The attention of the 
Committee was especially attracted by a small quantity of the fine Straw- 
berry, the Moyamensing seedling, by J. M. Tage; nor cari they omit to 
notice the superior collection of Peaches, Apricots and Nectarines, for which 
they award a special premium of three dollars to Thos. Meelfan ; and fine 
varieties of Currants, for which they award a premium of two dollars to J. 
F. Knorr. They also notice choice varieties of Seedling Raspberries, from 
the gardens of Dr. Brinckle and Dr. Mitchell. 

By the Committee on Vegetables. For the best display of Vegetables 
by an amateur gardener, to Thos. Meehan, gardener to C. Cope ;■ for the 
second best, to Thos. Meghran, gardener to R. Cornelius, 

Ad Interim Repokt.- 

The Fruit Committee,- in presenting their usual ad interrrfit Report, would 
remind the Society that, at the stated meeting of last month, specimens of 
two new Grapes (one a seedling of the Black Hamburg, the other the B'lusque 
Verdel,) were exhibited by the originator, Mr. J. Fisk Allen, of Salera, Mass. 
Wishing to have an opportunity of carefully examining these two varieties, 
the committee only noticed them cursorily in their regular report for that 
evening, with a promis'e of submitting a more detailed pomological descrip- 
tion of them in their June ad interim report. The specimens having beea 
winter forced,- and being ripe in March, were kept too long after their ma- 
turity to be in their greatest perfection. 

Allen's Seedling JBlack Hamburg. — The bunch exhibited was not very 
large, though it is probable there will bo an improvement in this respect. — 
Berry large, black, oval ; seed grey ;■ flesh solid, and possessing much of the 
character of the Black Hamburg; quality "very good." 

Musqui Verdel. — This is a natural cross between the Grizzly Frontignan 
and the Verdelho, the Wine' Grape of Madeira. Bunch large shouldered, 
loose ; berry rather small, about half an inch in diameter, round, pale red ; 
seed light cinnamon color; flavor rich, saccharine, highly perfumed ; quality 
" best;" said to be as early as the Black July, and the Pitmaston. 

Mr. Allen deserves the thanks of pomologists for having originated two 
varieties of Grapes of such excellence ; and being of native origin, they may 
prove, for out-door culture, better suited to the requirements of om' climate 
than their transatlantic parents. 

24 



186 THE FLORIST AKD 

FromH. W. S. Cleveland, of Burlington,- ^. J.— ^'F'mesipecimeTis of Stra,^- 
berries without a name. Fruit large, roHndish, sometimes ovate; dark red; 
seed of the same color, set in superficial depressiorisj- calyx reflected; stamens 
persistent; flesh yellowish-white, saccharine, high flavored; quality "best;" 
the fruit and leaf clearly indicate the variety to be a Hautbois, probably the 
Lafayette. It is to be regretted that this luscious class of Strawberries is so 
little cultivated. 

From 3Ir. Stuart. — Beautiful specimens of Strawberries, Hovey's Seed- 
ling, of last year's planting; some nearly four inches in circumference; quali- 
ty "very good." 

From 31r. Gerhard Schnifz, of Pliilad'a. — Fine specimens of two of his 
Seedling StraAvberries : 

1. The Pennsylvania. — This variety was a seedling of the Moyamensing, 
and was exhibited by Mr. Schmitz last season for the first time. Fruit large, 
broadly conical, dark crimson; seed crimson, and when shaded, yellow, set in 
depressions not very deep, with roundish intervals ; flesh red ; flavor fine ; 
quality "best;" sexual character pistillate; leaf large, deep green, serratures 
crenate. The committee award a premium of five dollars to this variety, as 
the best new American Seedling Strawberry of superior quality, after two 
years' trial. 

2. Schviiizs No. 3. — A seedling of the Washington, exhibited now for the 
first time. Fruit large, roundish ovate, sometimes inclining to conical; light 
crimson; seed crimson, often yellow, set in rather deep indentations, with 
intervals somewhat ridged ; flesh pale red ; flavor pleasant ; quality "very 
good;" sexual character pistillate. Leaf large, light green. 

From Caleb Cope, Esq. — Specimens of four varieties of Strawberries: 

1. McAvoy's Superior.— Tlh\& variety originated with Mr. WcAvoy of Cin- 
cinnati, and was formerly known as his No. 12. In May 1851, it received 
a premium of one hundred dollars from the Cincinnati Hort. Society. Mr. 
Cope's specimens were of great size and beauty, some of them measuring 
five and a half inches in circumference ! Fruit very large ; roundish ovate, 
occasionally slightly necked ; deep brilliant crimson;- seed crimson, sometimes 
yellow, set in indentations not deep, except in the the largest specimens, 
when the intervals are also somewhat ridged ; flesh red ; flavor exquisitely 
fine; quality " best ;" sexual character pistillate. 

2. 3IoAvoy's No. 1. — Large, roundish, deep scarlet; light crimson seed ; 
indentations rather deep, intervals not ridged ; flesh whitish, partly stained 
with red ; flavor agreeable ; quality " good," perhaps " very good ;" sexual 
character pistillate. An abundant bearer. 

3. McAvoy's Fxtra Red. — Large, roundish ; scarlet; seed red, sometimes 
yellowish ; indentations tolerably deep, intervals somewhat rounded ; flesh 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 187 



yellowish, slightly stained; sub-acid flavor; quality only "good;" pistillate ; 
extraordinarily productive. 

4. LongwortJis Prolific. — This fine variety originated with Mr. Sehneicke 
of Cincinnati, and was formerly known as Schneike's Hermaphrodite. Very 
large ; roundish ovate ; brilliant crimson ; seed of the same color, sometimes 
yellowish, satin rather deep indentations with rounded intervals; flesh red; 
flavor fine, quality " very good." A variety of great excellence ; perfect in 
its sexual organization, and remarkably productive — a rare circumstance 
with staminate varieties of large size. 

From Robert Baist. — Fine specimens of two varieties of Strawberries — 
McAvoy's Superior, and McAvoy's No. 1, described above. 

From Henry A. Dreer. — A dish of the Moyamensing Strawberry. This 
fine variety originated with Mr Gerhard Schmitz of this city, and took the 
premium offered by the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society for the best seed- 
ling Strawberry exhibited in 1848. Fruit rather large ; roundish conical; 
deep crimson; seed crimson, set in rather deep depressions, with rounded in- 
tervals, flesh red; flavor very fine; quality "best," pistillate; leaf iaige, with 
crenate serratures. 

From Dr. F. W. Carpenter, Luncaster. — The Triumph of Cumberland 
Cherry, a native of Cumberland county, Pa. Specimens fine. Large, obtuse 
heart-shaped, sometimes roundish, compressed at the sides; deep crimson, al- 
most purple when fully ripe; suture indistinct; stem rather long, slender, in- 
serted in a broad, open cavity ; apex slightly depressed ; stone roun:lisli-oval, 
compressed; flesh rather solid, red, slightly adherent to the stone; flavor tine ; 
quality " best;" period of maturity about the middle of Juno. 

The Treasurer submitted his semi-annual statement, which was read and 
referred. 

Charles Kissler, of Eeading, Pa., was elected a corresponding and hono- 
rary member, and four gentlemen contributing members. 

Adjourned. Thomas P. Ja.mes, Ecc. Sec. 



MARYLAND HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The Society held its monthly meeting in 'the Maryland Institute, on 
Thursday, the 12th inst. On this occasion Calceolarias formed the principal 
display ; there being several collections of well grown phints, but the flowers 
of rather primitive cast, showing much room for improvement in tliis in- 
dispensable early summer flower. In the collection sliown hj ]Mr. Kemp, 
gardener to Miss Tiflan}', were a few flowers of good properties. Mr. Frazier, 
gardener to John Hopkins, Esq., contributed a collection of healthy, well 
managed geraniums: The kinds being Capt. Darloy, Van Troiiip, Flower of 



188 THE FLORIST AND 

the Day, Commander-inrChief, Princess Alice, Queen of Summer and 
Clifton Scarlet. In Mr. J. Feast's collection were noticed Salvia Patens 
alba, Volhameria Japonica, Maurandia coerulea, Clematis Sieboldtii, &c. — 
Dr. Edmondson communicated a few choice Fuchsias, cut flowers of Azalea 
Indica, from plants growing out of doors, sheltered during winter by a 
slight covering of boards ; also fine fruit of his seedling Strawberry Mary- 
landica, forwarded in pots. Mr. Feast sent Winter Eon Chretien Pears in 
good preservation. Mr. Kurtz contributed a large Azalea Variegata which 
was much and justly admired, together with cut flowers of Rhododendron 
Vervainianum and fine Ghent Azalea and Tulips. S. Feast k Son produced 
a fine table of Roses, Fuchsias, Pelargoniums, Geraniums, &c. W. Saunders, 
gardener to Thos. Winans, Esq., exhibited greenhouse plants, Leschenaidtia 
Formosa, Burchelia Capensis, Ericas Ruhida, and Intermedia, Tropaeolwm 
Tricoloru7n, Azalea Variegata, Centradenia Rosea, Begonia Sanguinea and 
several Pelargoniums and Cinerarias. 

Vegetables were well represented, there being various contributions of 
Cabbages, Lettuces, Radishes, Cauliflowers, Leeks, Asparagus, Carrots, 
String Beans, Salsify and Rhubarb. 
The awards were as follows : 
Pelargoniums — gardeners, premium, S. Feast & Sons, 

ditto amateurs, W. Saunders, gr. to T. Winans, Esq., 

2nd Mr. Frazier, 

Calceolarias — gardeners, S. Feast & Son, 
ajnateur, 1st 0. Kemp, 

2nd J. Standemeyer, gr. to Mr. Brown. 
Verbenas — gardeners, S- Feast & Son, 
2nd J. Feast, 

ditto amq.teurs, C. Campbell, gr. to Dr. Edmondson, 
2nd Wm. Saunders. 
Petunias — gardeners, S. Feast & Sons. 
Fuchsias — gardeners, S. Feast & Sons, 
2nd John Feast, 
ditto apoateursC. Campbell. 

Cacti — 1st G. Campbell, 2nd Massrs. Pentland. 
Roses — 1st S. Feast & Sons, 2nd Messrs. Pentland. 
Greenhouse Plants — gardeners, J. Feast, 

ditto ditto amateurs 1st Wm. Saunders, 

2nd C. Campbell. 
Eouquets^lst S. Feast & Sons, 2nd Wm. Galloway, 3rd John Feast. 
Design for Table — Loudon Feast. 
Orchids — S. Feast k Sons. Azaleas — Mr. Kurtz. 
Ppt3.tpes — C. Campbell. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 189 



Lettuce — 1st Mr Whittemore, 2nd Mr. Lushby. 
Rhubarb— 1st C. Campbell, 2nd John Feast. 
■ Asparagus — 1st Mr. Perine, 2nd J. Standemeyer. 

Best display of Vegetables — ^Dr. R. Lushby, 2nd Mr. Whittemore. 
Cauliflowers and Beans — J. Standemeyer. 

The June exhibition was held on the 9th, when the following awards were 
made: 

Best 12 Greenhouse Plants — (gardeners premium) John Feast. His 
plants were liJiodostemma Gardeniodes, Torenia Asiatica, Columnea Schie-' 
diana, Pimelia decussata, Stephanotis flordbunda, Allamanda Nerifolia, 
Leschenaultm formosa, Ai-disias vispinosa and elega7is, Vinca alba, Teeoma 
Jasminoides and Tremandra verticillata. 2nd Samuel Feast & Sons, 
whose lot consisted of Achimenes grandiflora, Grioxinias Victoria regina, 
and Fyfiana, Ixora Coccinnea, Azalea Danielsiana, Plumhago Rosea, 
JEupJiorhia grandiflora, Burchelia Capensis, Pelargoniums, Madame Kos- 
suth and Alboni, Fuchsias Sir J. Falstaff, and Geranium Flower of the 
Day. 

Best 12 Fuchsias — (amateur's premium) C. Campbell, gardener to Dr, 
Edmondson, the kinds being Prince Arthur, Eliza Meilliez, Microphylla, 
Prince of Orange, Flora's Diadem, Specioaa, Sir John Falstaff, Voltigeur, 
Globosa alba, 3Iadame Sontag, Fair Itosamund and Lord of the Isles. — ■- 
2nd, 0. Kemp. 

Best twelve Fuchsias — (gardeners) John Feast ; 2nd, S. Feast & Sons. 

Calceolarias — best display John Feast. Cacti — best Pentland & Bro. 

Roses — Best 24 cut blooms; 1st S. Feast & Sons, 2nd Wm. Saunders, 
3rd Pentland & Bro. Best 12 cut blooms ; 1st Edward Kurtz, 2nd Pent- 
land & Bro. Discretionary to Wm. Saunders, gardener to Mr. Winans, for 
display of Pelargoniums. Best bouquet S. Feast & Sons, 2nd J. Galloway. 
Table Design Pentland & Bro., 2nd J. Feast. Discretionary to H. Bosse, 
gardener to Mr. Mankin, for large bouquet. 

Strawberries — Best distinct variety, 1 quart each, Dr. Edmondson, with 
MoAvoy's Sitperior, Ilovey's Seedling, and two of his own seedlings, viz : — 
Haarlem Orange and Charles' Favorite; 2nd S. Feast & Sons with the 
following : Ilovey's Seedling, Boston Pine, Black Prince and Keen's Seed- 
ling. Best 1 quart of any variety, Dr. Edmondson, seedling Marylandica, 
2nd 0. Kemp, Ilovey's Seedling, 3rd J. Feast, Ilovey's Seedling. Best 
seedling. Dr. Edmondson, Ilarylandica. 

Cherries — Best Wm. Saunders, Black Tartarian, 2nd Mr. Fuss ; discre, 
tionary to Mrs. Law for Black Heart. The committee on Fruit report that 
Dr. Edmondson's seedling Strawberry, Marylandica, is a very superior fruit 
both in size and flavor. 



190 THE FLORIST AND 

Vegetables — Best Beets, (gardeners' premium) D. K. Lusliby, 2nd E, 
Whittemore. Early Cabbage, 1st D. K. Lushby, 2nd E. Whittemore.— 
(Amateurs.) Best Cabbage and Potatoes, C. Campbell. Best display of 
Vegetables, E. Whittemore, 2nd D. K. Lusliby. 

W. Saundees, Cor. Secretary/. 



NEW YORK HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The New York Horticultural Society held its Semi- annual exhibition last 
^week. The display seeras from the reports in the daily papers to have been 
a good one. The Herald regrets that the company was not very numerous. 
They had some leaves and a flower of the Victoria regia, from Mr. Cope's 
plant. 

The following premiums were awarded: 

Roses. Class I. — First premium awarded to J. S. Burgess, gardener to 
W. E. Burton, Esq., Glen Cove, L. I. Do., Mateo Donadi, Astoria. 

Class II, — First premium — George Hamlin, gardener to W. C. Langley, 
Brooklyn. Second premium — J. Burgess. 

Class III — Second premium— J. Burgess. 

The prizes for plants have been awarded as follows : 

Hothouse Plants — First premium to Thomas Duncan, gardener to E. J, 
Woolsey, Astoria. Second premium to L. Menand, Albany, 

Greenhouse Plants — First premium to L. Menand, Albany. 

Orchids — First premium to L. Menand, Albany. 

Carnations — First premium to Wm. Chorlton, gardener to J. C. Green, 
Staten Island. 

Geraniums — First premium to A. Gordon, gardener to E. Hoyt, Astoria. 

Pelargoniums — Best six varieties — George Hamlin, gardener to W. . C. 
Langley, Brooklyn ; second best do-^W. Chorlton, gardener to J. C. Green, 
Staten Island, best three fancy varieties — Wm. Chorlton, do., do. ; best 
three specimens of scarlet — Alexander Gordon, gardener to E, Hoyt, Asto- 
ria; second best do. — Wm. Vanderventers, Astoria. 

Fuchsias — Best six specimens — John Humphrey, gardener to F. Howe, 
Brooklyn ; second best do — Martin Collopy, gardener to J. H. Prentice , 
special premium — Geo. Hamlin, gardener to W. C. Langley, Brooklyn. 

Cacti — Special premium — -Luke Mullin, Seventy-eighth street, Bloom- 
ingdale. 

Uricas — Best three specimens — L. Menand, Albany. 

Fruits — The fruits consisted of strawberries, cherries and a few nectarines 
and lemons. The following kinds of strawberries were exhibited : Long- 
worth's seedling, Seneck's staminata, Boston pine, Hovey's seedling, Iowa, 
Picton pine, a very large sort, white ; Livingston seedling. Prince Albert, 
white ; black pine, a dark deep red, &c. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 191 



The prizes for strawberries were awarded as follows : 

First premium — J. Hardman, gardener to W. H. Paine and I. Buchanan, 
Astoria. Second premium — Isaac C. Winans and Thos. Duncan, gardener 
to E. J. Woolsey, Astoria. 

The cherries exhibited consisted of fhe following kinds : Elton, Belle de 
Choisy, Black Tartarian, Mayduke, Knight's early black, River's early 
amber. 

First premium — Joseph Cudlipp, Jr., corner of seventy-sixth street and 
Broadway. 

Nectarines — Discretionary premium — to G. A. Maxiner, gardener to AV. 
C. H. Waddell, Esq., New York. 

There were likewise some lemons of a very large size exhibited by James 
Angus, gardener to W. W. Fox, West Farms. 

Vegetables. Potatoes — First premium — James Angus. Second pre- 
mium — J. Hardman. 

Peas — First premium — James Angus, West Farms. Second premium — 
J. Hardman. 

Beets — First premium — Jos. Cudlipp, Jr. Second premium — John Brill, 
N.J. 

Cabbage — First premium^Jos. Cudlipp, Jr. Second premium — John 
Brill, N. J. 

Lettuce — First premium — John Brill, N. J. Second premium — Joseph 
Cudlipp, Jr. Discretionary premium — Charles Winter, corner of Seventy- 
third street and Eleventh avenue. 

Padishes — First premium — James Angus. 

Best display of Vegetables — First premium — John Fick, Bloomingdale, 
Eighth avenue. Second premium — James Angus. 

Cucumbers — First premium — A. Gordon, gardener to E. Hoyt, Astoria. 
Second premium — Wm. H. Mitchell, gardener to William Watson, West 
Farms. 

Cauliflowers — First premium — Martin Collophy, gardener to J. H. Pren- 
tice. Second premium — A. Gordon, Astoria. 

Rhubarb — First premium — A. Gordon. Second premium — John Brill, 
N.J. 

Bouquets — One of the prettiest sights is the collection of bouquets, placed 
on a circular table in a central part of the hall. In front of this table, in 
an ornamental stand of painted wicker work, T. Dunlap, of 634 Broadway, 
exhibits one particularly beautiful. On the large stand behind, mentioned 
above, are grouped various handsome bouquets, some in fancy baskets, and 
others in porcelain vases. The most unique and original article among them 
is a pyramidal structure of flowers, exhibited by Mrs. J W. Faulkner, 
Stamford, Conn. ; the base and plat on which it stands formed of flowers of 
every imaginable hue, and the top, or rather the spire, of the pyramid, for 
such was the idea of the shape that it conveyed, consisted of a pretty variety 
of the common digitalis or foxglove. 

Basket of Flowers — First premium — Walter Park, florist, Brooklyn. — 
Second premium — John Cranston, Castle Point, Hobokcn. 

Hand Bouquets — First premium — James Hagerty, 878 Broadway. Sec- 
ond premium — Walter Park, Brooklyn. 

Parlor Bouquets — Second premium — James Angus, West Farms. 



192 THE FLORIST AND' ' 

Shade Trees. — Mr. Downing, in one of the last numbers of the " Horti- 
culturist," -which appeared before his untimely death, made an onslaugh up- 
on the Ailanthus. From the earnestness of the article one ■ffould have 
thought that the writer had passed a week in Philadelphia. Mr. Hovey has 
lately appealed from the judgment of his deceased cotemporary, which ap- 
peal leads us to the belief that Boston is comparatively free from the nui- 
sance^ If Mr. Hovey was obliged, as the writer is, to walk across Philadel- 
phia twice a day, and be continually subject to the detestable smell, which 
is a cross between sulphuretted hydrogen and what might be called a green 
smell, of their blossoms, he would regret that he had ever said a word in 
their defence. In some of our streets they occur at intervals of a square, so 
that you no sooner get away from the effluvium of one tree than you are met 
by that of another. If some charitable citizens could only form a committee 
of vigilance, and enact lynch law upon every Ailanthus in the city, they 
would deserve a monument eere perennius. 

In Schleiden we lately met the sentence — -"It is a common saying among 
the people, especially among the Germans, that the wood of the lime con- 
tains gold," Now here is a chance for somebody to find a 'placer' near home, 
and to confer upon us a benefit equal to that of destroying the Ailanthus: — 
Let a company be formed to cut down, dig up and burn all the European 
Lindens which at this season obstruct the side-walks with their festoons of 
worms. Whether the amount of gold found would necessitate the erection of 
another mint we are not certain, but we wish the experiment tried. 



■<- 



The Mobile Horticultural Society held its first exhibition last month. 
It seems from the report in the "Alabama Planter," to have been very satis- 
factory. Among those who obtained premiums we noticed the names of se- 
veral of our friends there. The Develins, Geo. L. Brown, and others. In 
future we shall endeavor to obtain full reports of the exhibitions there. 

* 

Wc congratulate our subscribers upon the arrival of several of the plates 
procured in Europe. In the coming numbers of this year we will give figures 
of several novelties lately introduced to British and Continental gardens. — 
The execution of these plates, as will be seen, is far superior to anything 
that can be obtained here — at least at anything under a very extravagant 
price ; and we hope that the additional expense we are at in getting these, 
will induce our friends to lend their aid in obtaining an increase in our sub- 
scription list. 

♦ 

jg^"" We are under obligations to Mr. H. A. Dreer for a basket of Moya- 
mensing Strawberries, which were most exquisite in flavor, and remarkably 
well colored. 

Erratum. — On p. 143, for '■^Oomtes" read Comptes. 

Letters received from J. C. Helm, Esq.. L. Knorr, M. D., yours is re- 
ceived; the numbers shall be sent by the next Havre or Bremen steamer. 

T. M. I suppose that Mr. Lenchars can give his authority for saying 
that the glazing without putty has been mentioned in English papers. 




BEGONIA XANTHINA. 



THE FLORIST 

AID HORTICULTUEAL JOUEML. 



Vol. II.] Philadelphia, July, 1853. [No. 7. 

BEGONIA XANTHINA- 
Yellow-flowered BeGonia. 

Begoniaceae. — Monoecia-Polandria. 

CHAR\C. GENER. — Flores monoici. Masc. Peiigonii tetraphylli foliolis 
siibrotimdis, 4 eiterioribiis majorihus. Stamina plurima; fitamentis brevissimis 
llbpris V. bisi-connatis, antheris extrorsis bilociilai-ihus, loculis linearibus discretis, 
connectivi continul obtusi margin! adnatis Inngitiulinaliter dehiscentibus. Fem. 
Perigonii lubo triptei'o cum ovaiio connate, limbi snperi 4-9-partiti persistentis 
lobis i^luriseriatim imbricatis. Ovarium interum triloculare. Ovula in jiiacentis 
e lorulorum angulo centrali bilamellatis plurima anatiopa. Styli 3 bitidi sti^- 
malihus crassis (lexuosis v. capitatis. Capsula membranaceo-trialata (rilocularis 
loculicide tri^'alvi?. Semiiia plurima minima striata. Embryo in axi albuminis 
carnosi ortbotropus. 

Herba; in Jlsia ct America tropica indigpn(B,fofiis alfernis pctiohtis integris v. 
pal.matilo'>is hn-si sncppxortlatis inaquilnteris integcrrimis rienitilis v. mucronnto- 
semitis si\[i\\\\s Ime.ridihu'i mtni'iranaceis decidui-^-, cymls asillaribui pcdunculacis 
dic/iofomis floribirsf//')/s rospis v. rubintundis. 

CHARACT. SPECIF. — B. acaulis, rhizomale brevi crasso sobtus radicante, 
foliis amplis oblique cordato-ovatis brevi acuminatis sinuatis dcnticulatis subtus 
discoloribus (rirbris,) petiolis aggregatis crassis fcjiium subaequantibns rubris sli- 
pulatis crinilis, setts ]iatentibu5 inlerioribns refiexis. scapo petiolis dupio longiore, 
tloribus nulantibus corvmbosis flavis, masculis tetrasepalis, sepalis 5 oblongo-cunea- 
tis iinico majore rotundato magis concavo, fneininis triplo minoribus hexasepalis, 
sepalis tequalihus ovali-roturidatisf, fructus alls duabus brevibusuiiica horizontaliter 
elongata striata. Hook. 

Begonia xaiitliirin^ Hook, Bot. Mag. t. 4-683. 

Although many diflferenf species of this valuable genus have 
been discovered up to this time, we ha^'c had only those with white 
or rad flower.?. B. cinnabarina with its orange red flowers was an 
approach td what we' now figure — the Begonia xanthhia. But even 
the yellow of this is shaded with the red which prevails in a 
greater or less degree in the flowers or leaves, and stalks of all the 
genus. 

This spacies, Avhich flowered in July, 1852, in tlic collection of 
Mr. Nuttall, at Rainhill, Lincolnshire, was received by him in 1850, 
from the Bootan Himalayas, having been sent thence by his ne- 
phew, Mr. Booth. 
25 



194 THE FLORIST AND 



It may be some time before this beautiful plant is imported into 
this country ; but we know that our enterprizing nurserymen and 
amateurs will obtain it as soon as it finds its way into the hands of 
the trade in Europe. 

HISTORY AND CULTIVATION. 
Few plants have a greater claim on the American plant grower 
than the Begonia. It has been too much the habit to sigh after, 
and bewail the want of "Chiswick Heaths," and other things which 
do not do well in America, to the manifest neglect of many beauti- 
ful things which do. It is time we had ceased to be the mere copy- 
ists- of English horticulture. We have so rapidly advanced, that 
Vfe should aim at an independence that can be acliieved ; and, as in 
government so in gardeniii''-, take our place as one of the horticul- 
tural "nations of the earth." We have been a "colony of Chis- 
wick and Edinboro," "Paris smd Ghent" hitherto ; we have experi- 
enced on every occasion slights and neglects; whatever we do is 
passed over in silence, and whatever we discover remains unno- 
ticed or is scorned. These are some of our greivances. A#l our 
horticultural papers have taken up the subject in turn, and jiressed 
our claims on English journalists; but how have they been met? 
A private- letter on the success of one individual plant- has been pub- 
lished in one magazine ; and two hybrid Peonys have been named 
in Belgium in honor of Americans. Perhaps once a year a short 
extract in the Revue horticole on Forsythia vindissma from the Hor- 
ticulturist ; or, a notice in- the Gardener's Chronicle of how to preserve 
Tomatoes fi-oni: Hovei/s Magazine. We must have done with whining 
and complaining about these things. Let us strike out new courses 
for ourselves. We may never hope to excel them in Heaths, Pan- 
sies. Calceolarias, or many other things, as a general rule, nor is if 
desirable we should. Let them boast of their excellence ; we wilL 
raise another standard. 

The Begonia is peculiarly adapted to become such a plant as t 
have described. Requiring in England a moist and very artificial 
atmosphere, it does not make any very great progress in popular es-- 
timation. Here it thrives with very common care ; all doing in a 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 105 

greenhouse 9 months in the year; and many doing well in the open 
air, if in a some^yhat shaded situation. They are for the most part 
natives of Brazil or Mexico. 

To cultivate them successfully we must divide them into two 
classes: — the ^;i:')ero/« rooted, and the s/i/-w&/)^. Each of these will 
require seperate treatment. The following kinds are amongst the 
best in cultivation, either here, or in English gardens, from whence 
they can be easily procured. 

Tuberous Rooted. 

\. B. discolor or Evansiana, native of China, with pinkish white 
flowers, miiy be had iu bloom from May to October. 

2. cinnabarina, from Bolivia, deep pink or cinnabar, from June 
to October. 

3. Martiana, from Brazil, deep pinky rose, from July to October. 

4. diptenv. Cape of Good Hope, whitish, June to August. 

5. Oai-keri, Mexico, dull white, February toDeceml>er. 

These require to be kept rather drv and cool in the winter sea^ 
son. No. 5. may be had in flower all the year, by having several 
pots, and keeping them dry at diflerent periods. Earlv iu spring 
the tubers may be potted in 6 in. pots, in a soil composed of well- 
decayed leaf mould, loam, and sand. They require little water 
till the leaves appear, when they will take an abundance. They 
may be forwarded in a little heat, but will do pretty well if allow- 
ed to come along with the season. They are easily propagated 
from their tubers, by cuttings, or by seeds. 

Shrubby or Fibrous Rootkd. 

1. B. nitida, native of Jamaica, with pinkish white flowers, and 
large, thick, shining leaves. May be had in bloom all the year, and 
made into handsome specimens. 

2. B. spathulata, a,nother West Indian, with a very erect hal)it 
of growth. The leaves are folded in like spoons, and the small 
white flowers appear at the ends of the young growth. It llowers 
from August to December, and is but an average kind. 

3. B. odorata, a Brazilian kind allied to the last, but luis a fine 
foliage, resembling nitida, the flowers came out like the lust from 
August to December, are much larger and sweet Scented. 



196 THE FLORIST AND 

4. B. hirtella, a Brazilian species, with a rather starved looking 
habit of growth, but an abui'sdance of small, pinky white flowers, 
appearing from June to Decem.ber. 

5. B. ulmifolio, a South American, with elm like leaves, but of no 
great beauty of juower, Only desirable to form a collection. 

■ 6. B. argyrostigma, a Brazilian species, with curiously spotted 
leaves, which is its chief attraction. The flowers appear from Jun^ 
to December, It is a very strong grower^occupies much yoom. 

7. B. hydrocotylifolia, a Brazilian pretty sj^ecies. It is herba-r 
ceous, or has its leaves from a rhizoma creeping on the surface. Its 
pink flowers, borne on scapes about a ippt high, appear frpm febrp- 
ary to May. 

8. B. parvifolia, a native of the Cape of Good Hope. It h^s 
very small leaves, grows about 2 feet high, and is alwaj^s in flower, 
A white flowering and desirable kind. 

9. B. albo-coccinea, ^ West Indian. Its oblique leaves are al- 
most round, are very large and thick, and of a deep red beneath. 
The flowers appear from February to May ; white on the inside, and 
scarlet ori the back. The best of the rhizoma producing kinds, 

10. E. nomonyma, a Brazilian species, in the way of B. manica- 
ta, with small white flowers, continuing from July to November, 

11. B. castaneaefolia. The specimens that I have seen growing 
are so lilve B. \iImifoli£v, that I have either not seen the true species 
or they are both the same. 

12. B. Fischeri, a rather scarce Brazilian species, but one of the 
most desirable, approaching B. incarnata. In the spring months it 
is covered with its numerous pink or white flowers. 

13. B. incarnata, a South ximericap, that should be No. 1 in all 
collections. Its pink flowers may be had nearly all the year. 

14. B. coccinefi, another first rate Brazilian. A strong grower^ 
covered with spikes of scarlet flowers from April to July. 

15. B. manicata, from Brazil. A fine species when well grown, 
though the individual flowers are indifferent. The leaves are dis- 
tinguished by a production resembling the claws of a mole on their 
under surface. Flowers in winter and spring. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 197 

16. B. fuchsoides, a well known species from New Grenada, with 
fuchsia like foliage, and scarlet flowei's, appearing from June to 
September, a strong grower and fine kind. 

The species of this division are readily propagated from cuttings 
of the half ripened wood, put in sand, and plunged in a slight bot^ 
torn heat. They are liable to damp off if kept too close. Indeed 
if they are in a situation somewhat shaded they Avill do better 
without the usual accompaniment of a bell glass. They will grow 
well in a soil of sandy loam and leaf mould. They should never 
be grown in very large pots ; or, in the language of gardeners, 
should be always under potted. When growing fast they take a 
good supply of moisture ; love a moist atmosphere and fVequent ap-. 
plications of the syringe, and may be placed in the full light. If a 
moist atmosphere cannot be maintained, they will do better in a 
shaded part of the green house. The chief thing to guard against, 
is their damping off; small, well drained pots are the securities. 
When they are not growing they will live and do better with very 
little water. They are easily raised from seed, sown on the surface 
of the soil in pai^s, and placed in a warm shaded place, with the 
only attention of never being allowed to get dry. Some fine varie= 
ties, I believe, have been lately raised by hybridizing in Europe, 
It opens a fine field. 

I think the remark of the Calendar writer in the last No. worthy 
of repetition; that the Horticultural Society would do well to encour- 
age the growth of the Begonia by a premium. 

A Philadelphia Gardener. 



THE AURICULA. 

Dear Sir : 

Allow me to draw the attention of your readers to that much 
neglected but truly desirable class of flowers the Auricula. There 
appears to be a general idea prevailing amongst many persons that 
considerable difficuly is experienced in cultivating this lovely gem 
in our climate. This notion is certainly erroneous, and the object 



198 THE FLORIST AND 

of the following remark is to show how this may be accomplished. 
The Auricula, (Primula auricula,) is one of the very numerous spe- 
cies of Primrose, and no mean species either. Linnaeus claims 
this genus for Pentandria monogynia, and it forms the type of the 
natural order PrimulaceaD. Our present subject is indigenous to 
the alpine districts of the Eurojsean continent, Sj'ria, and occasion- 
ally is found in the same situations in Britain, though rare. Its 
name Auricula has been applied from the supposed resemblance of 
the form of the leaves, to the ear of an animal, and hence the vul- 
gar cognomen "Bear's Ears," a name somewhat rcA^olting to the 
taste of some of our delicp,te aijd sensitive belles, but quite in 
character with the quaint and uncouth, yet intelligent and enthu- 
siastic class of individuals, v/ith whom it originated. In a wild 
state, the colours are j'ellow, purple, and variegated, and I am in- 
iclined to think, in opposition to the acknowledgement of some bot- 
anist, that two or three which are considered as distinct species, are 
nothing more than varieties of this, if so we may include white 
also. Handsome as the different A-arieties of this flower appear 
naturally, the claim to beauty has been so much pphanced, by the 
perseverance aijd enthusiam of the florist's fostering care, for the 
last three huudred years, that at length, it has assumed a perfect 
symmetry of outline and marking, which renders it truly a gem. 
Wei'e it only for the peculiarly rich odor of tlie flowers, it deserves 
a place in every garden, but when Ave combine this with the evei^ 
green and neat habit of the plant, and the exquisite beauty of the 
floAver, it seems strange as the cultivation is so easy, that it is not 
more generally seen, even Avhat is grown are mostly A'arieties of no 
pretension to perfection, but simply a step or tAvo, removed from the 
natural state. 

The Auricula is divided by florists into four classes, viz, green 
edged, gray edged, white edged, and selfs, the edged classes being 
mostly esteemed as exhibition flowers, although the selfs are tol- 
erated and encouraged. There are also, several double A'arieties, 
but these are not considered equally valuable, yet they are well 
Avorthy of attention. 

The following criteria constitute what is considered to be the 
main points of excellence in a prize Auricula. The stem should be 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 199 

strong, erect, and high enough to raise the truss of flowers above 
the foHage. The individual footstalk, sufficiently strong to support 
the flower, and of a proportional length to the number of pips, so 
that they may not crowd each other, and which should not be less 
thaa seven in number, that the truss may be close and compact, and 
form somewhat a half globe. The tube containing the anthers, the 
eye, and the exterior circle, ought to be well proportioned, which 
will be the case if the diameter of the tube be one part, the e3-e 
three, and the whole pip six or seven. If edged the margin should 
be about equal with the next inner circle. The edges ought to be 
smooth, having no serrature, so as to appear starry, and the Umb or 
upper surface, flat and even. The nearer the' outUne approaches 
to a perfect circle the better, although the very best flowers do not 
quite come up to this i^oint as yet. Whatever the colours, they 
should be clear, bold, and distinct, and divided in a perfect circle, 
or the dark markings form a circle next the ej'e, and extend out 
towards the outer rim on each lobe, so as to form so many half cir- 
cles. In the selfs the colours ouoht to be uniform, bright and 
solid, or shaded off towards the outer margin distinctly and clear. 
Around the exiltivation of nature's greatest beauties there is gen- 
erally a halo of mystery thrown. When an}^ thing of this kind 
becomes recognized as a general favorite, speculative ideas, and 
vague theories have each a po-ttion of precedence, and as some of 
these peculiarities happen to succeed, the}' ai*e lauded, n^ade public, 
and the tyro catches up the most ridiculous notions. Our present 
subject has not entirely escaped from this general contagion, for if 
we refer to some old and long established growers of the Auricula, 
we find that one thinks that the rotted doWn roots of the Willow, 
is the only matrix in wliich it will approach perfection; others again 
suppose, that nothing is so suitable as I'ushcs decomiDosed into 
mould, and a portion of the same material cut short in afresh state, 
and strewed over the drainage ; while some will not believe in any 
fertilizer, but blood, mixed up with maiden earth, and laid together 
for a season. Now all these materials are well enough in their 
place for other things besides the Auricula, but to say that they are 
absolutely necessarj-, and that nothing else will produce the same 



200 THE FLORIST AND 

quality, partakes of a superstitious and retrograde movement, and 
belongs to the old school. The fact is, all that is required, is a 
tolerably rich and cool base, for if too poor the plattt will be weak 
and the flowers correspondingly so, and if too rich the trusses are 
apt to become monstrosities, having irregular shaped flowers, and 
too crowded to form a handsome bunch, with confused colours, and 
undefined markings. In these remarks, I would not wish to detract 
from the honor due to the old floral veterans, to whose zeal wei owd 
tt debt of gratitude, whose exertions have produced many of the 
■V'ery best flowers, and without which we should have been minus 
of many classes of the greatest beauty. Still we must move ahead 
we live in an age of progress, and if we cannot accomplish greater 
individual perfection, wd can certainly attain to the same by raor6 
simple means. To grow the Auricula, plant in a tolerably rich Soil^ 
a suitable compost may bd formed, by mixing two thirds fresh loam 
from a pasture, and one third cow dung, well rotted, and laid in a 
heap a few months before beiilg used. Fresh dung injures die colours, 
and causes the plant to grow too rank and deficient in substance, 
tvhen thirl and papery flowers are the consequence. 

The Ailricula may be grown in pots, or planted out into frames, 
or the open grouiid. If it is desirable to have a show of this 
flower in the green-house of parlour window; about the middle of 
August, prepare a quantity of six inch pots, place in the bottom of 
each, about an inch of broken crocks, or what is bettet the same 
depth of lumps of charcoal, over this put a layer of moss or fibry 
turf, to prevent the soil from falling down amongst the drainage, 
next fill in a portion Of the above mentioned compost, and place 
into the centre of each pot a good and strong single crown. Before 
planting examine the roots and cut away any decaj^ed portions, 
spread them out carefully, and fill up to the rim \vifh soil, press it a 
little tight about the crown, and give the pot a smart rap or two 
tipon the potting bench, which will settle all and leave a little space 
for future wateriilg, do not jolant too deep, but let the collar of the 
plant be somewhat elevated, which will prevent damping off, after 
potting give a good watering, but do not repeat this afterwards 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 20 1 

further, than to keep the plant in health, for the Auricula is impa- 
tient of too much moisture, and most particularly so while at rest 
in the Avinter. In order to avoid continued saturation, the pots 
.should be placed in a position where the water can pass away 
freely, and likewise shaded from the sun's Ta.ys; if plunged in a bed 
of sand or porous ashes, so much the better, and if worms should 
get into the potsj give it a soaking when dry with lime water, using 
the clear liquid; here they may remain till the approach of severe 
w^eather, when thd pots ought to be washed and the plants carefully 
looked ov^r (all decayed leaves should be removed clean away,) 
when they may be taken into the greenhouse and placed near the 
glass, freely exposed to the air and light j water carefully and 
rather sparingly at first, afterwards gradually increase it, (but at no 
time unduly,) as they advance towards blooming; do not give 
much artificial heat, or the flowers will be rendered weak or abor- 
tive; a Camellia or Geranium house is quite hot enough, in which a 
temperature of 45 at night ought to be kept; 

Wherei there is riot the luxury of a greenhouse, the same object 
may be accomplished by a common garden frame, (in foct a much 
better display to my taste) and with much less trouble and expense 
considering the great number of plants that may grown. In this 
case, during the latter part of August, or earfy in September, place 
one or more frames, according to the nurtibdr of plants, in a situa- 
tion 'freely exposed to the sun, and upon a well drained bottom, dig 
up the base so that the water may pass freely through, and fill in 
with about eight inches of the before mentioned compost, divide 
the plants into single crowns, the same as recommended for pots, 
and plant about six inches apart ; if dry weather give a good 
watering, and keep off the glass till frosty weather sets in, when 
the sashes may be put on, and air admitted freely through the day. 
In case of rain the lights may be tilted up at the bade, which will 
keep the plants dry and prevent any danger from rot. Open early 
in the morning, and keep all at rest till towards the middle of Jan- 
uary, when the lights may be closed somewhat earlier in llie eve- 
ning, and the sun's heat allowed more freely: cover wiih straw 
26 



202 THE FLORIST AND 

- mats or other material, to keep out the frost, and Hue round tiie 
sides with rough litter or cleiin straw for the same purpose. When 
the flower trusses commence to pujh, water may be more freely 
given, but not ovefhead, unless in case of a genial showers, which 
seldom occurs at this time, and after the pips begin to expand, do 
not let even the rain in upon them, as much of the fine powdery 
substance, which constitutes a great portion of their beauty, would 
be thereby washed off, but apply water more freely between the 
rows, admit air sufficient, but avoid beating winds. By following 
these directions, and having a good stock of plants, the ]&veT of 
flowers may be rewarded through the months of March and April,- 
without the aid of a greenhouse, with one of the loveliest sights,- 
and most enchanting scents in Flora's kingdom. So far we have 
spoken of the little favorite as a nursling and treasured up pet, but 
like many other of God's blessings, it is not so very mindful of 
man's fostering care. There are many of our city yards in which 
there is a shaded and sheltered spot, in all such there is ample ac- 
commodation for this plant ; use a fertile and well drained soilj 
screened from the burning orb of siunmer, and the thawing gleams 
of winter, and we can be recompensed by a sight of its beauty, and 
refreshed by its delicious odor, without any other protection, al- 
though of course if protected and taken care of under glass, we 
have greater perfection, and shall be no losers for our extra trouble. 

After blooming is fairly over, choose a piece of ground sheltered 
from the midday sun, if moist but yet drained, so much the bet-' 
ter, plant out in rows a foot apart, and six inches in the row, place 
a little deeper than before, which will cause them to push out side 
roots. If dry give a good watering when planted and an occasion- 
al repetition, in case of drought through the summer ; no further 
care is required, unless Red Spider, or Aphides should attack, 
when a good syringing with soap-suds, will speedily eridicate 
them. 

The following list, containing twelve of the best in each class,- 
is from the authority of Mr. John Slater, one of the "Lancashire 
Heroes," and a sure guide, a man whose enthusiam knows no 
bounds, and whose honesty is equal to his perseverance. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 203 

GREEN EDGED. 

Litton's ImpenTtor, Leed's Colonel Taylor, Booth's Freedom, 
Pollitt's Highland Laddie, Ashton's Prince of Wales, Pollitt's 
Standard of England, Yates' Morris Green Hero, Oliver's Lovely 
Ann, Barlow's King, Howard's Nelson, Moore's Jubilee, Page's 
Champion. 

GREY EDGED. 

Cheetliara's Lancashire Hero, Syke's Complete, Kenyon's Ring- 
leader, Grimes' Privateer, Fletcher's Ne Plus Ultrft, Fletcher's 
Mary Ann, Waterhouse's Conqueror of Europe, Rider's Waterloo, 
Kent's Queen Victoria, Taj-lor's Plough Boy, Beeston"s Fair Flora, 
Ashworth's Newton Hero. 

WHITE EDGED. 

Taylor's Favorite, Lee's Venus, Ashworth's Regular, Taylor's 
Incomparable, Taylor's Glory, Wood's Delight, Catharina, Popple- 
well's Conqueror, Kanyon's Lord Chancellor, Hepworth's True 
Briton, Chietham's Countess of Wilton, Pott's Regulator. 

SEl.FS. 

Netherwood's Othello, Kay's Jupiter, Blegg's Blue Bonnet, Ber- 
ry's Lord Primate, Berry's Lord Lee, Grimes' Flora's Flag, Eed- 
mayne's Metropolitan, Schole's Ned Lud, Whittaker's True Blue, 
Bradshavv's Tidy, Barker's Nonsuch, Gorton's Stadtholder. 

Yours Most Respectfully, 

WILLIAM CHORLTON, 

New Brighton, Slaten Inland. 
June 27, 1853. 

GARDENS OF PAEONIA MOUTxiN IN CHINA. 

IIV R. FORTUNE. 

These gardens are situated near the village of Fa-who, about 5 
or 6 miles west from Shangae, in the midst of a vast ccnnitry of 
cotton plantations. On the way I met a large number of coolies 
each cari-y two btiskots of Moutan-paconics in full flower: tboy went 



204 TILE FLORIST AND 

to sell them in market. Arrived at the gardens I found there q. 
nmnber of these plants in flower a^d of a remarkable beauty, The 
purple and lilac species especially attracted the sight : ampng others 
a very pretty kind apparently distinct, with finely cut Ipfives and 
flowers of a velvety purple, like the Tuscany rose of our gardens. 
The Chinese call it Moutan Peony (black) and I believe it to be 
the same as that called atro-sanguinea by Dr. Lindle}', in the journal 
of the Horticultural Society of London. Another species cjilled 
"tse" or purple, had double flowers of a remarkable size ; it is pro? 
bably this variety which they say has a thousand petals, and did 
not exi.st but in the garden of the emperor. The third kind is call- 
ed "Ian" (blue :) it is a lilac variety; its flowers are of the color of 
Wistaria Sinensis. There are besides other kinds of purple differr 
ently shaded, very distinct from the preceding and equally bea^r 
tiful. 

The double Avhites are also numerous and very remarkable. The 
largest among them has been called P. globosa by Dr. Lindley, but 
there are 4 or 5 others- which approach very near to this. Sonie 
have a light shade of lilac, Avhich gives tone to their color. The 
best is that called "wang" (yellow) hy the Chinese; this variety, of 
a straw color, is verybeautifpl, but notwithstanding inferior to sopie 
others. 

The red peonies (Hong) are equally numerous. What is strange, 
is, that the kinds common at Canton and in England, are very rare 
here. These gardens contain about a half-dozen of new varieties 
of red peonies ; among others, that called "Van-3-ang-hong" by the 
Chinese, is the most beautiful plant which I have ever seen. Its 
flowers are of a brighf^ancl pure red, entirely different from all the 
others perfectly double ; each of them is about ten inches in diamer 
ter. In all I counted nearly thirty distinct varieties in these 
gardens. 

The greater part of these beautiful varieties of Paecnia Moutan 
are unknown at Canton. This may seem strange in a country 
where flowers are so generally sought for ; but the Chinese {ire in 
everj^thing such conservatives that a slight acquaintance with their 
customs will suffice to explain this apparent anomaly. The gardens of 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 205. 

Canton derive their supplies of P. Moutanfrom a district situated 
more in the west than Shano-hae. From time immemoi'ial the same 
gardens have furnished these flowers ; they arrive always by the; 
same road, and at the same time of the year. It seems that Shan- 
ghae until the end of the last war, has never been in communica- 
tion with Canton, at least in what concerns flowers, consequently 
these beautiful varieties of Peony could not obtain a route towards; 
the south and thence to Europe. 

The establishments where they cultivate exclusively the Paeonia 
Moutan are numerous, but very small. They have the appearance 
of our cottage gardens, and are cared for in the same way, that is,, 
by all the members of the family : thp women take as much part 
in it as the men : they are very avaricious and love money ex- 
tremely. When they have been consulted, I alwaj's had to pay- 
dearer for the acquisitions of plants which I made. The soil of 
these gardens is rich and well-manured ; this latter circumstance 
renders it less compact than the soil where they cultivate cotton. 

The propagation and management of the Paeonia Moutan seems 
to have been perfectly understood b}^ the Chinese at Shanghae, much 
better than with us. Our horticulturists complain without ceasing 
of the difficulty of multiplying this beautiful plant, and this makes 
the price remain high. Here is the method which the Chinese 
pursue, and which our groAvers moy try. 

At the commencement of October, they collect in the sheds and 
out-houses a great quantity of the roots of a certain herbaceous 
Peony, roots which must serve for subjects of Paeonia Moutan. The 
bundle of tubercles which forms the root of a herbaceous peony is 
divided, and each little root, in shape of a finger, becomes a subject 
upon which they grati; the P. Moutan. Having placed a great 
number of these tulaorcles upon the potting table, they bring the 
grafts of the plants which they wish to multiply. Each graft is 
but an inch and a half to two inches long ; it is the extremity of a 
shoot made during the summer ju.'=;t finished. The under part of it 
is cut into a wedge and inserted on the top of the finger shaped tu- 
bercle of which we spoke. The graft is covered by a ligature or 
by clay and the operation is complete. A great number of grafts 



206 THE FLORIST AND 

being thus made, they are carried to the garden and planted in rows 
distant about a foot and a half; the same space is left between 
plants in the same row. In planting, the head of the graft only re- 
imains above the soil; the part where the graft unites with the tubercle 
is always buried. Kaempfer says that the Chinese multiply the Moutan 
Peony by bud-grafting ; this is an error, this process is never prac- 
ticed by them, they do not even understand it. The author has 
been led into the error by the sraallne;ss of the bud which they use, 
this having but one eye at its end. 

Each autumn sees thousands of plant's grafted in this way. The 
little empty space which may be seen in the rows proves the good- 
ness of the method ; in fact a graft rarely fails to grow. At the end 
pf about fifteen days the union of the root and the graft is complete : 
jn the following spring the plants are beautiful and vigorous. They 
generally flower the first spring or at the latest in the second ; it is 
then that they are taken up and carried to be sold in the market in 
the way I have described. The plant which has but one stalk and 
ojie flower has more value in the e3-es of the cultivator at Shanghae 
than a stronger one ; it is sold more easily, produces a very large 
flower, and presents no difficulty neither for lifting nor for transpor- 
tation, Thanks to this circumstance I could always procure strong 
plants more advantageously than small ones. 

In the gardens of the mandarins can often be met Peonies of a 
ponsiderable size. Near Shanghae there is one Avhich annually pro- 
duces 3 to 400 flowers. The proprietor takes as much care of it as 
could the most enthusiastic amateur of his tulips. During its floAver- 
ing, it was protected fi'om the burning rays of the sun by a tent of 
canvass ; in front was a seat where the visitor enjoyed in full the 
sight of these magnificent flowers. Every day, for several hours, 
the old man installed himself there, and while pipes and bowls of 
tea succeeded each other he looked lovingly upon his favorite "Mou- 
tan wha." It was certainly a noble plant, well worthy of the ad- 
iniration of the old amateur, to whom I wish the pleasure of sitting 
a long time yet under his tent, to enjoy so beautiful a sight. 

Translated from the Flore dcs Series. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 207 

CHINESE PRIMROSE. 

Winter flowering plants are not too plentiful, at least sucli as 
will bloom in the cool temperature of a gi-eeiihouse; we have many 
fine winter flowering exotics, but they either require a hothouse 
temperature to bloom freely, or are more diflficut to manage during 
summer; we are indebted to the Celestials for many of our most 
valuable winter flowers, Azaleas, Camellias and among others that 
beautiful little gem the Chinese primrose. They are alll of hardy 
and robust habit, and are thus within the reach of all, so far as 
cultivation is concerned, a recommendatioit of much importance to' 
those amateurs who cannot devote much time to their collection. 
It has often occutrect to me when visiting amateurs' greenhouses, 
that they would derive much more pleasure froni their labors were 
they more select in the choice of their plants, choosing those only' 
of known hardy and free blooming qualities, instead of aiming at 
a varied assortment, often expensive, and rarely satisfactory. I 
was more deeply impressed with this fact during a visit to an en- 
thusiastic amateur last winter. On entering his greenhouse 1 was 
struck with the gay and cheerful appearance it presented, and it 
was only when about leaving that I observed the only plants in 
flower were a few Camellias, two or three Cinnerarias, and a quan- 
tity of Primulas of various colors, but these were so well arranged 
and set off with a profusion of healthy foliage, and the Primroses 
showing such fine rounded trusses, that I am confident not one 
person in ten would have noticed this simplicity of its productiort. 

Athough this plant is very hardy, I am aware that many ama- 
teurs are not so successful with it as they would wish. This, I pre- 
sume, arises principally from its liabilitj^ to decay if kept too damp 
at root, either from using pots of a large size, or sttpplying water 
too freely. Four and six inch pots will be found of ample size, 
not that a plant will not grow in a pot three feet in diameter as 
well as it would in one inches. The only difference would be that, 
in the former, the plant wo^uld probably require water once a month 
and the latter daily. 



208 THE FLOEIST AND 



to keep up a succession of flowers for four or five months, seed 
should be put in at intervals of five or six weeks, fjom June to Sep- 
tember, soil of a sandy nature should be prepared, and the seeds 
very slightly covered. The front shelf in the greenhouse will be a 
suitable place for them while growing, they should be encouraged 
by transplanting into a shallow box as soon as the first true leaf 
makes its appearance. If thinlj^ planted (not closer than three 
indhes) they can remain until sufficiently strong to be placed at 
once into flowering pots. These must be well drained by placing 
a handfid of broken material in each pot. If attention is paid t6 
this, there will be little fear of damp, if ordinary care is given in 
watering. Two small stakes should be inserted one each side of 
the plant, crossing other at top, no tying will be necessary, this will 
prevent them from toppling over and breaking ofi" at the neck ^ 
where thdy are very weak. A few of the latest sowing should be 
feet apart for seedling. A little care and' attention should be 
given to their selection, choosing those with large, well colored 
fringed flowers. Sometimes they incline to be semi-double; these 
should have the prefei'ence. About the middle of May they should 
te set out in the sun, watered regularly, and if they receive an oc- 
casional application of manure water the value of the seed will be 
enhanced. Under these conditions an abundance of seed will be 
secured. It is not worth trouble to preserve old plants; young 
bnes flowering with much more vigour; any particularly fine va- 
riety, however, may be turned out of the pot after it has done 
blooming, some of the old soil removed and replaced in fresh com- 
post. The double varieties are much superior to the single ones. 
Hiey are increased by dividing the plant into cuttings. To propa- 
gate theni requires a cool dry situation, partially shaded, paying 
great attention in watering, they must be kept rather dry until 
they begin to show symptoms of growth; otherwise they are cer- 
tain to decay. It is probably on this account that they are not so 
extensively cultivated as they deserve to be. Delta. 



nORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 200 



ON THE DOUBLE CHINESE PRIMROSE. 

To the Editor of the Florist, Sir : As you invite communica- 
tions fj-om practical gardeners, I offer a few remarks on the above ; 
as I think it a much rarer plant than it ought to be — few plants 
excel it in simple beauty, and by proper management it may be 
had in bloom every mo'nth in the year. Being double, it can only 
be propagated by cuttings, which may be taken off at any time, and 
readily struck in sand under a bell glass. In about three weeks 
they are sufhcientl}" rooted to pot into single pots. I find them to 
thrivd best in a compost of rough leaf mould and sandy loam, in 
well drained pots. I repot them as often as they become well 
rooted; and pinch off every flower stalk that appears till the plant 
is sii months old at least. I then let it flower on, and as each 
flower truss shows symptoms of withering, pluck it out. By this 
course it will continue to flower a whole year.- They frequently 
die out from exhaustion at this time, and the only way I find to 
prevent this, is to divide the plaiit into off-.sets, and so start with 
them as with new plants. Tliey always do well with me by this 
treatment. The double white is the commonest and m.ost easy to 
be procured ; but I have observed in a report of the Pennsylva- 
nia Society, that the purple exists also in your neighborhood. 

If you think thef above worth}^ of insertion in the Florist, I 
shuuld be happy to send you some others when I have leisure. 

Yours, &c.. HoRTUS. 



NOTES ON TLOSE CULTURE, 

itv A i.ovER OF ROSES. (Continued.) 
Hybrid Perpictuai, or TJemontant Roses. — This division of the 
Rose Avas iutroduiced to us about 15 or 16 years ago and according 
to the opinions of good judges it originated between the perpet- 
ual Rose Du Roi and the Bourbon Rose ; they have been till veiy 
recently nearly all of a crimson or dark red coh)r. Florists and 
Rose-growers generally esteem these the finest of all Roses, to 
which I would coincide, provided, tliey were constant monthly 
27 



210 THE FLOPJST AND 

bloomers, which they are not, giving only two or perhaps faintly a 
third bloom with a meagre Hower in the autumnal months. They 
richly deserve special attention for their fine bold flowers, rich Ib- 
liage, and luxuriant shoots when on their own roots ; or if budded 
they make very admired standard Eose trees. But oh ! what nice- 
ty of ej-e, how critical the judgment to detect the difference of one 
half of them. For my own pleasure and gratification I would not 
give a groschen for 5ths of them ; but we are so led oft' our guard 
by "have you got so and so," we blush to own up, and buy nearly 
all, good, bad, and indifferent ; but pray who would grow Doctor 
Marx, Dr. Margolin, Madam Laffay, and nearly 50 others ; all redy 
rosy red, dark red, light crimson, and such transpositions, meaning 
nearly the same in color and character? So be it. I Avid not de- 
tail before your thousands of readers such ec|uivocal teims, but give 
off hand and full in my eye, a score that will please the most fasti* 
dious. 

Auguste Mie, clear Avaxy rose, cupped petals. 

]3aronne Hallez, dark purple crimson, fine form. 

Baronne Prevost, rose color, very large. 

Caroline de Sansal, large, rosy blush, pink centre, of remarkably 
strong growth. 

Duchesse de Montpeusier, pale satiny rose, very fragrant. 

Giant of the Battle, nearly bright scarlet. Is this not the rose of 
the group? Every one of jour readers that Avishes a rose bush that 
is perfectly hardy, bright in color, and constant in bloom may chos© 
this subject. 

Julie de Krudner, a new rose, nearly white, very double, and 
agreeably fragrant. 

La Peine. I hesitate about this though a most superb flo■t^•er; 
it has a paucity of bloom not altogether to my firncy ; the color too 
is undexdded being a rosy lilac, but extremelj' large and luxuriant in 
growth. 

Lion des Combats, reddish crimson, shaded with scarlet, large, 
full, and fragrant. 

Louise Le Clerc, delicate blush, perfect form, very profuse and 
frftgi-ant. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 211 

Ma'lam LafFay, purplish lilac, inclining to crimson, very full reg- 
ular llower, plant of strong growth. 

Madam Rives, quite a new varietj-, of a pale flesh or silvery 
blush color, of great substance, \ery distinct and perfectly formed. 

Marqui^i Boccella, pale blush, dwarf habit, a constant bloomer, 
verv distinct. 

Pius 9th, crimsou purple, very large, full and perfect, a profuse 
bloomer of strong growth. 

Patenotte, pale i-ose, very exquisite form, fragrant and profuse, 
quite a new variety. 

Queen Victoria, (Paul's) blush white, shaded with pink or peach 
blossom color, large, very full, and distinct from any other variety, 
quite new, very desiralale. 

Robin Hood, bright carmine, beautifully globular, and a ram- 
pant grower. 

William Griffith, satiny rose, distinct color, a large bold petaled 
flower, quite new, and will rank amongst the best. 

William Jesse, a favorite variety of a rosy crimson color, edged 
with lilac, very large, full, and constant, 

Yolande d'Arragon, pale rose, producing its flowers in clusters 
the whole season, a strong grower. Sydonie, a newer variety is 
very like this, and I am doubtful if it is any improvement uj^on it, 
unless to a verj' critical observer. 

I have not seen a clear good white as yet in this group. Florists 
and catalwjues tell us of Blanche Vibert — white it is, but a sickly 
looking flower and plant, at the best. Blanche Portemer has nothing 
more attractive about it. A good white such as the old Madam 
Hardy is much wanted, it would be a treasure. There are over 100 
of these Hybrid Perpetual varieties cultivated, one half of them 
are nearly fic similies of each other. They all require more stimu- 
lation in their culture than any othei- roses ; if a strong lu.xuriaut 
growth is not produced a very meagre show will follow ; dark rich 
green foliage and strong shoots will produce a corresponding bloom 
— but yellow foliage and weak growth produces similar sickly 
blooms, deficient in color, size, and fragrance. Also, r)liserve that 
takin; off one half of the buds in Ma\' and Juno, is bonplicial to a 



212 THE FLORIST AND 



continuance of bloom during the season; in dry weather they should 
be liberally supplied with rich water or soap suds, or if the ground 
has been abundantly manured, Avater of anj"- description will suit ; 
observing that one copious supplj' onoe a week is better than a small 
portion every day. 

Noisette Roses are those clustering sorts that bloom from early 
in the season till destroyed by frost ; their flowers are generally 
small, though there are now soine of them nearly as large as any 
others, but the size takes from their profusion. The growth of the 
family is of all grades, from 1 foot to 20 feet in a season ; unfortu- 
nately for us, however, the faier kinds are rather tender, being near^ 
1}' or entirely killed in our severe winters. Those tender kinds of 
greatest splendor are Lanaarque, Cloth of ppld, Solfatare, La Vic- 
torieuse. These are hybridised with the Tea Rose, making them 
more tender ; but for rnilder climates than Philadelphia th^ spleur 
dor of them equals any description. A friend Avrites me frofp 
Texas, thet Cloth of Gold reaches the 3d story, and is in bloom 9 
months of the year, and its odor equal to the magnolia. In pruning 
Noisette Roses, thin out the old wopd, and shorten the wood of the 
previous season. The young wood should always be allowed to 
have its full growth, as it is most frequently terminated Avith a clus- 
ter of flowers ; the sorts without encroaching upon their beauties 
might be cm-tailed to pne full dozen, which would comprise as 
follows : 

Aimie Vibert, pure white, very compact, a dwarf grower. 

Cloth of Gold, a very luxuriant groAver, requiring dry rich soil; 
flowers quite large, frequently 5 inches in diameter, opening a bright 
lemon yelloAA', and fading to a pale straAv color; should be protected 
by covering in Avinter. 

Desprez or Jaune Desprez, flowers buff qplor shaded Avith pink, in 
profuse clusters, very fragrant, plant vigorous, 

Fellenberg, color pink, red, or crimson as the season may be; a 
constant bloomer — does very well for a piazza or pillar, quite 
hardy. 

Lafayette, this old fine pink rose must not be neglected ; there 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 213 

are few or none to equal it in color and profusion ; a moderate 
grower, flowers prettily cupped and quite profuse. 

Odorata, pure white, very sweet, an abundant bloomer and per- 
fectly hardy; stood the winter of '61, without any protection; of 
moderate growth. 

Ophirie, color orange, orange and pink, pale yellow or bright yel- 
low, all according to the weather and season ; blooms abundantly, 
especially in the autumnal months, flowers very double, plant hardy 
and growing freel}^ ; quite distinct, foliage of a pleasing lively green. 

Philippart, dark pink, must be well established before its charac- 
ter is fully ascertained ; blooms in large clusters ; exceedingly hardy 
and of strong growth. 

Pourpre de Tyre, not easily to decide whether t^is variety is a 
Bourbon or Noisette ; but florists place it where I now do. The 
flowers of medium size, dark red or crimson color ; plant of mode- 
rate growth. 

Triomphe de la Duchere, one of the very best Noisette roses, 
flowers abundant, large, full, of a rosy pink color and fragrant ; 
plant strong, but not rampant. 

Vittelina, pure white, fine form, buds shaded with pink, very 
double, medium size, growth moderate, very desirable. 

Lamarque, flowers very large, white with a sulphur yellow cen- 
tre, plant of strong growth, requires a dr}^ sheltered situation with 
a rich soil, and to be protected during the severe weather about 
Philadeljohia. 

I have omitted many others nearly equal to the above, such as 
Solfatare, Du Luxemberg, Phaloe, Boulogne, Augusta, &c. Of the 
latter I may say that I have not yet conversed with a judge or no 
judge of roses, in this vicinity, who pronounces it equal or nearly 
equal to the published description of it. I paid a V. for my plant, 
and consider it fully paid. If I was now to make out a list to send 
to my Florist, I would say Cloth of Gold, Ophirie, Augusta, &c. 

[To be continued.] 



214 THE FLORIST AND 

THE STRAWBERRY CONTROVERSY. 

The communication of Mr. Meehan to the Pennsylvania Horti- 
cultural Society, seems to have excited the opposition of all those 
persons, and we believe they are the majority, who have settled the 
question to their own satisfaction, that the Strawberry is either 
pistillate or staminate, and unchangeably so. Mr. Meehan has 
produced his plants (of Hovey's Seedling), with staminate floAvers. 
The Strawberry cultivators pronounce them ( in the teeth of Mr. 
M's assertion that they are runners from pistillate plants,) to be 
not Hovey's, but another variety, Some others talk of the absur- 
dity of plants being fruitful without fertilization, which, Avhether 
fl,bsurd or not, Mr. M. does not claim for his plants ; we have seen 
nothing yet on that side in the way of argument, it is all asser- 
tion ; — The Cinn. Hort. Society, formally pronounced it impossible, 
iand with them there is no apjieal from their "ipse dixit. 

In the last number of the Farm. Journal, we have a letter, which 
we suppose is from the eminent botanist of that region, which we 
copy, as suggesting many reasons whj Mr. Meehan may be 
right. 

The statenipnt of ^Iii. JIeehax, in the Apiil numher of the Farm Jour- 
nal, alleging that he has observed the sexual characters of the Strawberry 
flowers to be variously modified by culture, or different methods of treatment 
— has elicited some strong asseverations of opinion, in contradiction to that 
allegation of fact. One writer unhesitatingly declares the alleged change 
to be '■^uttei'ly impossible:" and I understand that in the Queen City of the 
West, they hjive had a,p>ublie gatliering, to deliberate on the subject, which 
resulted in a Pronunciamento adverse to Me. Meehax's statement, — his 
facts and observations being fcjedcd by a clear majority of the voters pre- 
sent ! The matter being thus settled, by preq-rable and resolution after the 
manner of political diiSculties at a war-meeting, it may seem to be out of 
order, now, to offer any remarks on the controverted topic. Nevertheless, 
as this is reputed to be a Free Country, I should like to be indulged with 
the privilege of submitting a few suggestions, — if not in arrest of judgement, 
at least as a plea in mitigation of the sentence, against my friend Meehan. 
It is the remark of a vigorous and sagacious modern writer, that "no scien- 
tific question was ever yet settled dogmatically, nor ever will ;" and I think 
the same may be especiallj' predicated of questions of fact, in Natural His- 



HORTICQLTURAL JOURNAL. 21& 



torfi I taay here observe, that I was favored with the opportunity of ex- 
atuining one of Mr. Meehan's specimens, — in which there were certainly 
two scapes from the same root — one bearing a cyme of pistillate flowers 
(with minute rudiments of abortive stamens,) and the other a cyme of p)er- 
fect, or hermaphrodite flowers : and whether the specimen was the progeny 
of a pistillate, a staminate, or a hermaphrodite plant, I should think the in- 
ference plausible, that the flowers on at least 07ie of these two cymes, must 
must have been a modification, or altered product, of the parent plant. It 
is this kind of change, in the character of the flowers, which I understand 
Mr. Meeuan to announce, as having occurred in plants under his manage- 
ment. Now, in view of the cotintless modifications daily observable in the 
organs of plants — and especially in the floral organs — I can perceive no' 
sufiicient ground for declaring the changes, reported by Mr. Meehajj, to be' 
''^utterly impossible." The modifications here referred to, are a very differ- 
ent thing from the alleged transmutation of one hind to another, — which' 
is vulgarly supposed to take place in certain plants, just as the Alchemists' 
formerly pretended was affected among the metals. They merely alter the 
texture, distort the forms, or affect the developemcnts of organs; but do' 
neither change nor annihilate those essential characteristics, by which the' 
plant is rendered permanently distinct from every other genus and species.' 
The floral organs of many plants are remarkably subject to modification,- 
under the long-continued influences of soil, climate, and culture, or toanage- 
ment. Some flowers are rendered double, as it is termed, by the expansion' 
of stamens into petals; others become imperfect, and even neutral, by the 
abortion or blighting of the stametis, or pistils, or both. The Strawberry' 
appears to be very liable to this kind of blight ; and hence the much talked 
of sorts, among cultivators, of pisiillates, and staminates, — though in all- 
the pistillate flowers,- which I have examined, there were vestiges more or 
less obvious, of abortive stamens, on the rim of the calyx.- It also varies 
much, under culture, in some other features, — especially in the developement 
and character or quality of the receptacle, or what is commonly regarded as 
fruit : but no one, I believe, has yet seen a Strawberry plant transmuted 
into a Cinquefoil, though so nearly allied in habit. The organs of plants' 
maybe greatly disguised by the influences above mentioned; but still the 
essential distinguishing traits are preserved, — and there seems to be no in- 
superable obstacle to prevent a plant, with modified or abortive organs, 
from reverting, under a change of circumstances, to its original condition, 
and resuming its pristine form and character. The normal, or Avhat may be 
called the constitutional character of the Strawberry-flower, is to be perfect 
-^i. e. furnished with both stamens and pistils (possibly such may be the 



216 THE FLORIST AND 

true normal structure of all flowers) ; and although many other plants, as 
the Strawberry, are found with imperfect, and even neutral flowers, — every 
Naturalist and careful observer knows, that there is often an obvious effort 
tod tendency, in such flowers, to a more complete development : i. e. to be- 
come perfect and regular. We occasionally see diandrous flowers become 
didynamous, — and didynamous plants developing regular petandrous flow- 
fers ; and it is not at all unusual to find the staminate tassel of the culti- 
vated Maize [Zea Mays, L. a monoicous plant,) htmng fertile flowers, and 
fexhibiting a very successful attempt at the production of to Ear— or cluster 
of Ears — =of Indian corn. These instances, I trust (for it is needless to' 
multiply them,) may suflice to show that there is nothing irrational, nor in- 
credible, in Me. Meehan's observations ; and that it is rather strong 
phraseology, to declare such phenomena to be '■'■utterly impossible." The 
Jiolemic writers on this Strawberry question, speak of the necessity of stam- 
inate plants among the pistillate, to produce, or perfect the fruit. No 
doubt, the pistils must be fertilized, in order to produce seeds that will vege- 
tate. But what do those gentlemen understand, by the '■fruit?" Do they 
mean the little single-seeded akenes or nutlets, which are sprinkled over the 
enlarged pulp}' receptacle, — or do they refer to the receptacle itself, which 
in popular parlance is intended by the term ^ fruit?" If they have refer- , 
ence to the real fruit — -the ww^Zcfs which contain the seed,^-there is probaly 
no question (as already intimated) about the necessity of staminate influence 
to produce perfect fruit. But I have a suspicion, that by the term '■fruit," 
they mean the delicious receptacle which bears the fruit, and if they mean 
to allege that the pistils must be fertilized by the stamens, in order to pro- 
duce that enlargement of the receptacle which affords an esculent substitute 
for fruit, — then I have only to say, it is a question of fact which I have had 
no adequate opportunity to determine ; and concerning which I, for one, 
should be happy to receive reliable information. To ascertain the point 
satisfactorily, would require very careful experiments and observations. 
Whether such have been made, I am not informed. I may remark, however, 
by way of analogy, that there are instances in which pistils, and even recep- 
tacles, are enlarged, where no staiminate influence has been exerted. The 
Conglomerate coalescent pistils of the Osage Orange [Madura,) for example, 
attain to their full natural size (although the seeds are necessarily imper- 
fect,) where no staminate plant is in the neighborhood ; and, what affords a 
closer anology, the including receptacle of the pistillate Fig is fully devel- 
oped ; when entirely free from any staminate influence. Whether the re- 
ceptacle of the Straxvberry ever enlarges, without the pistils being fertilized^ 
(as already stated,) is more than I can tell; but I feel well assured, that 
any competent authority, who may furnish the information, will make an 
acceptable contribution to physiological Botany. w. D. 

West Clicster, June 6, lS5-j. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 217 



THE STRAWBERRY QUESTION. 

Mr. Editor': — Who among horticulturists has not heard of the "Straw- 
berry Question" — Las not wondered at the opposite opinions held by eminent 
cultivators, and perhaps like myself has been surprised that the spirit of in- 
quiry has not been more generally diifused concerning a subject of so much 
importance. Is it because Our instructors cannot come to a unanimous con- 
clusion upon it, that we pupils in horticulture have been doubtful about ex- 
{)ressing our opinions upon it, or have we never studied the subject for our- 
selves but left them in their wisdom to decide it for us ? I was in this posi- 
tion waiting for their decision, but as it was not likely to be forthcoming, I 
i-esolved to study the subject for myself, have done so this season, and will 
give you my experience in connection with the "Strawberry Question." 

The points of difference between a staminate and pistillate strawberry 
flower are so marked that a very casual observer cannot fail to notice them 
at once , for in staminate varieties the flowers are lax, the sepals of the 
Calyx appear alternately with the petals of the corolla, the stamens occupy 
the most prominent place in the flower, rising half their length above the 
central pistils; are very much swelled at the base, and very large compared 
with the other parts of the flower, anthers broadly heart shaped, large, and 
producing abundance of pollen. Pistils, loose, long, and having a barren 
appearance, which is soon proved by their vfithering away, and leaving the 
stamens masters of the field. The embryo receptacle when it does exist at 
all is very much flattened, and in the most of cases cannot be said to exist 
at all, the pistils being inserted in the thickened cup of the calyx. All 
flowers that have this appearance in these varieties, very soon wither 
away and leave this impression on the mind of the observer, that they were 
surely staminate varieties. Eut as all staminate varieties do not thus wither 
away, but many of them produce fruit, it may be asked are the flowers all 
the same in appearance. It is here where the peculiarities in this class arc 
met with, for there are few but what produce some fruit, and. as real stami- 
nate flowers conld not produce this fruit, it would readily be seen that stam- 
inate varieties produce two sorts of flowers J the one where the organs are 
unequally balanced which produce no fruit, the other where the flowers are 
perfect and are fruit bearing. The appearance of the flower that will pio- 
duce fruit is markedly diftcrent from the other — by the shortness of the 
stamens, the conical shaped receptacle, the pistils stiff and thickly set there- 
on. The flower is altogether more compact, and is as perfect in its organs 
as any of the Alpine varieties. The following sorts have p/oved staminate 
with me. 

28 



218 THE FLOJRIST AND ' 

Cutliill's Black Prince, Boston Pine, Kittley's Goliatli, Alice Maud, 
British Queen, Ross's Phoenix, and Victoria. 

Among pistillate varieties, the flow*ers are cup shaped, compact, ivith the 
sepals of the calyx scarcely perceptible between the petals of the corolla. 
Stamens seldom visible, and When seen at all they are very n^iinute, not 
longer than the pistils at the base of receptacle, never shoviing signs of 
having fertilizing powers, as the anthers never expand ; the whole remains 
perfectly abortive. Pistils very numerous, uniform, stout, longer than in 
perfect flowers, aad Lave not such a feathery appearance as in stamirlate 
sorts. Receptacle large, eonical, always coming to perfection, and the in- 
stances where pistillate flowers do not produce' berries are very rare, in fact 
scarcely ever to be met with ; at least my sorts have proved so ; and it is rea- 
sonable to conclude that this has been occasioned by the sorts growing to'- 
gether. The following sorts have proved pistillate with me. 

Bourbon Pine, Hudson, Swanson, Burr's Pine, Hovey's Seedling, loWa',- 
and Moyamensing. 

The varieties enumerated, I have' growing together (both pistillate aiid 
Btaminate) under what might be called the ordinary mode of cultivation in- 
one place ; and in another completely isolated from them, I have a collec- 
tion of the same sorts whiclihave stood some years longer, and are almost 
■worn out. But this difference of situation,- culture, &c. don't at all seem 
to have affected or in the least degree altered tlw organs of re-production 
in any variety ; for to me it seems that the character of pistillate or stami- 
nate is as perman-ent and unchangable as in any other deciduous plant. 

A writer in one of the periodicals o-f the day, supposes it possible that 
the reccptaek of the strawberry might enlarge,oj* even come to perfection 
■without staminate influence having at all been required. That the experi- 
ment of planting a pistiUate strawberry in a situation where staminate in- 
fluence could not reach it and that plan-t produce no berry, is the fact ; as 
was proved by a cultivator in this neighborhood;: but it is to be hoped that 
the coming season will be taken advantage of by many of your correspon- 
dents, for making experiments th-at will place this question in- such a clear 
and forcible manner before the public, so that all may be convinced, and- 
those interested in the culture of this fruit may take advantage of, and turn' 
to good account the information received. F. 

We hope that those of our friends who have made any observations, or 
have anything to say on this interesting subject will be kind enough to com'- 
municate them to us. — Es. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 219 

AMMONIA ON PLANTS. 

The subject of the action of Anjmonia on jolants is exciting 
Gonsidei-able attention in England. We copy below from the Gard- 
ener's Chronicle accounts of experiments, the first of which is being 
tried at the Horticultural Society's Garden, 

M. Ville's mode of giving Ammonia to plants, with a view to increase 
their bulk ami vi<rour, is being tried in the large stove in which one of his 
apparatuses has been placed. It consists of two clear glass bottles with 
long necks, furnished with tiglit-fitting corks, in each of which is inserted a 
small bent glass tube. These two tubes are joined together by means of an 
India-rubber connection, or small hose, thus forming a communication be- 
tween the two bottles. In the cork of one of the bottles is an escape tube 
(also of glass), which is connected (by means of a small India-rubber hose), 
with other small glass pipes that are laid all along and across the bed, and 
througii which the ammonia is intended to pass, in order that it maybe the 
better diffused among the plants. When the bottles are put to work, one is 
changed with chalk, on which is poured sulpliuric acid, and the other with 
unslacked lime, over which is poured a solution of ammonia. The result of 
this experiment will, of course, be published in due time. Its conduct has 
been entrusted to Mr. Spriggs, the young man in charge of the house, who 
is to note down its effects daily, and report the same to the Vice-Secretary. 
In another column will be found some further account of furnishing plants 
with more aminonia than they can get under ordinary circumstances. 

By Mr. Deane, Vice President of the Pharmaceutieal Society. Ef- 
fects analogous to those produced by M. Ville (see last year's volume, p. 
755), with aramoniated air on the leaves of growing plants, have been ob- 
served by nje, as the results of applying solutions of ammoniacal salts to 
the roots. My attention was first effectively turned to the subject about 
eight or ten years since, when an extensive grower of Pelargoniums, 
Fuchsias, and Roses, applied to me for some remedy for the sickly con- 
dition of his stock ; which, if left unchecked, would insure a very severe 
loss to him. On examining the plants they were found to be in a star- 
ving condition, the roots having filled the pots and exhausted the soil ; 
consequently, the leaves had lost their healthy green colour, and become 
very pale, with a strong tinge of yellow ; the lower leaves were quite yel- 
low, spotted, and falling off. The natural remedy was obviously fresh 
potting, but as the plants were already in pots best adapted to answer the 
purposes of the grower, some other remedy had to be devised. I therefore 



220 THE FLORIST AND- 

made a very weak solution of sulphate and carbonate of ammonia, and there-. 
■with watered the roots of the plants once a day, in the evening ; and to 
insure any observed results as to the effect of the ammonia, certain rows of 
the plants on the stage of the greenhouse were selected for the experiment. 
In a few days the effects of the ammonia were most marked and satisfacto- 
ry. The leaves began to put on a very remarkable appearance, the course 
of the veins, or spiral vessels, becoming perfectly green, the colour com- 
mencing at the basal portion of the midrib, and thence spreading through 
all the reticulations, until the tissues were perfectly restored to their 
normal and healthy condition ; and, in fact, the plants thus treated looked 
more vigorous than they had ever done before, being much darker colour 
and firmer in texture. The contrast between these plants and those which 
had received no ammonia left no doubt about the eiSciency of the ap- 
plication. I forget the effects upon the flowering of the Pelargoniums, 
but there was certainly no deficiency of flowers on the Fuchsias and Roses ; 
they were, moreover, finer and better coloured than usual. On. a subsequent 
occasion a gentleman's gardener applied to mo in a similar dilemma ; he 
had a house full of fancy Pelargoniums preparing for a flower-show, at 
which he expected to take the first prize. Just as the trusses of flower buds 
were emerging, and there was every prospect of a good bloom, the lower 
leaves of the plants began to turn yellow and spotted, and then to fall off, 
leaving the plants bare, where the foliage was considered an essential point 
of beauty. I examined the roots and found them, nearly filling the pots, it 
was therefore evident there was not sufficient nutriment left in the pots to 
meet the extra demand made by the large number of flower-buds ; the lat- 
ter were, consequently, deriving their nourishment from the leaves — the 
natural storehouse of the food of plants during the growing season — and of 
course exhausted the lower leaves first. They were treated precisely as in 
the former instance, and with the same results ; the lower leaves became 
healthy, and the flower-buds progressed favourably to maturity, being of 
good form and colour. The success of tiiese experiments became known 
to other gardeners in the neighbourhood, some of whom were equally suc- 
cessful, while others did not derive that satisfaction from the use of the am- 
moniacal solution, either from not understanding the principle of its appli- 
cation, or from a desire to accomplish more than they were capable of, when 
it frequently happened the plants became too vigorous to flower well. There 
is no doubt but tliat M. Ville is correct in statins; that the flowering is ar- 
rested if the application of ammonia is made at a certain period of the de- 
velopment of the flower-buds. Few plants if grown too vigorously will 
flower well, if at all. A certain check in their growth is absolutely necessa- 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 22 J 

ry, and the summer's sun or winter's cold, under ordinary circumstances, 
effects this perfectly in this climate — the former by perfecting and conden- 
sing the elaborated sap, and the latter by arresting vegetation altogether. 
Too much moisture and shade cause those parts intended for flower-buds to 
be developed as leaves. In the Aloe tribe when the Hower stem is thrown 
up, it is at the expense of the outer leaves, the elaborated juices of which it 
appropriates, the roots at this time not being in action, because it is towards 
the close of a long period of dryness. If when the flower-stem is begins, 
ning to rise, the roots are watered, all further development of the stem is ar^ 
rested, the leaves only being developed. The same thing takes place with 
many bulbs whose period of flowering is not the same as that for leafing. 
Many Cape bulbs follow this law ; for example, the Hsemanthus, the flower- 
ing of which is at the expense of some one or more of the outer coats. 
If these plants are watered at the wrong period, or if they have had not 
that proper rest which Nature designed they should have under the influence 
of a roasting sun, such as their native country afi"ords, no flowers will be 
produced, but in their stead a vigorous development of leaves. It woulc^ 
appear, therefore, that the arrest of development of the flowers and fruita 
of the plants treated with ammonia, is not so much the result of any s;->ecifie 
property possessed by this substance, as by its bringing about artificially 
those conditions which may occur naturally, or be produced by other means^ 
Also, that the application of ammonia to plants may be attended by results 
varying adcording to the conditions under which it is applied, and the obt 
ject it is desired to obtain. The following is the formula for the solution 
alluded to in the previous note by Mr. Deane : — Sulphate of ammonia, 7000 
grains ; sesquicarbonate ditto, 1000 grains ; water, 80 fl. oz. Disolve, 
Of this solution one fluid once to a gallon of water will make a solutiofl 
suflSciently strong for all ordinary purposes. — Pharmaceutical Journal. 



CALENDAR OF OPERATIONS. 

Disbudding. — This operation does not appear to. be sufBciently recognis- 
ed in its proper sense as distinguished from pruning and pinching. In per- 
forming these latter operations we remove a portion of the growing shoot, 
in the former case the young bud is removed as soon as it can be rubbed off. 
These operations are therefore quite distinct, and their distinction is of 
much importance. IMost fruit cultivators are uAvare that trees sufl'er mate- 
rially by suddenly depriving them of a large portion of foliage while in ac, 
tive growth, and expedients are resorted to in order to render the operation 
less injurious. In spring when the buds burst, attention should be directed 



222 THE FLORIST AND 

tp tjje quantity of young shoots desirable either for fi-uit or uniformity of 
growth; these being secured all others should imnjediately be rubtied off. 
As growth proceeds luxuriant shoots are stopped or their points pinched oif, 
removing more or less of the shoot, according to the object to be attained. 
If the plant is very luxuriant, more leaves may be removed and if every 
ehoot upon a tree is operated on in this manner it amounts to a severe check 
ton its growth. In the case of young trees, or weakly ones, where a certain 
form is desired, the young growi&g point should be bruised without remov- 
ing any of the elaborating foliage, securing density of habit without any 
perceptible check of growth. Suppose a shoot that has grown 12 or 14 
jnches to be pinched back one half of its length, the upperpaost bud will 
burst again and the others remain comparatively dormant ; but allowing the 
same shoot to have been checked in its longitudinal growth, by pinching or 
bruising its extreme point, it will be found that all the lower buds will be 
benefitted and several additional shoots produced. We have alluded to this 
subject more partic,ularly at present as we are aware of having occasionally 
made use of the term piinching when disbudding would have been the more 
appropriate expression. 

^Strawberries. — Preparations should now be in progress for securing 
plants for early forcing next spring. Various methods are adopted to get 
strong plants, such as filling small pots with rich soil and plunging. them in 
the strawberry patch, introducing a young plant on the pot, and removing 
into larger ones when rooted. Others again prepare full sized pots at once 
and place them in this manner, securing the young plant in both cases with 
a small stone laid on the Surface. When close attention is paid in watering, 
these plans are good. An equally successful and less troublesome method 
is to prepare a few square yards of ground in a somewhat sheltered situa- 
tion, manuring it well and digging deeply, and filling it thickly with young 
plants. They should be partially shaded for a few days, and duly watered. 
In the course of three or four weeks they will lift with good balls of earth 
and are potted at once in fruiting pots. Pistilo-staminate or hermaphrodite 
varieties are found to produce better when forced early than pistillate sorts. 

Root pruning of fruit trees is sometimes commendable, and the present 
is the proper season for its more immediate beneficial eff"ects. It is mostly 
performed on young vigorous trees that show no disposition to frait. By 
cutting away some of the strongest roots at this time the supply of sap will 
be lessened and the wood ripening process accelerated, No fruit need be 
expected from badly ripened wood. In nine cases out of ten the non-ap-? 
pearance of fruit on healthy trees arises from this cause. Mild autumn 
■weather induces growth to a late period and sudden frosts arrive before the 
wood is sufficiently matured. This is more particularly noticeable on soils 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 223 

inclined to be wet, and here again we perceive the necessity of underground 
drains, in order to remove surplus water. It is an exceedingly erroneous 
idea that drains are worse than useless in localities where long droughts are 
of frequent occurrence. The truth is that draining enhances humidity du- 
ring hot weather, since it enables the soil to exercise its absorbing properties 
to the fullest extent, there being more air in the soil water is retained in its 
pores, constituting a reservoir holding a lasting supply when other sources 
fail. 

Renovating Old Trees. — Most satisfactory results have been obtained 
from old and apparently worn out trees by changing the soil about their 
roots, or applying a top dressing of wood ashes, guano, salt and plaster in 
equal quantities, allowing about one bushel of the mixture to each tree. If 
nothing better is convenient, a heavy dressing of well made barn manure 
forked in about tlte roots will have a decided eifect. The absorbing points 
of the roots extend a considerable distance from the trunk, therefore, the 
principal part of the top dressing should embrace a circumference at least 
equal to that of the branches. It might be considered unnecessary to men'- 
tion this very apparent fact, were it not usual to observe manure applied to 
the stem instead of the roots. 

Grapes under glass will now be approaching maturity. Brynessi both 
in soil and atmosphere favors this process, still they must not be allowed to 
suffer for want of moisture should the weather prove dry. The young 
growth may be stopped more rigidly as the ripening process proceeds. This 
will concentrate the sap and strengthen the buds for a future crop, if pinch- 
ed back too severely these buds may start into growth, which must bd 
guarded against. 

OuT-DOoR GRAPES will require attention in thinning out lateral shoots 
and stopping others especially those on bearing shoots. Thinning out the' 
berries is seldom practised on these, nor, indeed is it always necessary. Oc^ 
casionally, however, the berries are so thickly placed that room is not af- 
forded them to swell out and ripen properly. By thinning out a few of the 
most central and smallest berries, the fruit will ripen earlier and be muCfr 
improved both in size and flavor. S. B, 

AUGUST. 

Flower Garden and Pleasure Ground. 
This is the month many prefer to plant their evergreens, and it is per^ 
haps as good a time as any. Take advantage of a "wet spell" for the opd- 
ration. Be particularly careful that as many roots as possible are preserv- 
ed. If this can be well attended to, tree» </ any size can be moved sue- 



224 THE FLORIST AND 

cessfully. It becomes a question of power — of profit and loss. If any 
Amount of power can be applied, and expense is no object, the largest trees 
Vill move as easily as small ones. In moving an evergreen 20 feet high, I 
bomnlence to open my "trench" 10 feet from the base of the trunk, go dowiJ 
about two feet, and continue to undermine and lay bare the roots their full 
length, right up to the collar of the tree. I care nothing for "ball of 
earth." If I have a good supply of hands at the job, I only care to keep 
them aside a little to prevent injury by the operations of the ivorkmen. If 
I have but few men, I roll the long roots, as fast as they are exposed, in 
hiats to keep them moist. For mechanical means and adaptations to take 
Out the tree and convey it to its destination, an intelligent workman is never 
at a loss. Trees taken up in this manner scarcely .miss the change; and 
besides after they are transplanted they require no staking, as they are 
capable of withstanding the strongest wind through their-long roots. 

The broom should be well applied to lawns at this season of the year, 
even more seduuously than in spring. Many species of weed become so 
'fiwarfed by the summer's drought, that they flower and fruit below the 
teach of the scythe, and can only be kept down by the hard sweeping. T 
have seen some lawns almost ruined by these weeds, especially by one of 
Ihe nettle tribe. {Pilea pumila.) — Conclusion in next number; 



It is a pity that the rules adopted by Florists are so very rigid, that un- 
less a flower equals a certain standard in shape and markings it must be re- 
jected. Last week we had submitted to us by Mr. T. F. Croft, a beautiful 
seedling Verbena, a lilac with a broad stripe of w hite down each petal, quite 
distinct and very handsome, but the petals were too narrow, leaving a large 
space between each one. This must condeme it as a Florist's flewer, but to 
all who want a handsome and distinct variety it will be desirable. He calls 
it his No. 3. It is in style of Iphigenie. 



The article on Tile draining in the kst number should have been credited 
to the Ohio Cultivator. We never intentionally copy articles without credit. 
We wish that Dr. Warder of the Western Horticultural Review were as 
Conscientious. 



Ekrata. — In the report of the Maryland Horticultural Socieiy, The 
Winter Bon Chretien pears were shown by Mr. Fuss, not Mr. Feast as 
printed. The preminm for strawberries was for "the best 4 distinct varie- 
ties, 1 quart each. 



n^ 



E FLi 

AID HORTICULTUEAL JOIJEML 



Vol. no 



Philadelphia, August, 1853. 



[No. 8. 



The non appearance of this number without a plate is caused 
by the fact that wc could not get one in time — and our Avish 
to issue two numbers at once in order that in future we may 
come out on the first of each month induced us to disregard 
that for the present. The number for September, however will 
make up the deficiency, as we will give then a double plate, 
the subject being one of the beautiful species of Rhododendron 
introduced from the Himalayas. 

We are happy to be able to assure our friends and subscrib- 
ers that the success of the Florist is very encouraging and that 
we will be in a few days in the receipt of all the plates for this 
volume. Our subscription list has almost doubled since it came 
into our hands, and we want but a little more effort on the part 
of our friends to place the magazine in a position which will 
make its continuation a pleasure to all concerned in it. 




29 



THE FLORIST AND 



RANDOM NOTES ON FRUITS. 

By a Maryland Subscriber, 

Mr. H. C. Hanson, Dear Sir: — 

Believing as I do, that no one in faithfully recording his experi- 
ence and observations, can fail in imparting more or less knowledge 
to others, I offer no apology to your readers for intruding Iny opin- 
ions, since they are the result of personal attention to fruit grow- 
ing, and a wish that others of more experience will take tip the 
subject m your pages. ^ 

Grapes — Now that a certain Cure for the prevention and eradi- 
cation of mildew in graperies has been' found, 1 hope that some one 
win step forward Avith a specific foi' the black rot on our arbors. 
It is the general opinion, I believe, that much wet during the pre- 
sent month favors this disease. This season has been particularly 
dry, and so far I have not detected its appearance. Should the rot 
be induced by the roots being wet and cold with a hot sun acting 
on the leaves, it would seem apparent that a dry soil should be se- 
cured, either by selectitig an elevated position, or laying down un- 
der ground drains. While visiting a friend during the past winter I 
found him preparing the border of a small grapery. The original 
soil, which was of a clayey character, had been removed to a good 
depth, and fresh soil and compost put in its^ place. The work was 
well done, and no pains spared to render it perfect in every respect, 
good drainage being provided to carry off extra wet. Notwithstand- 
ing, it occurred to me that the end in view would be equally at- 
tained without the trouble and expense of excavation, by merely 
laying the fresh soil on the old surface and mixing the whole 
thoroughly together, I would rather build a two feet wall to hold 
up the soil than dig down an equal depth for the same purpose. 

Among the various foreign kinds that I have tried I find the 
Sweetwater, Zinfiudal and Frankenth:.! give most satisfaction. The 
Sweetwater bears moderately well, but the fruit to my taste is in- 
sipid, and inferior to a well ripened Isabella. Both Zinfindal and 
Frankenthal are good gi\apes, bear abiffldantly, and of vigorous 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 220 

t 

growth. Indeed the latter is little inferior to the Black Hamburgh, 
from which it is said to have originated. I have also the B. Ham- 
burgh out of doors some seasons ; I gather tolerable fruit, but in 
general it is rendered useless by mildew. So far the present sea- 
son they are perfectly clean. Herbemont's Cluster is a good fruit, 
regular and abundant bearer. The Catawba seems very suscepti- 
ble of cold and wet while setting its fruit, and in some seasons the 
bunches are rather thin. Altogether it seems less robust in its con- 
stitution than the Isabella, On this account the northern growers 
prefer the latter, while in the south the Catawba is more generally 
planted. 

Strawberries. — In preparing the soil for these I am particularly 
careful in having it well broken up to a depth of 18 inches, putting 
plent}^ of manure on it, and also digging in a heavy dressing an- 
nually in the fall; my object being to produce superior fruit rather 
than a large number, I generall}' thin them out after the fruit is 
set, taking care to leave fruit of all ages, in order to keep them 
ripening in succession; by this means every berry is a specimen. I 
have tried various sj'stems of management with regard to winter 
aad summer covering, and prefer short grass or cut straw for this 
purpose. From the high encomiums given to tan bark I was in- 
duced to make trials of it, I think it has a bad effect on the soil, 
and no particular good effect on the fruit, Hovey's seedling is my 
standard bearer, although there are many others of great merit. 
Black Prince makes a beautiful variety on the fruit table on ac- 
count of its colour, but the flavor is simple and watery. Ross' 
Phoenix, Keen's Seedling and British Queen, give very superior 
flavored fruit, although not so very prolific. It seems to me that 
amateurs will prefer these soi'ts before those whose only recom- 
mendation is a numerous crop. Mcxivoy's Superior has done very 
well, I have not been able to discover its superiority, although it is 
far from an inferior fruit. With regard to the result of mixing the 
sexes I have nothing difinite to note. As I have alread}- rcminkcd 
the soil is made very rich, and although I alwaj's have both pistill- 
ate and staminate varieties in my grounds, no care is taken to mix 



2tL THE FLORIST AND 

the kinds, and both produce to my satisfaction. I prefer a few 
large to a quantity of small fruit, and in this respect some of the 
staminate kinds just suit my views. 

Pears. Of these I have some sixty varieties all on the Quince, 
Many of my earliest planted trees are doing badly ; this I attribute 
to want of proper preparation when jjlantiug. Being a novice in 
the business I had holes about two feet diameter and one deep made 
for them, using compost for planting them in. They made more 
growth the first year than ever they have done since. Latterly J 
have had the ground better prepared, by spreading six inches of 
rotted sod, lime rubbish, manure, ashes, &c., on the surface, and 
working all up to a de^Dth of eighteen inches. Nothing could be 
more satisfactory than the healthy appearance and abundant crops 
the trees planted after this preparation. I find great advantage 
from pruning the strong shoots during the summer; it improves the 
appearance of the tree by causing it to produce shoots and fill up 
in lean parts, which equalises the growth and prevents strong grow- 
ing branches from gaming headway and absorbing all the nourish- 
ment. I also fftncy that summer pruning gives you more fruit at 
least on the older branches. The check given by pruning, sets 
these lower buds in action, and developes their latent fruit produ- 
cing capabilities. The winter pruning I perform early, generally 
before all the leaves are fallen, but since I have j^ractised summer 
pruning, I find that there is not much left for the winter cutting. 
As soon as they are pruned in the fall, I sprinkle about a quart of 
guano round each tree and fork it in the soil paying great attention 
not to have any of the roots injured ; I then have a good dressing 
of well composted manure spread under each tree. In spring when 
the weather opens the remains of this manure is also mixed with 
the soil. I have found great advantage from mulching trees the 
first summer after planting, when once they get established I pre- 
fer to have the soil uncovered, so that the surface can be occasion- 
ally stirred and broken up when beaten down with heavy rains, 
with this treatment they grow luxuriantly. There is much diiFer- 
ence in their growth on the quince, while some are gro-wn three 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 222 

feet others will not make as many inches. The Seckel does not 
succeed well, fruit small, but exquisitely flavored. On the contrary 
I measured young shoots on the Dix the other day three feet in 
length, although the tree was only planted last spring. Beurre 
GifFart I gathered yesterdy (July 20th,) full ripe ; it is a beautiful 
fruit, and as an early good pear will be largely planted when better 
known. 

The Easter Beurre I consider the best late, I kejst some of the 
fruit until the end of March, and they were excellent, as juicy as a 
fresh gathered peach. Glout Morceau and winter NeUs are also 
fine late pears. Louise boune de Jersey grows freely and produces 
the greatest quantity of beautiful, fine fruit. Vicar of Winkfield 
does not do well here, the fruit cracks even on young trees, and 
limbs are constantly dying ofi^, sometimes the whole tree. I have 
observed it the same on several places. Otherwise it is a heavy 
bearer, although I consider the fruit of secondary quality. Fondante 
of Autumn is a free grower and bears well, fruit of fine quality. 
Tyson and Bartlett both fine earl}^ sorts, the former grows more 
luxuriant them the latter on the quince; Bartlett is very large and 
first rate. Dutchess d' Angouleme I think a first rate pear in every 
respect, tree thrifty and fast grower, fruit lai-ge and produced fi'eely. 
Some complain of gritteness in this fruit. I do not find any if 
gathered two or three weeks before eating. All pears, however, 
are better for being gathered sometime previous to use, indeed some 
are not fit for anything otherwise. White Doj'enue I consider equal 
if not superior to the Seckel in eating qualities. Doyenne d' ete 
is very early and on this account worthy of a place in all collec- 
tions, and is a good table fruit if pulled and ripened in the house, 
when allowed to fall from the tree it is tasteless. Bloodgood is also 
a fine early pear of good flavour; indeed fine pears are now so 
plentiful, that it is difficult to say which is best. There are many 
excellent sorts of which I have no practical acquaintance. If I 
were to plant fifty trees to ripen fruit in succession for eight months 
in the year confining mj-sclf to 12 varieties I would probably make 
a selection as the following ; — 1 Doyenne d' ete, 3 Beurre Giflart, 



223 THE FLORIST AND 

2 Tyson, 3 Bartlett, 4 Seckel, 4 White Doyenne, 4Louise boune de 
Jersey, 6 Grey Doyenne, 6 Dutchess de Angouleme, 6 Glout Mor- 
ceau, 6 Winter Nelis, 6 Easter Beurre. My sheet is full, if this 
jEbids favor in your eyes you may probably hear from me again. 

Respectfully Yours, A. R. N. 



For the Florist and Horticultural Journal. 

Mr. Editor: — 

The question is often asked, where can a choice collection of 
Florist's flowers be got, such as do not need the protection of a green- 
I;iouse with tire through the Avinter, nor a perpetual watering during 
summer ? In the hope that some of our nurserymen will answer 
the inquiry, I will, with your permission, give your readers my re- 
collection of a Florist's garden, so as to give them some idea of what 
really constitutes a Florist, for the name is uiucli misapplied 
among us. 

William Hatelie, W, S. of Duncliff Cottage, Murrayfield, a mile 
west of Edinburgh, Scotland, was (and may be yet) an amateur 
florist of refined taste. His garden I thinl'c; was forty-eight yards 
wide and sixty yards long, and was enclosed by a stone wall sixteen 
feet high, with a small stable and carriage house on one corner ; the 
cellar of which was divided into an apartment for keeping soil pots 
and other garden lumber, and another to hold the cleanings of the 
stable. The house was near the southern end ; it was a two story 
house of white freestone with an observatory from which a beautit 
fill view could be obtained. 

One third of the ground was kept as a back ground, and was used 
as a nursery for the front garden and for growing small fruits and 
small vegetables, it was divided from the front by a trellis which 
was covered with dwarf pear trees. The wall of the back portion 
was filled with choice fruit-trees and that of the front with flower-: 
ing shrubs and vines. Next to this was a border eight feet wide 
bedded with different kinds of flowers. There was no incongruous 
mixture ; every genus stood l^y itself, every, species or variety was 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 224 

saperate — every plant stood singly so as to show its flowers to the 
greatest advantage. The gravelled walk was forty inches wide 
with box edging on the border side. The centre ground inside of 
this and around the house was lawn, studded with choice roses and 
dwarf shrubbery. Many ingenious flower beds were cut out on 
the grass, and among them were four of the same size and shape 
bottoned and sided with flagstones and eighteen inches deep, having 
a flag stone walk running through the middle. 

These beds were planted with the owner's most favorite genera. 
A neat tent was put over each of these beds while the plants were 
in flower which greatly prolonged the flowering. The same was 
used for all of them : the frame was of light iron easily taken apart 
and put together ; the uprights being let into staples run into the 
flag : it had a span roof with a door at each end in the canvass 
fastened by buttons. First it was put over the Hyacinths, next 
over the Tulips, then on the carnations and picotees, and last over 
dwarf double Ranunculus. The other beds on the lawn were each 
planted with a single species, so that no two resembled each other: 
and each bloomed at a separate time. The Crocus in all colors 
would drive away winter and give us a foretaste of spring ; these 
Avere succeeded by the Hyacinth with its waxy flowers of all colors, 
and their sweet odour, the gaudy Tulips, the fragrant Carnations 
and Picotees, beautifully laced and pencilled, and the large headed 
Ranunculus surpassed conception. There Avere also Primula auricula 
and Polyanthus of brilliant sorts ; broad petalled and beautiful 
Colored Pansies, double quilled Calistemma, beautiful double quilled 
Bellis, whose variety prolifera was very singular, double Cheiranthus 
of matchless fragrance and in colour from pale yellow to dark 
crimson, Mathiola all double and from pure white to crimson, ( the 
cape stock exquisitely ricli), Diantkus Barbatus and Chinensis double 
white shaded to velvety raarroon, and many other bulbous and 
bther plants kept tip the beauty of the garden throughout the sea- 
son. There was always something to admire, nothing common or 
coarse-growing was admitted there, and the fine' keeping of the 
place made it always lovel}' ; every thing was in good taste and 



225 THE FLORIST AND 

always in order; though it was small yet it was a 12 months journey 
to get through it; if there be a paradise on earth surely it is Dun- 
cliflfe Cottage. • 

There were but six sashes on the place, a brick pit with two and 
two cold frames of twos ashes each ; young plants of Cheiranthus 
Mathiola, Dianthus, Primula, &c., were wintered in pots and pro- 
tected in the cold frames in winter, and a hot-bed was made in the 
spring for raising seedlings, which were pricked out into the cold 
frames after the other plants were set out. Many new varieties 
have originated there. 1 was but a favored visitor, as admittance' 
was rarely allowed. It was said that Mr. H. paid twelve pounds 
for a bulb of the Tulip Louis XVI and would have ridden miles to 
see a new Carnation or Auricula; he had too aviareis of songsters, 
and also an Owl and an Eagle ; the Owl was named "Cameron of 
Lochiel," and the Eagle "George Washington." 

Respectfully, Walter Elder. 
Philadelphia, July 7, 1853.- 



NOTES ON GARDENS. 

Paschall Morris & Co., West Chester, Pa. 

Having an hour to spare in this town, I took a stroll through the grounds 
of these gentlemen, and I was agreeably surprised in a place seemingly so 
local, to find so much attention and space given to ornamenting shrubs and trees 
— the grounds extended over thirty acres, and the variety was very great, 
as well as the stock of each kind. What struck me most'pleasurably, and 
afforded me most interest was the assortment of evergreens ; and it was a 
few new facts which I learned for the first time in connection with some of 
them that induced me to prepare these notes for you. In these times when 
the demand for evergreens is approaching to a sort of fever, it is well to 
know what kinds are decidedly hardy. The Auraearia imhricata has been 
given up in many quarters ; several trials having proved unfortunate. Here 
were many which have stood out two winters. In the severe winter of 
1851-2 they mostly lost their side shoots. From the appearance of these 
plants I have no doubt tliat when the specimens are gradually hardened, 
they will prove quite hardy — Juniperus excelsa, seemed more at home, it 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 233 

will be a powerful rival to our J. Virginiana, J. recurva or pendula, as a 
large stock of it showed, was as hardy as the rest. There was here also 
another species or variety of Juniperus which I had not met with before, 
which Mr. M. informed me he received under the name of J. ericoides. It 
is a very distinct looking kind, very much like 3'oung Capressus funebris — 
a fine specimen of the latter was growing in a pot, and which I understood 
was destined to stand the ordeal of the next winter. There was, in a very 
exposed situation, a fine specimen of Abies morinda, perhaps more proper- 
ly A. Smithiana. The difference between this specimen, and the A. excelsa 
ire Norway Sprruce, was very striking. The' new family embraced nuinor- 
ous representatives of all nations, English, Irish, and American, besides a 
a good stock of that "dear little thing," lady like speaking, the T. adpres- 
aa, also proven hardy. The' Silver Fir [Picea pectenata) seemed perfectly 
"at home," thinking it easy Work to throw out eighteen inches of a leader 
in tfne season — when young it frequently loses its leading bud in the 
winter, but it gets better of this misfortune as it grows. In a large pot I 
observed a fine specimen of another Picca — Wehbiaiia, Which I believe hns 
Hot proved perfectly hardy — -Libocedrus chiloensis, and many other of the 
liewer kinds were also here in the same dubious company. The regularity 
and cleanliness of the evergreens and tlieir great variety allured too much 
6'f my attention, and I had but a few moments left to run over the collec- 
tion of deciduous trees and shrubs. A fine stock of Popuhis anf/ulattis, 
the cotton wood of the Mississippi, struck as "just i'n time," as I am satis- 
fied this tree is destined to become very popular as a shade tree for towns. 
Its rapid growth, large leaves and spreading head, its cleanly habits, easi- 
ness of removal and propagation, suggest it as the successor of the Ailan- 
t/iws, and similar things that have been "tried in the balance and found 
wanting." The cottony down which' it throws out while perfectin'g its fruit, 
will be thoii'T-ht objectionable, but it is a valuable property when compared 
with the stench of an Ailant/iUs in flower. I may remark in pnssing, tliat 
the Linden, both European and American, seem much more prosperous in 
West Chester than in Philadelphia, and are in reality, a'n ornament to the 
place. The sugar maple is also very common, Jtnd has a beautiful appear- 
ance ; not perhaps so spreading in its growth a's the SilveT, but not so lia- 
ble to be broken by high winds. I saw several Silver maples completely 
" wind broken." 'The subject of shade trees for towns has become one of 
the "great questions" of the day, which m'ay serve as my excuse for drag- 
ging it in as a finale to my few notes of the highly interesting ground of 
P. Morris & Co. ' * 



234 THE FLORIST AKD 

WAY SIDE SKETCHES. 

Baywood Nurseries. — Availing myself of a courteous invitation from 
the proprietors of ttese nurseries; I was greatly surprised to find so exten- 
sive an establishment in that section. Their grounds are situated about four 
miles from Pittsburgh, vrithin view of the Allegheny river, and one mile 
north of the village of East Liberty, which lies spread out like a map down 
in the Negley valley-^seemingly shut out from the busy world by the lofty 
river hills. 

Fostered by the liberality of the citizens of Pittsburgh and vicinity, and 
knowing the advantage of their position, Messrs. Kennedy & Co. have 
spared no pains or expense to bring their business to a high state of per- 
fection, and to show the beauties of scientific landscape gardening. Al- 
though lately commenced, their extensive improvements and flourishing 
stock are an evidence of their practical abilities and enterprize. They have 
two very large, span roof greenhouses, heated by steam, and a propagating 
house ; also a span roof 40 feet by 20, fitted up on an improved principle, 
and heated with hot water on the tank system. This house contains as fine 
a young stock as ever it has been my fortune to see, taken I believe from 
their European importatiofis of last fall and spring. Their show honse 80 
feet by 30 is a splendid structure — planted conservatory fashion : (viz.) the 
plants turned out of the pots into a bed prepared for the purpose, and occu- 
pying the whole centre of the house ; whilst a stage for pot plants 3 feet 
wide all round the house is well stocked with flowering plants suited to the 
season, such as Geraniums, Calceolarias, Fuchsias, Achimenes, Gloxinias, 
and some fine specimens of the beautiful Torenia Asiatica, with many 
other plants equally fine. Their collection of Roses, Carnations, and Ver- 
benas in varieties, were just in perfection, showing every shade in color, from 
a pink white up to the deepest purple. Of ornamental trees and shrubs, 
they have a full stock, and though the plants are young, they show signs of 
a high state of cultivation, and promise a rich stock to propagate from. A 
varied stock of Fruit trees, some distance from the ornamental departments, 
look well; and although the season has been unusually dry, their mod« of 
cultivation has prevented the evils I have witnessed elsewhere occasioned by 
drought. Weeds they seem to have an aversion to, as none are to be seen 
amongst their plantations. After noticing a large collection of new varie- 
ties of potatoes, corn, &c. which in appearance promise their owners an am- 
ple return for their improved system of cultivation, I retreated to the shade 
of a grove of lofty pines, in the rear of the residence of Mr. Negley, one 
the proprietors, who has lately erected a magnificent building in the Eliza- 
bethan style. I found '"Elfin Wild," the name given to this portion of the 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 235 

ground, the most enchanting and romantic spot I ever beheld; it seemed as 
though nature in a frolic had vied with the art of man — the rapid water of 
a stream which comes winding down the hill sides, has worn its way for ages 
through the solid rock, seeking a humble bed hundreds of feet below. On 
either side the high towering rocks aae clotlied with velvety moss, mingled 
with Ferns and Hose Bay Laurel which have found a home on some broken 
ledge. Indeed I may be allowed to say that Elfin Wild although in mina- 
ture has no equal. I could say much more about the beauties of the place, 
but I have already trespassed too much upon your limits. T. C. 



PLANT A TREE. 

Plant ! plant ! ! plant ! ! ! Three times have we written down flie word, 
in order to impress it upon the mind of the reader. God plants over the 
fair face of the world. The sprouting acorn, the winged seeds of the pine, 
and the maple, and the ash, the bright red berries of the dogwood, the 
holly and the havrthorn, the blue clusters from tlie evergreen cedar, and the 
pearly fruit of the mistletoe, high up in the old oak-top, all find a spot as a 
birth-bed in wliich to take root ami flourish — Some grow in the mellow 
mould where shade and moisture protect and invigorate their tenderness — 
some, with the pitying spirit of an angel's guardianship, seek their resting 
places where man has wrought all his ruin, on the bare bosom of the earth, 
and strive to hide her naked deformity by outspreading their evergreen arms 
— some clint' with their viscid coverinjrs to the rough bark of ancient trees, 
as if they wished to add newer and greener chaplets to their decaying 
crowns — some seek the crevices of the barren rocks and creeping up ruined 
walls binil together, the fisures gnawed by the cankered tooth of time, in 
their tender embraces — all obey those laws of vegetable creation, which are 
ever active in renewing what waste, and heedless considerateness, and pro- 
digal destruction, have so ruthlessly ravaged. Go then, lover of nature, to 
the scathed hill-top, once crowned with the brawn of a mighty forest king- 
dom, and plant a clustering knot of oaks and cedars. Go to the sun scorched 
brook, as it glides noiselessly like molten lead through your field, and pro- 
tect its bright waters by the friendly shade of graceful maples and wide 
spreading beeches. Go to the roadside and people these monotonous plan- 
tation lines with the walnut, the red fruited mulberry and the maronia — 
their shade will gladden the heart of the traveller — their fruit will cause un- 
born children to bless 

" The hand that planted these old trees." 



230 THE FLORIST ANI) 

f — 

Add living monuments, and multiply them upon the earth. It ■vvas ^ 
beautiful custom, that, when the betrothed planted each a tree, standing 
side by side, through years that come, their branches irsterlooked — their 
flowers kissed each other, and keeping vigils of love through storm and 
through sunshine — they remained living sentinels ovep that alFeetion which 
never dies. We once new two of earth's better spirits, gentle in their nai- 
tures, lovely in their angelic semblance, bewitching in their beauty, and 
thus they planted their affections side by side in front of the old homestead 
— those emblemicedars grew, and when the fair hands which had planted 
them, were twining wreaths with the cherubin around the altars of the 
blessed, they stiU stood flourishing over the decay of the past. But the old 
homestead has passed into the hands of strangers, the beautiful lesson 
taught by these trees hfis been forgotten, and to make visible the glaring- 
ness of modern improvement, they too, like their sweet emblem spirits, are 
numbered amongst the things that once were upon this eartli. 

And again, when a child is born a birth-day tree should be planted. We 
know an elm which marks the natal hour of a matron in a neighboring vil- 
lage, and we never pass that early budding tree without thanking the hon- 
ored father \y1io taught vis a good lesson wheo he set its roots in the mellow 
soil before hjs dpor. 

The hot swelterjrig walls of our cities call for treeg — trees to feed upon 
the vapors which spring from over-peopled quarters, and convert them into 
healthy-breathing atmosphere, The shade of trees is more genial and 
grateful to the pent-up dwellers of cities tban it is to most of those who 
ramble in sylvan groves, during the free ari unrestrained years of a life in 
the country. Let those then, who are forced to dwell in the busy marts of 
the world, be blessed by shade — :shade in the streets, shade in the capacious 
parks and pleasure grounds, God made trees enough, so that every human 
being could revel in their shade. Tlie tawney savage seeks his leafy home, 
under the Titans of this Western v/orld— the sons of tlie desert bless Allah 
for the refreshing shade of the graceful palms, and tlie white man, who 
claims to he civilized, alone evinces a thoughtless spirit of tree-destruction. 
For him there is no bound or limit, and the whim of a moment is frequently 
gratified at tbe expense of centuries of beautiful forest growth. 

Is th^t pe'iy era coming when we are to be planters instead of ravagers ? 
Will the few examples of ornamental landscape adornment and improve- 
ment, be copied and become working texts to the millions ? Are we to hear 
of forests plantations to be reared upon our old fields ? Are the glaring 
eye-straining white houses of the land, to be soon hidden by graceful forest 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 237 

trees, such as abound within the reach of every cultivator of the soil ? Is 
our country to be made picturesque and lovely by the grouping of the ele- 
gant specimens ■which are the pride of our forests, around our homesteads ? 
Are we at last to become a nation with common sense? We have often al- 
most worshipped the glorious avenues of live oaks — beautiful in their morn- 
ing drapery of solemn moss, which add such distinct charms to the lower 
sections of our state. We have admired the virgin-flowery magnolia, and 
ask why is it not made welcome to every home in the state. The oak tribe 
embracing nearly half a hundred varieties, and the lofty tulip trees, and the 
graceful elms, and evergreen holly, and the cedar and the pine, all afford 
much characteristic beauty to the true lover of nature. There is still a 
lower fringe, of smaller trees and shrubs, upon the bosom of the earth, 
which interspersed with these, add bizarre ornaments to the grouped sub- 
jects of the forest. But when we write of these, we have brought to our 
mind's eye a picture, pen-painted by Willis, which, striking upon the 
chords of the heart through a vision of the satisfactory and beautiful, will 
cause all who read it, to love the trees, which a sense of duty to coming 
ages has caused them to cluster as enduring friends around them. For the 
benefit of such, we extract from his "Letters from Under abridge," a Poet's 
plantinff of a tree. 

"As I look out from under the bridge, I see an Oriole sitting upon a dog- 
wood tree of my planting. His song drew my eye from the paper. I find 
it difficult, now, not to take to myself t\e whole glory of tree, song and 
plumage. By an easy delusion, I fancy he Avould not have come but for the 
beauty of the tree, and that his song says as much, in bird-recitative. I go 
back to one rainy d.iy of April, when, hunting for maple saplings, I stopped 
under that graceful tree, in a sort of Island jungle, and wondered what 
grew so fair that was so unfamiliar, yet with a bark like the plumage of the 
pencilled Pheasant. The limbs grew curiously. A lance-like stem, and, at 
regular distance, a cluster of radiating branches, like a long cane thrust 
through inverted parasols. I set to work with spade and pick, took it home 
on my shoulder; and set it out by Glcmmary brook, and there it stands to- 
day, in the full glory of its leaves, having just shed the white blossoms 
with which it kept holiday in June. Now the tree would have leaved and 
floAvered, and the Oriole, in black and gold, might perchance have swung 
and sung on the slender branch, which is still tilting with his effort in 
that last cadenza. But the fair picture it makes to my eye, and the 
delicious music in my ear, seem to me no less of my own making and 
awaking. Is it the same tree, flowering unseen in the woods, or transplanted 



238 THE FLORIST AND 



into a circle of human love and care, making a part of a woman's home, 
and thought of and admired whenever she comes out from her cottage, 
•with a blessing on the perfume and verdure? Is it the same bird wasting 
his song in the thicket, or singing to me, with my whole mind afloat on his 
■music, and my eyes fastened to his glittering breast? So it is the same 
block of marble, unmoved in the caves of Pcutelicus, or brought forth and 
wrought under the sculptor's chisel, yet the sculptor is allowed to create. 
Sing on my bright Oriole ! Spread to the breeze your desiring finger, my 
flowering tree ! Like the player upon the organ, I take your glory to my- 
self; though, like the hallelujah that burns under his fingers, your beauty 
and music worship God. — South-Agriculturist. 



A LIQUID FERTILIZER FOR CHOICE PLANTS. 

BY AN AMATEUR, 

Dear Sir — I am confident that there are many of your lady readers, 
and perhaps many of the other sex, who are puzzled among the many new 
nianures, and having failed with some, and injured their plants with others, 
they end by raising only sickly and meagre plants, when they might have 
them presenting a luxuriant and satisfactory appearance — with leaves of 
the darkest green and flowers or fruit of double the usual size. 

Having made a trial for three years past, with a perfectly safe and sa- 
tisfactory liquid fertilizer, which appears to suit all kinds of vegetation, 
which is clean and easily applied, and procured without difficulty, in any 
town, I confidently recommend it to your readers, especially those who 
wish to give especial pains to, and get uncommon results from, certain fa- 
vorite plants — either in pots or in the open garden — plants, whose roots are 
within such a moderate compass, that they can be reached two or three 
times a week, if not oftener, by the watering pot. 

This liquid fertilizer is made by disolving half an ounce of sulphate of 
ammonia in a gallon of water. 

Nothing so good can be cheaper, and the substance may be obtained at al- 
most any apothecary's. 

Now for the mode of using it. I may say, at the outset, that weak as 
the solution appears to be, and is, if plants are watered with it daily, they 
will die — just as certainly as a man will who drinks nothing but pure brandy. 

The right way to apply it is, to water the plant with this solution every 
^Uth tiipe, the other five times with plain water. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 239 



The proportion is so simple, and the mode of using it so easy to under- 
stand, that the most ignorant person cannot possibly blunder about it — if he 
count six. If we prepare the solution occasionally, and water our plants in 
pots every Saturday, with this ammonia water, and all the rest of the tim'e 
with plain water, we shall have a safe rule. 

The result will, I am sure, both delight and surprise every person who' 
will make a trial of it. It has become such an indispensable thing with me,- 
that I regularly mix a barrel of it every Friday, and use it on Saturday,- 
upon any plants that I particularly wish to invigorate and stimulate, t 
do not know that I have seen a single instance of its disagreeing with 
any plant — ammonia being the universal food of vegetation. Of course, 
the more rapid growing plants — those with foliage that perspire a great 
deal — are most strikingly benefitted by it. Of course, also, plants that 
are at rest, or not in a growing state should not be fed with it ; but any 
plant that is about starting, or is actually itf a growing state, will not 
fail to be wonderfully improved by it. Many plants that have fallen in- 
to a sickly state by reason of poor, or worn out soil, will usually, in 
the course of a month, take quite another aspect, and begin to develope 
rich, dark green foliage. I will enumerate some of the things that I 
have had great success with'.- 

Strawberries.— ^Heds of in'diiferent appearance at the opening of the 
spring, last season, after being watered four times with this solution, grew 
very luxuriantly, and bore a crop of remarkably fine fruit. This year I 
have repeated the experiment on half of every bed ; both foliage and blos- 
soms are as large again on the watered, as on the unwatered bed ;■ and, by 
way of comparison, I have watered some with plain water also, and find, 
though rather benefiitted, (for the strawberry loves water,) they have none 
of the extra depth of verdure and luxuriance of those watered with am- 
monia. 

Uarly Peas — A least a weak earlier than those not wateried, and much 
stronger in leaf and pod. 

Fuchsias. — A surprising effect is produced on this plant, which, with the' 
aid of ammonia water, will grow in very small pots, with a depth of verdure,- 
a luxuriance and a profusion and brilliancy of bloom, that I have never seen 
equalled. Old and stunted plants are directly invigorated by it. 

Dwarf Pears. — Some sickly trees, that I have given the best attention 
for three years previously, without being a-ble to get either good fruit or 
healthy foliage, after being watered four times with the solution — of course 
with the usual intermediate supply of common water — became perfectly 
healthy and luxuriant, and have ever since (two years,) remained so.- 



240 THE FLOEIST AND 



Dahlias. — Which I have never succeeded well with before, have done 
beautifully with me since,- flowering most abundantly and brilliantly, when' 
watered in this way. In all out of door plants, if mulching is used, only 
half the quantity of plain water is needed. For plants in pots, I consider' 
it invaluable ; and gardeners who wish to raise specimen plants for exhibi- 
tion, will find this mode of watering them every sixth time with the solution, 
to produce a perfection of growth not to besurpass-ed in any other way.-^/^.- 



GLAZING WITHOUT PUTTY. 

Mr. Editor : — An ai-ticle co^^iecl from Hovey's Magazine appear- 
ed in the Floinst, in which I stated my behef that the systeiil of 
glazing without j)utty, was not "American" as it had been called. 
This drew forth a reply from a correspondent, who signs himself 
"Beta, Philadelphia," who doubts the vei-acity of my statements. 
I do not at any time consider anonymous contradictory assertions on 
any subject worth replying to, especially Avhen in a discourteous 
strain of language, much less do I consider such a writei" worthy of 
notice when he advances nothing to su^Dport the fact he endeavors 
to establish. No"\v as we have seen nothing to establish the Amer- 
ican origin of this method of glazing, save and except the assertion 
of Mr. Hovey, who seems very desirous of appropriating to himself 
the merit of originating it ; and as no one here, with Avhom I have 
conversed on the subject, knows anything or ever heard anything of 
the houses which he says he built in 1833, and glazed in this way, I 
think it would veiy much serve the cause of truth, and also be a 
proper course of proceeding in the enquiry, if you would through 
the Florist inform your readers Avhether any houses have been 
glazed in this country on the system that you are yourself acquainted 
with about Philadelphia or elsewhere, and also the dates of their 
erection. "Beta," who I presume is one of your readers, will also 
favor us by considering this request also made to him. I have 
made a similar request to Mr. Hovey, requesting also to know 
where the houses be speaks of having built in 1833 can be seen, as 
they will be now in the prime of life, and will afford an excellent 
illustration of this excellent sj'stem. 

I do not claim to have anj-thing to do with the origin of the sys- 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 241 

tem, though I have of late years adopted it somewhat extensive!}' ; 
but I have always believed it to be of Scottish origin, and not only 
so, but to having been brought to tliis country, and practically ap- 
plied to liorticultural buildings of any extent, by a Scotchman; who 
has I believe been over 20 years in America, and who is at this 
day one of the best known, and most successful practical men now 
in ths cjantry, and this I know is saying a good deal. But as we 
are all liable to be mistaken in our beliefs, I may possibly be wrong 
as well as my friend. To warrant us however in changing our 
belief I trust we will have something more substantial than mere 
doubts and assertions. I should be the last to deprive America of 
the credit of originating anything new in horticulture, and should it 
prove to be her due, I will be the first to accord mj^ humble meed of 
praise. I shall write you more fully on the subject after your replies. 

Respectfully yours, R. B. Leuciiars. 
Quincy, July IS, 1853. 

The only instance we know in this neighbourhood of the above 
mentioned glazing is the orchid-house at Mr. Cope's, Springbrook, 
in this county. Where it originated, we do not know, but we don't 
think that the constructors of that house got their ideas from Mr. 
Hovey. Probably "Beta" if he be among our readers will let us 
hear what he knows on the 8ul)ject. We heard subsequently of 
another house, near Waterbury, Ct., if our memory serves, whicli 
was built in the same way. Our impression with regard to Mr. 
Cope's house is, that it was an experiment of the carpenter's.— Ed. 



THE CINCINNATI STRAWBERRY THEORY. . 

My experiments demonstriiting the fallnoy of the Cincinnati Strawberry 
theory have called intoexistence considerable opposition from its supporters. 
My time is too limited to reply to each objector on his own ground. I in- 
tended to leave my experiments before tie public, to let tliem stand on their 
own merits, and let my opponents have the woman's privilege — tlie last 
word. But the}' seem never to have done. As tliev sxo al(in>T witi\ it, tliev 
encumber themselves with all kinds of extraneous ideas until the oriirinal 
idea they started with is scarcely to be found. In order to settle this ques- 
31 



242 THE FLORIST AND 



tion, I have decided tot:ike it up again, explain their theory in all fairness, 
the evidence on -ivhich the^' build, and the benefits they claim for it ; when I 
\vill show its fallacy both in science and practice, and the futility of the ar- 
guments that have been made against my objections. 

i>ut it seems, Mr. Editor, I have to qualify myself to argue the point. 
They object to my nationalitj'. '"An European, and a gardener too, what 
can you know?" Gentleman, I plead guilty; but I plead in mitigation of 
sentence that I was not aware of the importance until you discovered it — 
still I am willing to give you every chance of a verdict in the line of argu- 
ment you have chosen. I am ignorant of the exact spot whereon I was born. 
I believe it was somewhere in England. I do not know in what county, but 
will try and discover. 1 have in my veins Grelic, Celtic, and Saxon blood, 
but do not know whicli preponderates. Sometimes I believe I am like Plun- 
ket's client who "could not be a traitor to his country, because he had no 
country to sell." Then as to my knowledge. That is a delicate subject. 
One can hardly find Uvhss enough to speiik well of himself. Cato Censor- 
ious says there are times when a man may do so. With such victorious au- 
tliority may I not attempt it? Let me say then that it ??ia_(/ ?)« possible to be 
an European and a gardener, and yet have knowledge enough to put a death 
blow to a fallacious theory. 

What is that theory? In a large quantity of seedlings five varieties are 
produced: 'Namely, J'istiUafes, Ilej-maphrodites, kc, each variety remain- 
ing true to its character through any circumstances; that use was first made 
of this theory in the west, to produce fiuit from Strawberry plants that 
otherwise would have beeii barren, by placing staminate plants in the vicini- 
ty of pistillate ones, and that fruit raised from such plantSy were finer than 
if they had been Hermaphrodites and in greater profusion. 

Now, lam in no way disposed to detract from the real merits of our friends 
in the west. It has not yet been proved that a pistillate flower will pro- 
duce fi'uit without impregnation with the male property. The onl-y thing I 
have seen in print in relation to the subject, is by my learned friend "W. 
D." of West Chester, who has ably shown by Botanical analysis in the July 
No. of the Farm Journal, that such a circumstance is possible. 

Until that has b^en proved — and practice is certainly against it so far as 
the strawberry is concerned. The Cincinnatians have done some service. 
It is in the permanency of the sexual characters of their varieties that they 
fall into error. 

They believe in their permanency chiefly because they have had them un- 
der their eyes for years, and after the most careful observation, could trace 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 243 

no chauge in tliera. Now tlus is v-ery strong evidence. But I have evidence 
that CUB overrule it. They can ask "cannot a nmri believe his own eyes? 
We have watched them closely— not once, but a tlioiisimd times — not only 
individuallj', but iu eonitnittees, in societies, in great numbers — not in one 
locality, or one state, or one situation, but in many. And if they do ever 
vary, should we not have seen iheui? and, if others observed it, should not 
we have heard of it?" But Botanical scieu-ce is not satisfied with negative 
evidence, she modestly enquires why are those characters so permanent? 
and the reply is that permanence of character is universal — one of nature's 
immutable laws. That a character given to variety at its birth, remains 
with it through all circumstances. That we may as well tulk of changing the 
seK of the human family, or of any animal, as to expeei a plant, pistillate 
at its birth, ever to pnwluce flowers with pci'fect fairness. Now, I believe, I 
have given their argutnents fairly. It will be seen that tiiey rest first on 
tuegative evidence, which I sh',ill oppose with ^'.wsiYmg and direct; and second- 
ly by a supposted analogij, which I shall show to have no real foundation, 
and to which I shall oppose acknowledged principles of Botanical science. 

Many have seen beds of stiMwberrics change sexes, and be of different 
sexes when only one was oi'iginally alone planted. They have had every 
care taken of them to prevent mixture; but their owners- are told, that 
'•strangers must have got in somehow and kicked the rightful owners out of 
the' bed," "Seedlings may have come up there," anything but a change. 
'*My strawberries don't change, •thertifore, yours cannot." This logic don't 
convince the owner of the mixed bed ; and yet Iiow is he to prove the logic 
of the other unsound? Very easily — mark one plant, note its character, 
ta,ke runners from it alone, use the greatest care, leave no doubt for mis- 
take, and then when in a dozen such, you do as I have done, get seven of 
one kind and five of another, follow the Cindnnati fashion, and "Give your 
opinion to iXxaworld" If they allude to the "sexes of animals, which when 
once the same always the sanie," ask theiu to undertake the absurdity of 
taking a riiirner from some animal, and make it another indicidual aniniiil ; 
then to place it in totally different circumstances to the original animal, as 
you do the strawberry, and see whether it will then change or not, liet'cire 
they say much about it; and if they see the impossible absurdity of tliis, 
then tell them their "analogy" cannot be applied. 

I have alluded briejly in the last paragraph to my direct and positive o\ i- 
dence of the change, and in matters of fact brevity is always best. 1 will 
refer the reader again to it, and now proceed to show that it is coitnintent 
with Botanical science, and consequently, that any other theory is not. 



244 THE FLORIST AND 



We ■vvill begin r.ith the study of a plant. It is composed of two distinct 
systems — the vascular and the tvoochj. Those parts of a plant -wliicli have 
most reference to the former, liave a tendency to change by cultivation. 
Every part of a plant belongs to one or the other of these systems ; and 
each part as it is successively developed, is bijt a higher stage of the' same 
thing. In reference to our subject we have to do with stamens. They be- 
long to the vascular division, and are but a highef stage of the petal, wliile 
these again, are but highly developed sej^aZs ; and the letter but perfected 
bracts or leaves. All, or any one of these, belongipg to that system, are lia- 
ble to change by culture and circumstance. Take leaves tp begin with. If 
any gentleman will take tlie trouble of going into a wood of whitfi Oak he 
will find that the leaves are merely lobed, often nearly entire, fipd resem- 
bling very much the leaves of the British oak on the brapchcs nearest the 
base of the tree, while those on the top are very deeply sinuated, often near- 
ly laciniate. The must plausible inferen.ce at pnce is, that the absence of 
much light to the lower branches, has made the difference. On looking for 
a tree that has stood for years in the full light by itself, we find our 
pathesis correct, as tjiere all the leaves are uniform. This shows how 
the forms of leaves are influenced by light. 

Other principles of cultivation have a similar influence, soil will alter the 
smoothness or downiness of leaves, as well as their color and form. By 
taking off a part of any plant with thpsp peculiarities, and making of it a 
distinct individual, we give it a greater power to perpetuate itself. The 
varigated leaved shoots, that sometiaies come on Evonymous japonicus, if 
taken off retain their peculiarity through many different circumstances; but 
if they are planted \x\ a %pet soil and shady sitf.i.atioji, tliey will very frequently 
return to their original green state ; going a long v'ay to prove that a dry soil 
and exposed situation first caused the change, and that when taken off, they 
would retain that change in any circumstances, not ppposed to the original 
cause — when that occurred they assumed their old form. I tdke t]iis ex- 
ample because it has probably been observed by many, and as stamens are 
subject to the same la>vs, being in fact the same thing more highly de- 
veloped, it will be apparent that they top must also change their form and 
character to suit the circumstances that govern them. Let us get amongst 
the stamens — take the Cfttalpa. The pld Botanists placed this plant in 
their class Didynaniia, 'whiph requires foxir stamens — their specimens 
from Virginia warranted theip in so doipg. But the English plants will 
never produce but two, so their Botanists placed it in Diandria — so ip 
this district, where the patalpa is so far removed frpm its inost natural 
localities, it very ;-arely perfects all of its stamens. On the other hand 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 245 

take the melon,. In England the climate not being perfectly adapted to its 
perfection, the plants are entirely monoecious. Here, where they grow in 
rich soil, out of doors, are quite at home, they are Polygamovs, bearing 
frequently perfect Hermaphrodite flowers. If we attempt io force them 
it is quite another affair ; their flowers being then pistillate. In this in- 
stance, I have shown how by ^ perfect conjunction of circumstances, a plant 
which in other circumstances, would produce but pistillate flowers, produces 
hermaphrodite. 

I fear I trespq,ss too long on your valuable space, or I should like 
to continue these notes, I will conclude with one more instance of how 
stamens may be produced or rendered abortive by cultivation. Every Bot-. 
anist knows that the Bruginansia or Datura is a Bentandrous or flve stam- 
ined plant. The B. Kniglitii is a double one, or the flower has two corollas^ 
•with the five stq,mens and one pistil perfect. But suffer it, after having 
been well grown, to become starved and stunted, and it will become single- 
but with ten stamens instead of five — we change the petals into stamens by 
cultivation. 

Who now believes in the permanancy of stamens in a strawberry flower 
or otherwise ? I^et him take a pistillate plant, propagate from it, keep theni 
in pots of poor soil, let them come forward naturally in a cool, shady place, 
on a north aspect where no direct sun can ever reach them, and if ten to 
one who try the experiment fairly do not get Hermaphrodite flowers fronj 
these plants, I have done. 

Some of the advocates of the theory offer me ten thousand dollars if 
I can prove then; wrong. If they will please to convince themselves in 
tlie manner I have detailed, they can forward me a check for the amount 
on any of our city banks, or of New York, 

Thomas Meehan. 



CALENDAR OF OPERATIONS. 
[Continued from last No.) 
Gkeen House. 
Cultivators must begin to turn their attention to ne.\t year's stock. A 
commencement is generally made with the PeZ(7r//on/M;». In England the 
first thing in order is to prepare a hot bed, to obtain bottom heat. Here it 
is perfectly unnecessary. A few trials of the thermometer in August or 
September, will show the earth at that time to be several degrees warmer 
than the atmosphere, which is all that is required of temperature to success- 
ful propagation. A bed of sandy soil made up out of doors, with a frame 



246 THE FLORIST AND 



over it, in order to regulate the moisture, and to enable us to shade, is per- 
fection. Moles and ground mice are apt to give trouble — means should bo 
taken to prevent their ingress. In cutting back the Pelargonium leave 
three or four good eyes to every shoot, if it be desirable to form it into a 
fine specimen next season. After they are cut down, set them in full sun, 
And give little water till they begin to shoot. 

Chrysanthemums are much improved by waterings of guano water about 
once a week from this time till they begin to flower. 

This is the best time to propagate Cactaceous plants and succulents gen- 
erally. Many prefer to graft the former — generally on the Cerei or (though 
seldom seem in America) the Pereskia Bleo. In my opinion they form very 
unnatural looking objects. The Epipyllum however, does not look so bad 
on the PeresJcia, I prefer all these things on their own roots. Cuttings 
or oSsets placed on a box of sand, or just beneath the surface, exposed lo 
the full sun, with very occasional waterings, strike root readily. 

Those who did not sow their Chinese Primroses in the spring, should 
lose no time now, or their houses will be sadly behind their neighbors in in- 
terest the forthcoming winter. All plants got on for winter jlowering, 
should also continue to have shifts as often as their pots become filled with 
roots. 

Ancient calendar writers would have much move to say this month about 
^'attending to watering," "syringing," "destruction of insects," all of which 
subjects I expect my readers perfectly understand. It is not our object to 
jnark out routine duties, so much as to record progressive facts. 

Vegetable Gai^dbn. 

Don't earth up Celery till it has grown stout and sturdy. To aid this, 
give copious waterings of soap suds or manure water, whenever opportunity 
serves. Plant out JEndive fifteen inches apart in very rich loam. They also 
are very grateful for occasional manure waterings. The greatest demand 
by the family will be for the curled variety. Give Brocoli and Cabbage 
strong soap suds too, you may "see them grow" after it. I believe you 
sowed Puta Bagas last month, and are now ready for the Flat Top Dutch, 
or Ped strap leaved. The cooks prefer this kind. They are frequently 
sown after a crop of early potatoes. It is rather opposed to a sound system 
of rotation of crop ; but they generally do well this way, and it is therefore 
followed. If the fly prove troublesome to you, see if soap water will prove 
troublesome to them. 

Still make another sowing of Corn, Peas, and dwarf Beans. If they 
eome in before frost they will add much to the credit of the department. 
Radishes and Lettuce will be sought after in the fall — look out a rich, cool, 
piece of ground for the prospect. T. J. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 247 

THE POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE OF THE STATE OF 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

It is gratifying to be able to record any good work done by our 
rulers : especially when they do comparatively so little. At the 
session of the State Legislature just passed, the Polytechnic Col- 
lege of the State of Pennsylvania was chartered. When we con- 
sider the vast imj)ortance of the Agricultural, Mining, and Manufac- 
turing interests of our country, we feel how great the necessity is of 
schools for the instruction of our youth in Practical Chemistry, En- 
gineering, and Mechanics. The circular of the Board of Trustees 
we give below. 

This Colloge, incorporatefd by the Legislature,, at its recent session, is 
designed to include in its organization, a College of Mines,- of Agricul- 
ture, of Arts, and of Manufactures ; and to afford those destined for 
these important branches of industry, a tliorough scientific edtication. The 
application of Science to the Arts, is daily rendering thera more powerful 
sources of National progress, and demanding increased intelligence in those 
engaged in their prosecution. The Civil and the Mining Engineer, the Ar- 
chitect, the Manufacturer of Chemicals, of Sugar, and of Glass ; those en- 
engaged, or interested in the productions of the Plough, the Anvil, the 
Furnace and the Loom ; all these have, under the stimulus of modern sci- 
ence, and of modern competition, assumed a new and nobler position; and 
hence their proper education has become an object of deep public moment, 
and one closely affecting national prosperity. 

These facts, first recognized on the Continent of Europe, led there to the 
establishment of schools of Mines, and of Arts, which have not only tended 
locally to the perfection of Art, but have become the resort of students from 
all parts of the civilized world. The value and necessity of these Schools, 
is attested by the constant demand for their students, and the many respon- 
sible positions held by them, in this and in other countries. The congre- 
gated Industry of all Nations, exhibited in the grandest temple ever dedi- 
cated to the Arts, exen>plified the superiority of the educated artist and 
workman, and already reckons among its happiest results, the founding in 
Great Britain, under the most distinguished patronage, of the ''Industrial' 
College of Arts and Manufactures." 

Animated by the general spirit of industrial progress, the Trustees of the 



248 THE FLORIST AND 

Polytechnic College hold that the time has arrived for the establishment in 
this countrj^, of an institution which shall yield to our youth the advantages 
heretofore obtainable only in foreign lands, and which shall respoad to the' 
demands of the great interests of Production and Construction.- 

Such an institution is especially required in America, where, beyond ex- 
ample, demand for labor and capital exceeds supply, and where, consequent- 
ly, prodigal expenditure in the developcinent of our yet untold commercial,- 
agricultural, and mineral vesourses, is most disastrous. In the department 
of mining and metallurgy alone, millions of dollars have been squandered,- 
and years irretrievably lostin vexatious delay, through ignorance of scien- 
tific and economical methods of woi'king. 

The' State of Pennsylvania has already become the centre of many 61 
the most important branches of industry, and her metropolis, Philadelphia^ 
— contiguous to the mines, and the seat of extensive and varied iilanufaC- 
tures, — owes it to her literary and scientific reputation, to provide' the fliost 
ample means for education in the arts. 

The' Trustees have not received, nor have they asked aid from tri6' State. 
They rely upon the prompt, liberal, and cordial co-operation of every friend 
of the measure, not only iii Pennsylvania, but throughout the country. 

They confidently anticipate the opening of the College with a; full facul- 
ty, and copious means of illustration, and of practice, in the month of Sep- 
tember next. 

The plan of organization will comprise the following Departments. 

1. Mathematics and Civil Engineering. 

2. Mechanical Philosophy, and the PEiNeiPLES of Machines. 

3. Metallurgy, and Industrial, Agricult(jral, and Analytical 
Chemistry. 

4. Mining Engineering, Mineralogy, and Geology. 

A well supplied analytical laboratory, sections and models of mines and 
machinery, a geological and mineralogical cabinet, field operations, 
and architectural and mechanical drawing, will aiford ample facilities 
for thorough and practical instruction. Students will be enabled to pur- 
sue one or more studies for a year, term, or less period, and after ex- 
amination, will be granted Certificates of capacity accordingly. Candidates 
for Degrees will be examined on all the branches, but may pursue the 
studies a longer or shorter time, according to industry and ability. 

Communications should be addressed to John McIntyre, Esq., Secreta- 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 249 



ry to the Boirii of Trustees of the Polytechnic College of the State of 
Pennsylvania, Walnut Street, above Sixth, Philadelphia. 



PENNSYLVANIA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The stated meeting of this Society was held on Tuesday evening, July 
19th, in the Chinese Saloon, Gen. Patterson, president, in the chair. The 
exhibitions of plants was unexpectedly lurge for midsummer; each collec- 
tion continued some possessing interest, which it might be well to notice. — 
Among those brought by the President's gardener, were a; fine large plant 
of Pluincria rosea, which the General sent home from Mexico, and has now 
flowered for the first time. 'I'abernxmontana coronaria, in fine flower. — 
CAuninea. S'Jiiediana, and a number of air plants. Among Robert B,uist's 
were neio plants, and shown on this occasion for the first time — Ci/rtanthus 
magnijicus, Lycastu tctragona, Achiinenes Mar gar etta, Fuchsias Orion, Gem 
of the season ; Alpha and resplendens, and Gloxinia Victoria liegina. 
F. Linnig's girdener, exhibited two very fine plants — Gardenia Stanlcyana, 
in full flowei', ■Am\ Plumeria rosea. Caleb' Cope's had three new species, 
exhibited for the first time — Jasticia bicolor, Prom'Xii'xa stap'eloides, an or- 
chid, and Ilovey's globe aniaranthus, a' fine specimen of Clerodendron 
Koempferii, Allanianda yiereifolia, ij-c. W. W. Iveen's contained a neiu 
plant, Huya ca/npanulata, very pretty, and seen for the first time — Lophoi- 
permuni Hetidersonii, Fuchsias, &c. James Dundas' gardener pl'esonted 
liandsome Fuchsias, Gloxinias, and a most beautiful air plant, the Cattleya 
Mossia. Tile fruit table was laden with tempting specimens of peaches, 
very large — called Admirable, and a seeedling tree in fruit, growing in a 
14 inch pot, also ^apes of varieties. Black Hamburg, St.' Peter's, White 
Frontignac, Tokay, and Purple Damask, from Mr. Cope's grounds. From 
Eden-ISall, were Black Hamburg and White Jluseat grapes. Very lai-ge 
and luscious Moorpark Apricots, by Thomas Robins, Wm. V. Pettit and 
Wm. Johns. H. Pratt McKean, large fine gooseberries, called Cook's White 
Eagle, and Farrow's Roaring Lion. Isaac B. Bi>:ter hiid seedling Apricots, 
Plums, the Royal Hative and Jefferson ; and 3 kinds of gooseberries. Mr. 
Biiist, Breda Apricot; Pears, Bloodgood, Windsor, Madeline,- English and 
French Jargonelle; Currants, Black grape, Black Naples and late black 
kinds. Alex. Parker seedling Apricots. II. W. S. Cleveland, St. Michael 
Figs, a choice dark variety. Wm. Johns, green Figs, and John Perkins, 
seven varieties of apples. 



250 THE FLORIST AND 



Mr. Cope's gardener exhibited a table of fine esculents. 

Preraiums awarded were by the Committee on Plants and Flowers. Plants 
in Pots — For the best twelve to Thos. Fairley, foreman to Robert Buist ; 
for the second best to Thos. Meehan, gardener to C. Cope ; for the third 
best to Wm. Grassie, gardener to W. W. Keen. Plant in Pot — For the 
best specimen, Gardneria Stanleyana, to John Pollock, gardener to F. Len- 
iiig. Indigenous Plants — For the best to Alex. Parker. Plants shown for 
the first time — A premium of $3 for Hoya camjjanulata, to Wm. Grassie, 
gardener to W. W. Keen ; one of a dollar for Justicia hioolor and Gom- 
phrena Hoveyii, to Thos. Meehan, gardener to C. Cope, and one dollar to 
Thos. Fairley, foreman to R. Buist ; for a collection of Achimenes, Glox- 
inias, •.itxd a, Cyrtanthus. Bouquet design — For the best to Isaac Collins, 
gardener to General Piitterson. Basket — For tli« best to Thos. Meehan ; 
for the best of indigenous flowers to the same. 

Special premium's — Two- dollars to James Bisset, gardener to Jas. Dundas, 
for Cattleya Mossia, a fine specimen ; and $3 to Isaac Collins, gardener to 
Gen. Patterson, for a large collection of plants, including a beautiful speci- 
men of Plumeria rosea, O'rchids, and other green and hot house plants. 

By the Fruit Committee — Grapes — For the best black variety. Black 
Hamburg, to Thos. Meehan, gardener to C. Cope ; for the second best to 
A. J. Smith, gardener at Eden Hall. For the best of a white variety — 
White Frontignac to A. J. Smith ; for the second best. Golden Chasselas, to 
Thos. Meehan. Aprieots — For the best to Thos. Robins, for Moorpark ; for 
the second best to Wm. V. Pettit, for the same kind. Plums — For the best, 
the Imperial Gage, to Isaac B-. Baxter ; for the second best, Mirabelle, to 
A. Parker. Figs—¥ov the best to' H. W. S. Cleveland, for St. Michaels ; 
for the second best to Wm. Johns. Goosebei-ries — For the best to A. Bur- 
nett, gardener to H. Pratt McKean, for Roaring Lion ; for the second best, 
the large green, to Isaac B. Baxter. Apples — For the best, the Early Har- 
vest, and for the second best, the Bough, to John Perkins ; and special pre- 
miums of $3 for very fine Peaches, and $2 for a seedling peach tree in fruit, 
in a pot, to Thos. Meehan. 

By the Committee on Vegetables — Tomatoes—For the best half peek to 
James Jones ; for the second best to Wm. Johns. For the best display of 
Vegetables, by a private gardener, to Thos. Meehan, gardener to C. Cope. 

Adjourned. Thomas P. James, liec. Sec. 



HOETICULTURAL JOURNAL. 251 



FLOEAL AND HORTICULTURAL EXHIBITION. 

The secoad annual Floral and Horticultural Exhibition of the Berks 
County Agricultural Society, was held in the Academy Hall, North Fourth 
Street, on Friday aud Saturday, the 2ith and 25th June. The time was 
exceedingly ill-chosen, being several weeks too late for the most advanta- 
geous Floral display, and as mauy too early for anything like an effective 
demonstration ia the Fruit department. The extreme heat of the weather 
also operated unfavorably. Yet, with all these drawbacks, the Exhibitioa 
was a very handsome affair — the citizens of Jieading, and many of our 
country friends, entering into the c ornpetition with all the spirit and anima- 
tion that characterize(i their efforts at the former exhibitions of the Associ- 
ation. The attendanae, too, was quite numerous — many of the farmers 
leaving their work at the busiest season to be present. We learn from the 
Secretary that twenty-one new members were added to the Association, ma- 
king the present number of members 800, and that the receipts for admis- 
sion amounted to about §140 — a sum sufficient to pay all expenses, and 
Jeave a small balance besides to be added to the general fund. We anne.x 
the reports of the various Committees appointed to examine the articles pre- 
sented, and award premiums to the most deserving : 



AWARD OF PREMIUilS. 

Fruit. — rYour Committee would respectfully report premiums as follows, 
to wit : 

For Cherries — -Black Tartarean, .Joseph Wright, 1st premium, $1 00 

Bigareau, Solomon Kirby, 2d premiuni, 50 

Special premium to Samuel Bertolet, for largest Cherries — less quan- 
tity than a quart. 
Best variety, AVilliam D. Haina, 50 

There were very fine specimens of English Morello, by Andrew Taylor 
and John Deininger, whicTi came too late for competition. 

No premiums were awarded for Strawberries and Raspberries. A dish 
of Strawberries was exhibited by Mr. AVentzel. Some fine specimens of 
Raspberries of the Col. Wilder and Orange varieties, by Charles Kessler, 
and a fine plate of red Antwerp, by Jonathan Deininger. Also, AVild Rasp- 
berries, by Deborah Wright ; — a plate of Service Berries, by Deborah 
Wright. Oranges, by Mr. John Kurtz. 

Strawberries in Spirits, Hovey's Seedling, Pine Apple, and White, by 
Dr. R G. Bertolet. 



252 THE FLORIST AND 

Plate of Apples, by Wm. H. Haines. 

Lemons, Mrs. C. Hitter, premium, 50 

Currants — Charles Kessler, White, Dutch, and Red, very fine; also, by 
Henry Kessler, and Mr. Knop. 

Gooseberries — very fine 3pecimens. 
Solomon Sherer, 1st premium, $1 00 

Michael Knop, 2d do , 5Q 

Mrs. Deborah Wright, best variety, 50 

Very large and fine specimens were exhibited by Capt. Griffith, and Col. 
Kendall. 

The Committee oi) Vegetables, in pursuance of the duties detailed to 
them, beg most respectfully to report,' that they have made the following 
awards, according to the schedule laid before them, viz : 
Jesse Wentzell, Exeter, best Red Beets, $1 00 

do do do Salad, 50 

do do do Beans, , 1 00 

do do do Peas, 1 00 

Jos. Wright, Maidencreekj best Potatoes, , 1 00 

do do 2nd best Beets, 50 

Henry Gring, Cumru, 2nd best Potatoes, 60 

Jacob L. Greiner, 4 best Potatoes, but being less than half a peck re- 
quired were not entitled to a premium. 
Jesse AVentzel, Exeter, best dozen Tomatoe§, 1 00 

Jos. Wright, Maidencreek, best Onions, 1 00 

Henry Kessler, Reading, best 3 heads of Cabbage, 50 

Jesse Wentzel, Exeter, t)est display of Vegetables, 2 00 

Michael Hauser, 2d best display of Vegetables, 1 00 

They also noticed with much pleasure, some fine Potatoes and Beets, ex- 
hibited by Dr. Bertolett, of Oley, and Mr. Hauser, of Reading, but not be- 
ing the quantity required, could not compete for premiums. 

The Committee appointed to report on "Roses and Green House Plants iq 
Pots," have the honor to state, that the premium for the best exhibition of 
Green House Plants in Pots, consisting as required, of *'at least twelve 
dissimilar vq.rieties, comprising not less than eight genera, labelled," is 
awarded to Capt. D. A Griffith, he being the only one who copaplied with the 
specified regulations. 

In regard to Roses in Pots, no exhibitor furnished the number requirei^ 
for a premium; although several beautiful varieties were sent by Mrs. Eliza 
Kessler, Mrs. Mary Davis, &c. 

The Committee feel bound to make special mention of a large and splen- 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 253 

did variety of Verbenas, Calceolarias, Petunia, Letospeira, &c., &c., exhibr 
ited by Mrs. Eliza Kessler, and Mr. Michael Ilauser. It cannot be expected 
that all the plants (of which there were so many fine specimens,) should be 
noticed individually; and it is probable, that during the examination in the 
crowded Hall, the names of some of the numerous contributors have been 
omitted unintentionally. We would therefore merely state that Mrs. John 
Kutz, Mrs. J. [Arnold, Mrs. H. Nagle, (a beautifal Passion vine, &c.) Mrs, 
R. F. Brown, (among other fine plants a rare variegated Calceolaria, and a 
California Groldiana,) Mrs. Albright, Mrs. F. S. Bickley, Mrs. John Henry, 
Mrs. Oakeley, Mrs. Snyder, Mrs- M. Miller, Mrs. Beckhardt, J. Gorgas, 
Mrs. Sell, Mrs. Foecht, Mrs. Rhoads, Mrs. Edes, Mrs. McKeever, Mrs. Mc- 
Donald, Mrs. Siegel, D- Rhein, Peter Homan, (an Agave Americana, 21 
years old,) Mrs. Dickenson, Mrs. AVeitsel, Mrs. Mary Davis, Mrs. Kessler, 
Mr. Hauser, and perhaps others, presented for exhibition a very l^andsome 
and large variety of green-house pot flowers, among which may be enunjerr 
ated white, red, and variegated Oleanders, Pomegranates, Verbenas, Petu- 
neffi, Creeping Cereus, Aloes, Cactus of very many varieties. Pinks, Calce- 
olarias, Hydrangeas, Fuchsise of many kinds. Also, a number of very rare 
plants, unlabeled, together with a general assortment of flowers now in 
bloom, all of them of a very superior character, as might be supposed from 
the names of the contributors. 

The Committee regret that the rule requiring the plants to be labeled, was 
not more generally observed; the neglect thereof diminishing somewhat the 
gpatification of the visitors. With the wish that the next floral exhibition 
may be held somewhat earlier in the season, and that each one will surpass 
in beauty, excellence, and variety, its preceding one, we close our report. 

Your Committee on Indigenous riants, regard with lively pleasure the 
increasing interest taken in our county in the study of the '■^amiable sci- 
ence" Botany. They understand that there would have been a stronger 
competition for the premiums off'ered by your society, had not the intense 
heat and dryness of the previous week materially marred our flora. 

The first premium we consider fully due to Mr. Charles A. Deininger, 
whose beautiful and tastefully arranged vase of rare native flowers, elicited 
a general expression of admiration. It contained 20 species, representing 
18 genera. 

Your Committee sincerely regret their inability to award your second pre- 
mium to Miss E. B. Griscora, for her vase of "Never Sink" flowers, arranged 
with so much neatness and taste. They were deposited too late to come 
within the rules of the exhibition. 

The Committee to whom was delegated the delicate task to decide the 



254 THE FLORIST AND 

merits of the cut flowers submitted for exliibition, approaclied the subject 
with a linowledge of the deep responsibility resting upon them ; the fact of 
the great variety of ilowers, rendering a decision more diiBcult on account 
of the different merits presented in various aspects, comprising great varie- 
ties, rare combinations, and excellent taste. The Committee strove to at- 
tain that impartiality so necessary to a proper discharge of their duties, and 
submit the following premiums as their award and decision : 

' Roses. 

Best display of Roses, No, 20, Miss A. Arnold, Prenjivtm, $1 00 

Second beat, do No. 72, Chas, Kessler, 50 

Designs. 
Pest desigi> of fjowers, in Rustic Basket, including Calystegia pu- 

bescens, No. 74, Mrs. M. E. R. Keim, Lower Heidelberg, $2 00 

Second best design on a Fan, No. 152, Miss Griscom, 1 00 

'4.'hird best design, No. 6, Capt. D. A. Griffith, 75 

JFlowers in a Basjcet. 
Best display in a Basket, No. 20, Mrs. Deborah Weight, Maiden- 
creek, $1 00 

Bouquets. 

JJest Round Bouquet, No. 102, Mrs. H. B, Connard, $1 00 

Second best, do No. 62, Mrs. D. M'Knight, 50 

Best Flat, do No. 28, Mrs. Brooke, 1 00 

Secoiid best do No. 128, Miss Julia Shesirer, 50 

Pyra7n'id, 
Pest Pyramid, No. 108, very choice. Christian Shutter, $2 00 

The Committee subinit the following as being worthy of honorable men- 
tion : 

Dr. P, G. Bertolett, No. 155, design in leaves^ commemorative of A. J. 
Downing, 

Miss Boyer, No. 138, Pinks, 

Henry Kessler, No. 1, Verbenas and choice flowers. 

Elmira Stetler, No. 157, Cactus, large and rich. 

Miss Mary M. Mayer, No. 91, 14 varieties of Verbenas. 

Pupils of the North-West Ward Female Grammar School, No. 149. 

Mrs. G. A. Nicolls, Nos. 37 and 38. 

Miss Clara Boas, No. 129. 

Michael Hauser, Np. 53. 
, Mrs. Levan, No. 148, Rhododendron. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 255 



XT, 



ienry S. Bickley, No. 164. 
Mrs. John Kutz, No. 134. 
Miirj Davis, No. 98. 
Mi-s. S. Young, No. 41. 
Charles W. Keim, Basket of Flowers. 
Mrs. John Ritter, No. 154. 
Lewis Briner, No. 6. 

John Moyer,- Night Blooming Cereus,- (cut.) 
Reuben F. Brown, No. 47, Pyramid. 
Miss Shearer, No. 129. 



The Genesee Valley HoIiticultoral Society held its first* m'eeting for 
this season on the 21st of Jitne. Tiie display was a very fine onte. Messrs. 
A. Frost & Co., Ellwanger & Barry, and J. A Eastnian, Esq., and others, 
contributed nuWerous varieties- of Roses; Greenhouse plants and Bouquets 
were also very good. We had a' report sent us by a subscriber in' Rochester, 
but we have not room' for it. 



-»«=- 



We saw a plant of the new variegated climber, Cissus discolor, in the 
greenhouse of J. F. Ivnorr, Esq., West Philadelphia'. The colors of the 
large heart-shaped leaves are more beautiful than those of a'ny foliage we 
ever saw, being a reddish purple, deep green and ashy W^hite. In the course 
of this year we will give a figure of the plant. 

PERPETUAL FRUITING STRAWBERRIES. 

Last fall I potted some Strawberry plants for early forcing, these ripened 
a light crop diiVing March and April, and were then planted out ; they have 
continued bearing more or less ever since. At the present time there are 
fruit in all stages from the opening blossom to the ripe truSs. I do not men- 
tion this as anything new, it being a common practice with 'gardeners to 
gather a second cVop from forced pla'nts when treated in this manner. It 
occurred tome, however, that this "Crescent seedling" habit might not be 
generally known, atid whether the climate of New Orleans where this vari- 
ety originated might not afford a natul'al trcatmbnt similar to what thesa 
were artificially subjected to, and if so, would not any strawberry thus be-' 
come in some measure a "perpetual." 

Baltimore, July 18, 18-53. W. 



256 THE FLORIST AND 

The Flore des Serres et des Jar dins de V Europe. It is of the great- 
est importance to the botanist and to cultivators generally that new plants" 
should be figured, as without the plant itself or a figure no idea can be 
formed from a description. In Europe there are several works which produce' 
representations of the new plants which flower there. Curtis's Magazine, and 
Paxton's Magazine of Botany keep us well informed of the varieties of 
Kew and other English gardens — Turner's Florist presents us with the best' 
hybrids of several favorite genera — the figures of Vilmorin, Mielliez and 
others in Paris do the same in that quarter. In Ghent M. Louis Van 
Houtte, the celebrated Belgian Horticulturist publishes his Flore des Serres' 
— a monthly containing eight or nine plates of the rarest plants either of 
recent introduction or of hybrids raised in England or the continent. The 
execution of these plates is very much superior to those of any other maga- 
zine we have seen, our readers can see specimens in our own plates which' 
were procured from the same establishment. We are often gratified at 
seeing figured most beautifully some of the beautiful inhabitants of our own* 
forest and swamps which iii Europe are considered of some worth. In the' 
last volume we found a plate of Pyxidanthera barbulata, which may be had 
here in the spring, at the corner of Market and Eighth streets, nicely done 
up in a rag, for sixpence, yet the sending of that little plant is thus an- 
nounced. "This is a plant which a rare good fortune has enabled Sir Wni'. 
Hooker to publish the excellent figure here reproduced. Specimens gathered 
in the pine barrens of New Jersey by "M. Evant of Radnor, (Delaware)," 
arrived last May in Kew gardens, as fresh, and as well flowered as if 
they had just been gathered. Still another feat of that great Ibagician 
steam, still another service of that ingenious system of portable glasses 
which is called the Wardian system !" Our friend of Delaware County has 
thus performed a service to the botanists of the other side, which he 
did not anticipate when he boxed up the little Diapensia in a Wardian 
case. The contributors to this work are among the most celebrated 
botanists ; besides the Editor Dr. Planchon, we have the names of Blume, 
Brogniart, De Caisne, De Candolle and others. Mr. G. G. Sheppard of 
New York is Agent for the work in the United States. 



Eratuii. — The eight pages of signature 30 in this number are wrongly 
numbered. 




RHODODENDRON EDGETWORTHI. Hook. Fil. 



THE r 

AND HORTICULTUEAL JOURML. 

Vol. n.] Philadelpliia, September, 1853. [No. 9. 

RHODODENDRON EDGWORTHII. 

Ericace.e <5 Rhododendre^. — Decandria-Monogynia. 

CriARACT. GENER.—Cali/x 5 partitas, Corolla infundi-buliformis ra- 
rius campanulata aut rotata, nunc regulari nunc plus minus irregularis 
semper 5-loba. Stain. 10 (rarius abortiv. 5-9,) corollce non adnata, ante et 
inter lobos sita, sepius deolinata, exserta. AntJterce poi-ls 2 terminalibus 
dehiscentes. Capsiila-5 locularis, 5-valvis, aut 10-locul, 10-valvis septicido- 
deliiscens. Semina axi colummari angulato adnata compresso, scobil'ormia 
subulata. — Frutices rarius aibores,fulia scmpervirentia 2:)etiolata integerrima. 
Flores in corjjmbos terminales dispositi. Alabastra floralia squamosa. 
Corolke conspicuce alhce aut Jlavoe DC. 

CHARACT. SPECIF.—" Frutex ssepe epiphytus, ramulis petiolis ped- 
unculis capsulis foliisque subtus dense ferrugineo-villoso-tomentosis, foliis 
sublonge petiolatis elliptico-ovatis acutis v. acuminatis subcoriaccis riigoso- 
reticulatis basi obtu^is supra nitidis marginibus recurvis, pedunculis 2-3 ter- 
minalibus v. ab iunovationibus lateralibus, floribus speciosis albis, calycis 
ampli 5-partiti lobis foliaceis oblongo-OVatis intequalibiis lanuginosis ciliatis, 
corollas tubo breviusculo late campanu'lato, limbi maximi lobis rotundatis ve- 
nosis crenato-undulatis, staminibus 10 exsertis, filanicntis inferue \illosi8, 
antheris elongatis, ovario dense tonientoso 5-lociilari, stjlu grauili b.isi lanu- 
ginoso, capsula oblongo-cylindracea recta obtusa valvis ligiiosis." Hook. fil. 

Rhododeyidron Udge^vorthii, Hook. fil. llhod. of tbe iSikk.-Hitnal. ser. 
III. t. 21. (Cum icone hie iuiitata). 

For size of flower and beauty of form, tliis magnificent species 
can only be worthily compared to the Rhndodendron Dalhcusm, 
which it resembles also in its epiphytal vegetation. It is, like the 
former, a shrub whose slender branches balance themselves on the 
branches of trees (particularly those of Pines) in the rocky ravines 
of the higher valleys of the Sikkira IIimala3\i, between 7-9U00 feet 
(English) above the sea. In sudden storms, when avalanches of 
rocks carry to the bottom of the ravines both the tree and the 
parasitic vegetation which decorates them, the llexililc shrub often 
33 



258 - THE FLORIST AND 



escapes destruction and taking root on the very ruins, seem to 
soften the misfortune, by opposing to the brute force of nature the 
reproductiA^e power and the fecundity of hfe. It is in such situa- 
tions that Dr. Hooker lias been able to gather without much trouble 
specimens of the plant, naturally little accessible in its most usual 
station, on the branches of large trees. The fact that it grows 
equally well on rocks will interest horticulturists, by proving be- 
forehand the possibility of its culture in circumstances little differ- 
ent from those in which the terresterial species are placed. Only 
it must be supposed that this species, like R. Dalhousicp, will require 
more heat and atmospheric moisture than do the species of the 
orangery such as arboreum, campanulatum and others. 

J. E. Pranchon, 
In the "Flore des Serves." 

HISTORY AND CULTIVATION. 

When Linnseus first borrowed the Rose to describe the beauties 
of this family, he little dreamt of the honor future discoveries 
would pour out on his selection. Rhododendron, from the Greek 
Rhodos a rose, and dendron a tree, if any way descriptive of the 
beauties of the half dozen species known to Lisna3us, must be fully 
illustrative of the almost numberless varieties that are now known 
to exist. 

One hundred and twenty years ago, our own R. maiinmm alone 
adorned British collections. Tw-enty years later the R. j)onticum, 
introduced from Spain, gave a fresh interest to the tribe, and since 
that time, new forms appear annually in something like geometrical 
proportion. Over three dozen varieties of the latter are already 
enumerated ; and up to 1838 nearly the same number of distinct 
species had been introduced. Since that date the hazardous and 
romantic excursions of Dr. Hooker among the Himalayas, and 
other parts of x\sia, have brought to light many secret treasures. 
Still, unlike some of our modern fruit catalogues, the list never 
grows wearisome. We can feast on this floral banquet much longer 
yet, without danger of satiety. In the first form of R. moximvm, 
we had rare and simple beauty, floAvering in the summer months. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 259 



Then in the next following form of R. jDonticum, we had not per- 
haps sueh equal grandeur of inflorescence, but greater variety, and 
the superior advantage of early spring {lowering. Later introduc- 
tions, such as R. dauricum, &c. kept up the intei'est without adding 
anj'thing to its previous feme, till a totall}' new class made its ap- 
pearance from Nepal in 1820, or thereabouts. This class, the R. 
arboreum, more like our R. maximum in habit, form, and appearance 
than any other, but considex^ably superior to it in the gorgeous 
splendor of its flowers, seemed destined to throw it far into the 
shade. Fortunately it did nut prove sufficiently hardy to come into 
competition with it. and hence arose our hardy and tender classes, 
each indispensable in its own sphere. ^ 

Although occasional novelties were introduced, nothing of much 
interest occurred in the history of the Rhododendron till 1847, when 
its admirers were thrown into astonishment b}- the announcement 
that a yellow variety had been discoA^ered in Java, which possessed 
besides the property of blossoming at an}- season of the year. . So 
different is the appearance of this sjK'cies that Dr. Bkime, a cele- 
brated botanist and describer of Japanese plants, made of it a dis- 
tinct genus, under the name of Virzya javanica. So far the R. ja- 
vanicum stands alone in its beauty. Two forms of it as yet only 
exist in cultivation ; one with orange red, the other with yelloAV 
flowers. Closely following this, came the Epiphytal kinds discov- 
ered by Mr. Hugh Low in Borneo. ARhodendron, growing on the 
trunks and branches of trees in warm and di^mp forests, exactly in 
. the same maimer as an air, or orcludeous plant, created more excite- 
ment in the floricultural vrorld, than the discovery of any other 
plaat, the Victoria regia perhaps alone excepted. This prepared the 
way for the future discoveries of Dr. Hooker. All ■who have seen 
his beautiful engravings of the Rhododendrons of the Sikkim Him- 
alayas, can bear testimony to their rare and exquisite beauty. 

Glancing again at their histoi-y, we ]icrceivc that it gives us four 
classes, each requiring separate treatment in their cultivation. One 
represented by maximum,, another by pojiticum. a third hy Javanicum, 

and the fourth Epiphytal kinds. 



260 THE FLORIST AND 

The first division claims our especial attention as Americans, 
Glass houses for the protection of tender plants are in the minority 
so far; our first object must necessarily be the decoration, pf our 
ground. 

R. maximum itself is one of the best adapted to open air culture, 
It grows wild in many parts of Pennsylvania in rocky, shad^, 
mountanious situations. It is probably hardy ir) such situations jji 
any part of the Union. There are several varieties, and many morp 
might be raised from seed- The writer once saw them of every 
grade of color, from white to deep pink, in the old garden of tlje 
celebrated botanist, Humphrey Marshall, at Bradford in this State. 
When they "sport" so easily from seed, much might be done by ar- 
tificial aid in hybridization. R. punctatum is also perfectly hardy in 
Philadelphia, magnificent specimens having existed for many years 
in the old Bartram Garden. R. catawbiense, in the same place, js 
equally hardy, ar).d every year produces^a large quantity of its 
gorgeous flowers, little inferior to R. arbor eum, These and their 
varieties, with some of the Siberian species, which are probably as 
hardy, offer a fine field for rural adorfiment. I]t is useless to at- 
tempt their culture in exposed sunny situations, In winter time 
an outburst of sun on their frozen foliage is more detrimental than 
perhaps the severest frost. If these cpnditions be cpmplied with, 
they are not over fastidious in their choice of soils, rejecting entire- 
ly only wet oi|es, or stiff" claj^s. In turfy peat they do amazingly 
well, yet I have spen splendid specimens in dry gravelly soils, both 
on gravelly and rpcky bpttpms. 

In the second division we have plants that will not stand our se- 
vere winters. They are usually reserved for pot culture. Most of 
the varieties of ponticim have been raised by hybridization. The 
celebrated Dean of Manchester was peculiarly successful in origi- 
nating iievy varieties of them. It is highly probable t|iat by using 
R. maximum as a fertilizer, varieties could bp pbtained that would 
prove nearly as hardy as it. The best soil for these is a fibrous, 
turfy peat, in well di'ained pots, . If this canppt be had they wiU 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 261 

do well in half decayed turves froiTj an old pasture, mixed •with 
about a fourth part of well decayed sandy leaf soil. In some cases 
it is difficult to procure fibrous or turfy soil, and that obliged to be 
used, is of a loose and fine texture. The plants will thrive very 
well in such, if kept in small and well drained pots. Whenever- 
repotting is necessary, the new pots should be but little larger tharu 
the previous ones. In ordinary cases the Rhododendron does not, 
require repotting often. Unless in cases of very rapid growth, they 
will flower profusely, and do well in the same pots for several 
years. 

Most of the kinds allied to R. arboreum are of vigorous growth, 
frequently growing 20 ft. high-r-a few of thejn are exceptions. For 
soil and general culture, the remarks on the last division will be 
applicable. "When they get large they may be put into large wooden 
tubs, and stowed away during the winter with the orange trees, 
arid treated in the same manner ; a principal item in that treat-, 
ment being to keep them tolerably dry. They are very apt to be 
much injured by the thrip and scale. Occasional fumigations with 
tobacco will stop the ravages of the former, and slight S3^ringings of" 
soft soap dissolved in lime Avater, will keep them clear of tho 
other. 

I have only had the Javanicum in cultivation two seasons ; but it 
seems to do very well with much the same treatment as I give the 
arboreum. 

There are now many of the new species imported and flourish- 
ing in the different horticultural cities. During the past season sev- 
eral very fine ones have been exhibited in flower at our Societies' 
meetings. I might particularize R. javanicum from the collection of 
Mr. Buist ; R. Gibsonii from Mr. Cope's; and some fine hybrids be- 
tween some Rhododendron and Azalea sinensis, I believe fropi the 
collection of Mr, Sherwood. 

A PHILADELPm.V GaRPPNER. 



262 THE FLORIST AND 



MIGNONETTE IN WINTER. 
Reseda Odorata, or Mignonette is a native of Africa, and has 
heen in cultivation rather more than a century; jDoets have im- 
mortahsed it as "the fragrant weed," and, although a plant of 
humble appearance there are few flower gardens considei'ed com- 
plete without a small patch of mignouette. It is of easy culture 
in the border during summer, requiring, however, a deep, w^ell en- 
riched soil to enable, it to grow luxuriantly in hot dry weather. To 
produce it in pots during winter requires a little more care ; those 
who have the convenience of a greenhouse, will find room for a 
dozen pots on the front shelf; where no such convenience exists, the 
parlour window may be suppHed all through the winter, with the 
assistance of a close glazed frame. Damp is perhaps, its greatest 
enemy, if kept d\-y a few degrees of frost will not materially injure 
it. Pots or small portable boxes are most convenient for growing it 
in winter, if these latter are made to fit the window intended for 
their reception, a fresh box can be introduced when required, and 
the plants will thus present a constant healthy appearance. A 
friend of mine who always has it in great profusion, groAvs it in a 
small pit running along the front of his greenhouse; where a lasting 
and abundant supply is desired, this is the best method I have ever 
seen practised. Usually there is a front shelf of more or less breadth 
in all greenhouses, if this was made portable a small pit might be 
constructed underneath, thus affording a fine site for flowering 
roses, heliotrope, mignonette, &c., m winter, the shelf could be re- 
placed when the pit was unoccupied. To have it to flower in Jan^ 
uary, seed should be put in from the first to the middle of Sep- 
tember. Particular care will be required in the preparation of the 
soil with regard to drainage, as it will not succeed well unless water 
finds a ready access through the soil. A tolerably rich, loamy soil 
should be used, and the pots filled firmly to within half an inch of 
the top, made smooth and level, the seed sown and slightly covered 
with fine soil ; five inch pots are as suitable as any ; thin out the 
young plants gradually as they grow, until they are reduced to four 
or five in each pot. Excess of water should now be avoided, and 
protection afforded against heavy rains. The roots speedily find 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 263 

their way to the bottom of the pots, and even, although the surface 
appear dry, they will still have sufficient moisture in the soil ; this 
can only be ascertained by close inspection. It will be better to 
err on the safe side and keep dry rather than wet. To winter 
them in a cold frame it will be necessary to secure a dry bottom, 
by filling up a portion of the frame with cinders, brickbats or sim- 
ilar material. The pots should be plimged in coal ashes and ele- 
vated to within six or eight inches of the glass, water must now be 
very carefully administered, much of success depending upon the 
dryness preserved about the pots. In fine days the lights should 
be drawn off. To sriard against frost the sides of the frames should 
be banked up with litter, and straw mats should also be in readiness 
to cover the glass in severe weather. A bundle of loose straw or 
hay will form an efficient protector, and be readily shaken on the 
lights when requisite. In very severe snowy weather the covering 
may remain on for several daysy observing to uncover on a dull day 
and shade from direct sunlight for a day or two aftei'wards. The 
necessity for keeping ever3'thing as dry as possible will thus be 
apparent, both in regard to resisting frost and guarding against 
damp. All premature flowers should be pinched off, and those 
plants that are to be kept for succession should have their points 
pinched out. A single plant in a pot may be grown to a large size, 
by continually suppressing the flowers. If not too far gone the 
plants may be turned out in the borders by the month of May where 
they will again start into fresh growth. Delt.\.- 



NOTES ON ROSE CULTURE, 
BY A LOVER OF ROSES. (Continued.) 

Bengat., or as some call them, Daily Roses contain the type of dll 
monthly or Daily Roses, which is known the world over, or as far 
as English goes, as the common China or Daily Rose. They have 
one fault which is unpardonable in a rose, and that is want of fra- 
grance to a beautiful painting we never have an incentive to apply that 
sensitive organ, bat in all flowers that sense expects to be gratified. 



264 THE FLORIST At^H 

To the lover and amateur I can only quote a few as deserving' 
notice. 

Agrippina, or Cramoisi Superiere — .is the fi jst and the best of bright' 
crimsori daily roses, profuse, brilliant and beautifully perfect. 

Cels, or Cels' multiflora — blush, with dark pink centre, double, pro- 
fuse arid indispensable. 

Gros Charles, Arch-Duke Charles, Isadore and Triumphant are all' 
nearly alike, changeable, rosy lilac to crimsbn, of strong growth. 

Louis Philippe — -crimson, with paler centre, of strong growth and 
profusion of bloom ; one half of the red roS^s sold in Pliladelphia 
market as Agrippina are this variety, it is mueb better adapted for 
forcing than the latter variety. 

Lady Wartender — when jon can find it, is the best white, unless 
some of the recently introduced sorts excel it, in that are highlj* 
favored by discriptions; but you vaj dear sir, and yonv readers, as 
well as mj^self delight in a clear proof. 

Madam Br eon — large bright pink. 
■ Queen of Lombardy—^a fine rosy red. 

King of the Crimsons, or Eugene Beauharnois^^davk crimson, and a 
little fragrant. 

Viridescens — green floAvers ; a curiosity.- 

These form the kading and fine sorts of the Bengal Roses,- they 
are' all sufficiently hardy to stand out in winter, in any dry soil south 
of Philadelphia. 

Perpetual RofSES, were first brought to our notice about 1831, 
by a pubUcation of Hibbert and Buist, then Florists iff Philadelphia, 
a perpetual crinJson fragrant rose, was then the height of mj ambi- 
tion; a friend of mine now a druggist in your city, who was always 
ahead in those matters, posted three miles o'ut of town and bought 
the great prize, but it turned out to be a Sanguinea in place of Lee's 
Crimson Perpetual or Rose du Roi, now so well known and so gen- 
erally cultivated ; to me it is the only one of the group that de- 
serves notice; the type of this variety is the monthly Damask and I 
have not the least doubt that from these has originated the Hybrid 
Perpetual Roses, 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 265 

Cluster Roses — -I could never well understand the distinction 
between cluster and noisette roses; however, florists make it and we 
suppose we must follow suit. Noisettes cluster just as mucli as 
those I am about to name. If it is the musk}^ odor so peculiar to 
the old white musk cluster rose, that characterises the group, I must 
say very few of them possess more than the old stump that traces 
out these scrawls and tiie odor is peculiar only to the white roses 
of the group. I have never seen a rose that I could call a red or pink 
musk cluster. HcrbemonVs White, is a very excellent and one of the 
best light cluster r.osas, always in bloom, profuse and of fine growth, 
but no muskjr odor. 

Princess of Nassau — is also a fine white, quite double and has a 
musk fragrance. 

While Musk C luster— -the type and standard of this peculiar class. 

Rivefs Mask Cluster — 'is pure white and has an abundance of the 
musky odor about it to rank amongst the best, though in beauty 
of its flower it is almost the worst. 

MicROPHYLL.v Roses — have all an agreeable and distinctive foli- 
age, with flowers not to be despised for size or form; they are all of 
free growth and amongst them is our veiy best white climbing 
rose ; they do not apprear to be so much propagated as fbnnerly, 
for we rarely see them in our markets. 

Alba Oloraia or lohite microphylla—is a rapid grower, with luxu- 
riant dark green foliage and long flexile shoots adapted for columns 
or arbors, and bloom from June till October, it is sometimes called 
Maria Leonida, which is a very distinct dwarf variety, with some- 
what similar foliage and flower. 

Rosea — is the Burr Rose readily recognised by the bud haAing 
that peculiar appearance indicated by the local name — flower large 
very double, flat formed, no fragrance, and of a bright rose color 
ma'ces a large bush, or does well for a fence or column, blooms 
fre:|uently during the season from wood of the pi'eccding years 
growth — there are several other sorts not Avorthy of nrtc for either 
flower or foliage. , 

34 



266 THE FLORIST AKD 

Moss Roses — what rose is that ? It is the Angeline moss, a fine 
flower ; yes — 'but I do not see any moss on it; such might be the re- 
ply to many of those called moss roses. In truth, I have not only 
seen the moss rose; the old fashioned moss,; there is a charm about 
its mossy bud that no other rose has; it is above all others " the 
moss rose," there are, however, others very desirable and which can 
properly be accompanied with the attractive name, and more recent 
years have given us the perpetual red moss and some others not al- 
together misnomers; a few of such will suffice for the fancier. 

Blush Moss — a good moss of a fine blush color. 

Common Pink Moss — -"the moss rose." 

Crusted Moss — splendid pink flower with a luxuriant green fringe 
to its calyx. 

Luxemberg or Scarlet Moss — bright crimson, and a good moss. 

Princess Adelaide ; or Hybrid Moss Rose — color lilac, blooms in pro- 
fuse cluster and a rampant grower. 

White Moss — very similar to the common pink moss, with a 
white flower. 

White Perpetual or Cluster Moss — a curious sport from the white 
damask rose; has no intrinsic value unless the name. 

White Provins Mossed, fine, white variety, and of better growth 
than the white moss, the buds are frequently in clusters. 

General Dranot and Herman Kegel — are said to be perpetual moss 
roses; the latter of these I have not seen a second bloom on it after 
a growth of two years ; the former does give a second and occa- 
sionally a third bloom, but not worth the notice that is taken of 
them. 

Prairie Roses — are natives of this country, and for their great 
improvement we are mainly indebted to Mr. Samuel Feast of Bal- 
timore, and we still cling to him for a real good perpetual Prairie 
Rose, after that he may weep as did Alexander ; and I would sug- 
gest that he send j-ou a plant of his Prarie King, for your sanctuM 
in Philadelphia, and report it in the Florist. 

Anne Maria — rosy blush, very double. 
, Baltimore Belle — pure white, the best white. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 267 

Beauty or Queen of Praries — as yet the best pink flowering sort. 

Lintieaa Hill Bsaufij — pale rose. 

Mrs. Pierce — bright pink. 

Superba — pale waxy blush. 

Triumphant — dark rose. 

Ths prairie roses make very rapid growths, and are not equalled 
for covering arbors, wall and trellis work ; they bloom just after 
the full flush of the n)se season, filling up a very desiraljle space ; 
they root readily by lajdag a branch in the ground in August ; you 
can in the following spring reniove it to become a permanent plant. 

Hybrid China Roses — bloom only once, but are of great beauty 
of form and color, having amongst them everj" variety of color, ex- 
cept green; as I am not particularly attached to the family, perhaps 
some other of your fanciers will give us the leading characters in 
the group. 

Hardfi Garfkn i^o?;;,'^— embrace all those that are known as pro- 
vins, Gallica, moss and sweet briars; and in this group are the only 
perfectly striped and yellow roses. The French promise us a 
striped hybrid pei'petual, liut it may come like the yellow moss. Of 
the stripes worthy of note, Oeillet parjait, Oeillet flammand and 
Villaye miid; nearly all are having white flowers with decided pink 
or lilac stripes the whole length of the petals; of yellow we have 
only the Harri-to'iii, an American Rose, and the yellow Persian, the 
latter decidedly the best of the two; neither of these yellows require 
much pruning as the flowers are produced on the short spears of 
the wood of the preceeding year, they therefore, require to grow 
into large bushes before their beauties are fully displayed. 

Propagation — the many forms of multiplying plants are known 
only to nurserymen and those who make a living by the business of 
multiplication; we however, know enough of the art to increa.se our 
stock for pleasure. 

By Cutting — any person will succeed with the Bengal, Tea, 
Bourbon and Noisette sorts; during August and September take olT 
short pieces of the wood that has produced flowers, close to the 
wood from whence it grew ; cut its base evenly and smocjthly, rc-t 
ducing it to three or four eyes in length ; cut ofl the leaves and 



26S THE FLORIST AND 

plant it in light sanely soil where it is shaded froni the midday sun; 
give frequent sprinklings of water and they will root in a few weeks. 
Many of the hybrid perpetuals are niultiplied in the same manner. 
Layering can be practised on all sprfs of roses. In July, August 
or September take any of the young shoots that you can gently 
bend to the ground and with a sharp knife cut otf a few leaves 
where they are in contact with the soil, at the base of each of those 
leaves there is an eye; enter the knife just behind the bud and cut 
towards the point of the shoot about ope inch gradually into the 
middle of the shoot ; you will thereby form a spur about an inch 
and a half long with an eye at its base ; place the part thus pper- 
ated upon about three or four inches under the soil, covering it with 
light, sandy, rich earth, tie or peg it down, or place a small ^tone 
over it ; the following spring it will have rooted and can bp re- 
moved to wherever required ; on its removal cut down the shpot to 
within a few inches of the ground, protect the remainder with a 
small stick and the work is dpne. 

Budding — is more readily accomplished and is a more pleasing 
pastime, the requisites are a good knife, good free growing stocks, 
Avith good thread of worsted, matting, or strong cotton twist. The 
time of performance from June to October, during plpudy weather; 
Avhenever the bark of the stocks will remove or rise with the knife 
showing an abundance of sap under the bark. A bidding knife 
with a thin ivory handle, is the best for the purpose, It should be 
inserted about half an inch above the bud, and passing about one 
third of the way through the Avood of the shoot, come out again 
about the same distance beloAv it, the cyt being as clean as possible. 
The portion of the bark in the centre of Avhic|i the bud is situated, 
is called the shield, and when removed it contains a portion of the 
Avood, Avhich is to be carefully removed with the point of the knife; 
if the Avood is dry, and does not separate readily, it is a sign the bud 
is too old, and it should be rejected. When the wood is too old or 
too young, the shield may be taken off only about one quarter of 
the Avay through the shoot, and inserted into the stock Avithout re- 
moving the portion of wood it contains; this method, pfirticiilarly 
Avith very young shoots, is very successfiil. 



fiORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 269 

In applying the bud to the stock an incision is to be made length- 
ways through the bfirk, but not so as to injure the wood ; about an 
inch in length, and this is to be diagonally crossed at the top by 
another incision. The thin ivory handle, or back of tne knife, 
should then be used to to raise the bark, and the shield inserted 
within, gently pressing it to the bottom of the perpendicular inci- 
sion ; when it is properly placed the portion of it above the diagon- 
al cross should be cut off, and great care should be taken that it is- 
in close contact with the wood of the stock. When this is done, 
bind up with matting, or cotton twist, all except the bud, which 
must be left free to the air, but protected from the powerful action 
of the sun, or wet, either of which would defeat the whole operation, 
and in two or three weeks the bandages must be loosened, though 
not entirely taken away. About the end of October the plant 
should be cut down to within a foot of whore. the operation has been 
performed, which will greatly tend to strengthen both the tree and 
buds that have taken. In the following spring all the stocks 
should be deprived of their superfluous wood ; observe, however, 
to leave one bud or eye above the inserted bud, which will greatly 
assist its gro\yth until it has made a few leaves, and is fit to perform 
the functions of vegetable life when the natural shoot must be cut off. 
As the new shoot grows, have it carefully supported. 



THE NELUMBIUM SPECIOSUM. 
Springbrook is fiimous for its novelties. From the Florida moss 
to the "spiritu sancto" of the newspapers, or the modest Sarracenia 
to the victorious Water Lily — few things valuable or rare escape at-, 
tention. The successful cultivation of the Nelumbium in the open 
air is another branch in its garland. An oval tank perhaps fifteen 
feet in its longest diameter is covered with noble leaves, some of 
them two feet in diameter. The flower buds are now a foot above 
the water, and in a month or so must form a splendid object. Few 
who have read at all, but are acquainted with the glowing descrip- 
tions of the beauty of this plant given by East India travellers. 
Apart from the beauty of the flowers, the plant supposed to be tlie 



270 THE FLORIST AND 

Egyptian Bean of Pythagoras, and the Sacred Lotus so profusely 
sculptured on the sacred monuments of Egypt, would at any time 
possess an interest. The scarcely paralleled liberality of Mr. Cope 
in throwing open his grounds to the Horticultural public, and the 
free inspection of his rare pets, will doubtless be taken advantage 
of by many of our friends before the close of the season, to see this 
fresh "stranger on our waters." 



McAVOY'S EXTRA RED STRAWBERRY. 

In the Western Horticultural Review, in reply to some observa- 
tions of the "Prairie Farmer," Mr. Longworth says, "Mr. Meehan 
has not got the true Extra Red. I have never seen one perfect 
blossom on my plants." I reply, as I replied to Mr. Prince, that if 
Hermaphrodite plants can be obtained from runners of Pistillate 
ones, the sexual unchanging theory is overthrown, no matter 
whether the plant which we employ is "the true kind" or not. In 
the case before us the different kinds of sexes are actually on the 
same plants. When Downing produced his strawberry, it was pro- 
nounced "not Hovey's." When I did mine, still the same, "it is 
not Hovey's." I thought two distinct scapes on one plant must 
settle the question, but again comes up Banquo's Ghost, "it is not 
the Extra Red." However, I will prove my kind genuine. About 
the first week in August, 1852, we received three plants which came 
directly from either Mr. McAvoy's or Mr. Longworth's hands, 
through the most reliable source in Philadelphia. These plants 
were planted by themselves by myself. Still, it mixj be objected, 
an unusual accident may have occurred even with these gentlemen. 
When the plants flowered, their mixed sexual character was no- 
ticed by me in the Farm Journal. Li a letter dated June 3rd, Mr. 
L. writes what I extract as follows : 

"I raised the Extra Red in my garden, and never noticed any 
staminate or Hermaphrodite blossoms on it. My gardener this sea- 
son informed me that he did. It seems you observed the same. 
There is no reason why pistillates should not have some Herma- 
phrodite blossoms." 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 2?1 

Without waiting to inquire whether the last sentence does not 
really grant all 'I ever asked for, I would respectfully ask Mr. Long- 
worth whether the fact of Mi*. Pentlaud's having noticed the same 
tendency to vary in the "true kind" as I did in mine, does not go a 
long way to prove the accuracy of my own? I fear that our es- 
teemed Vice President, Dr. Bi'inckle, and the rest of the committee 
tvho reported so favorably of "our Extra Red," will not consider 
themselves "highly complimented" by learning that their enconi-' 
um has been lavished on a spurious kind. Nor will our Cincinnati 
friends be well pleased to learn that a "not true kind" has "crept 
into the bed (borrowing a style supremely Cincinnatian) and stole 
the praise due to the original." 

Thomas Meehan. 



MORE ABOUT THE STRAWBERRY. 

Mr. EmTOH : — I have grown the strawberry extensively for over twenty 
years ; both the oM sorts and the new varieties ; and I have tried many ex- 
periments in pots and in the open ground, and wdth different kinds of soil ; 
I have been minute in my inspections and observation of the fruitful organs 
of the different varieties, and have conversed witli many scientific botanists 
and practical gardeners on the subject, and have always arrived at this con- 
clusion, that the predominance or deficiency of pistils or stamens in any va- 
riety was as permanent as the variety itself, and nothing but ocular de- 
monatration will ever convince me of the contrary. I could never under 
any treatment make a pistillate variety produce a hermaphrodite flower, or 
produce a perfect seed that would germinate and make another plant, unless 
it had been influenced by some staminate viiriety. I believe that "with 
God all tilings are possible," but I think it beyond the power of culture or 
man's ingenuity to change the sexual organs of any plant. If Mr. Mechan 
has made a Wonderful discovery or witnessed a singular phenomenon, I think 
that his theory can never become general, anil it will be a difficult task to 
force scientific and practical men to believe it, and as he has deviated so 
much from the point of discussion in bis last communication, people will 
think that he wishes to get rid of the controversy altogether. Oak leaves 
and the leaves of euonymus japonica can have no reference whatever to the 
fruitful organs of strawberry plants. The Catalpa tree is a hermaphrodite 
plant, wherever it is grown; "old botanists" made a mistake with it as they did 



2V2 THE FLORIST AND 

■with many other plants, for example, tlie Alonsoa, Celsia linearis, which is' 
in Didynamia, 14th class, was once Hemimeris coccinea, and placed in De- 
Candria, 2nd class. The Catalpa grows spontaneously around here, it is not' 
removed so far from its natural locality ; the Brugmansia Knightii could 
hot have two corollas one one flower, although that corolla might be double^' 
the Leontodoni taraxacum has a very double flower, and yet its whole number 
of polypetals stre included in one corolla ; and the monopetal of the Datura' 
Or Brugmansia makes one corolla ; petals can never become stamens, but if 
the Brugmansia Knightii has sometimes five stamens and sometimes ten,- 
then it does Hot belong either to Pentandria or Decandria, 5th. or lOtli. 
class, and therefore should be placed in a class by itself. 

Now you see that I am one v,-ho has failed to do as Mr. Meehan has done, 
and if ten have been successful let them come out and place Mr. Meehan in the 
right; this is rtiy first and last article on the strawberry controversy. 

Respectfiilly, Waltee Eldek. 

Mr.- Elder mistaken in a great many points; — in the first place, in his as- 
sertion of the unchangeableness of the staminate or pistillate characters of 
strawberry flowers. Facts are against that theory ; — Mr. Meehan has 
sho^Q'plants which had both kinds of flowers. The Cincinnatians and their sup- 
porter's are like the French Abbe who had announced a new theory ; being 
told by a friend that the facts were opposition 'to it — he replied '■'■tant pis 
pour les faits," "so much the worse for the facts." Mr. Meehan has an- 
nounced nothing new, he has merely proven what has been asserted before, 
and what has been all along believed by some of our very best cultivators. 
Again, if there is any truth in science, the pistils, the stamens, the petals 
and sepals, the bra-cts and leaves are all different developments of the same 
principle ; by hybtidizatlon we often change the development of different 
parts, the stamens become pistils, or the contrary ; the stamens are changed 
into petals making double flowers. Oak leaves and the leaves of Evony 
mus japonica are evidences of changes' in shape and colour produced by 
certain influences, and if in shape and colour, why not in other characters ? 
Leontodon taraxacum is a compound plant, and is really a head of many 
flowers ; what Mr. Elder takes for petals are merely rays of the involucre. 
I have before me a rose which is growing out of the seed vessel of another, 
it is not an uncommon thing to see, but it is a good illustration ; it is merely 
a change of development ; in place of perfecting its seeds it has continued 
its growth and produced another flower, sometimes a shoot is produced in 
the same way, as is often the case in pears and apples. A slight acquaint- 
ance with Morphology, or the laws of the development of the parts of plants 
and flowers would convince the upholders of the Cincinnati theory of its en- 
tire fallaciousness. 



II3RTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 273 

Mr. Ed'iotr : — 

The strawberry question seems to be undergoing a fresh investigation, 
and as usual our Cincinnati friends are extremely sensitive on tlio matter. 
I do not intend at present to enter into the subject, but cannot help remark- 
ing that they should now consider it high time to give philosophical argu- 
irlent instead of burlesque, and confine themselves strictly to the question at 
issue, witliout a constant reproduction of the stereotyped tirade about the 
ignorartce of Linnaeus (who, by the way I presume was no practical flori- 
culturist, but confined his investigations chiefly to plants in their natural 
state rather than to those which had unilergone the cmeliorating process of 
cultivation) ; and let us have at least one essay without allusion to that, vener- 
able female '■ in the backwoods," and the precocious occult development of 
the children "five years of age who can discover the sexual characters of 
the stra\tberry ait a distance of twenty feet/' I have frequently thought 
that the strawberry reports from that region emanated from young pomolo- 
gists, but certainly diil not expect that acidity was turned into sweetness by 
palates so very tender. It may be well, however, to remind our western 
neighbours that the mere distinction of the varieties is not the point at is- 
sue, but whether under certain treatment they are not liable to change. It 
is mere evasion of the question to lca<l us away among the strawberry grow- 
ers in Europe. Thej' seem contented enough with their produce, and if 
they are behind the age it would be better to show them how to improve, 
rather than upbraid tiiem for their ignorance. Fhagakia. 



UNDERDRAINING. 

Were we asked to name any single operation that would most improve 
American agriculture, we should unhesitatingly answer, tliorough under- 
draininn'. "That," says one, "is a strange idea; my farm, and most of the 
farms I am acquainted with, suifer more or less from drought every year. 
and I should prefer more rather than less water on my farm, especially on 
the grass land." That, my good sir, is precisely what undcrdraining will 
do for you. It will remove all excess of water in the fall, winter, and early 
spring, when the plants need but little; and in the summer time, when plants 
need large quantities of water, and the undrained soil is very dry, 'it will 
make the soil quite moist and supply the plants with sufficient water. 
"That," you say, "is coniratZicf or?/; and however plausible it may be in 
theory, I guess it will not work in practice." In that you are wrong. In 
this, as in most true agricultural theories, the theory bus been induceilfrom 
practice. Every farmer who has tried undcrdraining, knows, whether ho 
35 



274 THE FLORIST AND 

can understand the cause or not, that his drained land is much drier in a 
■wet time, and more Immid in a dry time, than his undrained land, and that 
it will stand a drought very much better ; in fact, that droughts seldom af-- 
fect his well drained land. Let us examine this a little. 

If you take a common sponge, and dip one end into a basin of water, the" 
whole sponge will become thoroughly saturated, the water rising very far 
above its own level. If you take a narrow glass tube, open at both ends, 
and plunge one end into water, you will observe the water rise, contrary to 
the law of gravitation, much higher in the tube than the external surface of 
the water. Dr. Hook, when experimenting on this subject, made glass tubes 
so fine that the water rose in them twenty-one inches above the level of the 
water in the vessel. The law by which it rises is called capillary attraction, 
and is explained thus: the particles of water have a stronger aiBnityfor the 
glass than for other particles of water, and consequently leave them and 
ascend the glass. The height to which they will ascend is probably in the 
inverse ratio of the diameter of the tube. 

When a soil, especially a retentive one, is underdrained, the water as it 
percolates through it leaves innumerable small pores ; it becomes like a 
sponge — a reticulated mass of fine tubes. These tubes, when the surface is 
wetter than the subsoil, carry down the water to the drains below ; and 
when the surface is dryer than the Subsoil, as it is in a drought, these tubes 
carry up the water to the roots of plants. Underdraining is not built on 
this theory, but the theory is founded on the practical results of underdrain- 
ing, and will the more commend itself to practical farmers. 

Plants can take their food only in a state of dilute solution. They can- 
not live and grow without a constant supply of fresh water. Stagnant wa- 
ter is exceedingly deleterious ; no fact is better demonstrated than that agri- 
cultural plants cannot thrive, however well manured, so long as their roots 
are surrounded with stagnant water. The necessity for underdraining rests 
on these three facts. Not only does underdraining remove all excess of wa- 
ter, and supply it when deficient, but it equalizes the temperature of the 
soil. In the spring and fall, when a warm soil is so much needed for the 
germination and maturation of seeds, the thermometer shows that an under- 
drained- soil is several degrees warmer than one that is not drained; while 
in very hot weather, the case is exactly the reverse of this. It is a well 
known fact that vegetation starts much earlier in the spring, and continues 
later in the fall, on a drained than on an undrained soil. 

But beside the beneficial mechanical eifect on the soil, underdraining has 
great chernical action. The removal of stagnant water and the free admis- 
sion of air, in its stead, accelerates the disintegration of minerals as well as 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 275 

the decomposition of organic matter in the soil, rendering tliem both avail- 
able as food for plants. Again, the rain, as it falls and filters through a 
well-drained, loamy soil, carries to the plants one of the most needed and 
expensive of all the constituents of cereal crops. Our readers need not be 
told that we mean ammonia. In our article on the Plowing in of Green 
Crops, in the June number of 1852, will be found some of our reasons for 
thinking ammonia the most valuable and necessary ingredient in all wheat 
soils. The rain water which falls on an acre of land in a year, is estimated 
to contain over 100 lbs. of ammonia, or sufficient for the growth of 17 
bushels of wheat. The recent experiments of Wat and Thompson have 
shown that when ammonia is filtered through a soil containing a good pro- 
portion of clay, the ammonia is retained in the soil, and the water passes 
through free from it. Does this throw no light on the cause of the increased 
crops following thorough underdraining? The other causes we have mention- 
ed are merely concomitants. It is well known that mechanical texture of 
soil, moisture, heat, electricity, and sunshine, indispensable as they are, will 
not grow crops unless the required constituents of plants are present in the 
soil in proper quantity aad quality. Does it throw no light on the benefi- 
cial effects of suimu)er-fallow on heavy clays. To our mind it gives a satis- 
factory explanation to these questions that is consistent with experience and 
well established scientific principles. It is simply, that the ammonia con- 
tained in rain water is retained by the soil as the water slowly percolates 
through it to the drains beneath. In the case of a summer-fallow, the con- 
stant plowing, dragging, &c., divides the particles of the soil, for the first 
few inches in depth, so fine that they are capable of retaining all the am- 
monia brought to the soil during the year on which it is summer-fallowed. 
This ammonia it retains for the succeeding wheat crop. But even in this 
case, if the land needs drainage, (and what land that should be summer-fal- 
lowed does not?) the full benefit is not obtained; all the rain which fails in 
the spring, autumn, and winter, when the soil is fully saturated, passes oft" in 
surface water, the ammonia it contains along with it, together with a consid- 
erable quantity of matter taken from the soil in mechanical solution. 

The cost of underdraining is the most potent argument against its adop- 
tion. Thirty dollars is considerable money to invest on an acre of latid ; 
but it must be remembered that it is a, permanent investment — when once 
well done it will last a century or tnoro. It is not like laying out $7 per 
acre in guano or other manure, which lasts but for one year, or two at 
most. It is a perpetual moans of obtaining increased crops. The 100 lbs. 
of ammonia contained in the rain which falls on an acre per annum, cannot 
be purchased in guano, its cheapest artificial source, for less thiin fl.'). 



276 THE FLORIST AND 



Greater part of this is lost on an undraineil soil, while on one that is well 
Hiiderdrained the whole of it is or may be retained- The expeiise of culti- 
vation is less on the drained than the undraiiied land. You can plow it 
earlier in the spring and later in the fall ; and after heavy rains, when the 
land not drained is so wetthatman nor beast cannot go on it, the drained soil 
will be in fine condition to work. The whole of the increase in crops ob- 
tained from draining must be considered clear profit. We believe one-thircl 
increase to be a low estimate; and as this one-third of the entire produce 
of the farm is clear profit, it will pay a high interest on the thirty dollars 
invested in underdraining. Any farm which from its location is worth $40 
to f 100 per acre, if it needs draining, pannot fail to pay a handsonie inter- 
est for money judiciously laid out in underdraining, 

The effect of thorough drainage on the climate of a country, is a subr 
ject too extensive and important to be discussed at this time. That it lias 
a, marked effect on climate cannot be doubted. Prior to the general adop- 
tion of underdraining in England, the wheat crop was generally • affected 
with mildew, rust, smut, and various insects, to such an extent that the crop 
■was quite uncertain ; with the ic roduction of underdraining these blighting 
effects were removed, ^yhile ague, which was common before, is wholly un- 
known now. 

Shade trees and forests, like large bodies of water, are well known to be 
great moderators of cold in winter and heat in summer. The disappearance 
of such vast forests has seriously affected the clinip-te of this continent ; 
hence peaches apd other fruits are not those certain crops they were twenty 
years ago. The climatic equilibrium has been disturbed, and must be re- 
stored. We must cease to cut do'ivn so recklessly the noble forests, and at 
the same time must plant shade trees. This will haye some, effect ; but we 
submit, that thorough underdraining will be found the best and most eco- 
nomical means of equalizing the climate, removing the insects, &c., which 
make such fearful devastation with the crops, and of improving our national 
agriculture. — Ge^iesee Farmer. 

♦ 

NEW OR RARE PLANTS FLOWERED FOR THE FIRST 

TIME AT SPRINGBROOIv THIS SEASON. 

NO, VIL 

Ltcaste Haurisoni^.— Two varieties of this are known to cultivators of 
Orchidic, one with yellowish red flowers, the other with white, A fine va- 
riety bloomed for the first time lately in our collection with pale lilac 
flowers, each about two inches across, and with the lip deeply veined with 
rosy purple lines. It is of easy culture, thriving well in a moist atmo- 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 277 

sphere, slightly shaded, -with a temperature of from 65 to 80°, in pots of 
moss, broken pots, and charcoal. 

Stachytarpheta Mutabilis. — This is a family closely allied botanically 
with Verbena, but having moi"e the habit and appearance of a Lantana. 
The leaves of this species are often four inches long and three wide, and the 
flowers appear successively in spikes nearly a foot in length. These are 
of a rosy, or vermilion piuk, each flower something resembling a "beauty 
supreme" Verbena. It is of easy culture, thriving best in a light situation 
in a moist stove, or in the open borders in summer time. It was originally 
introduced 50 years ago into England, from South America, and is describ- 
ed in page 976 of the Botanical Magazine ; but I believe does not now ex- 
ist in their collections. Seeds were presented to Mr. Cope by Mr. Ezra 
Bowen, from the East India Company's garden at Calcutta. It is highly 
ornamental. 

Campanula Vidalii. — A singular species, with succulent shrubby stems, 
and narrow, short, shining leaves. Flowering stems are thrown up from the 
ends of the strongest shoots, each bearing numerous white flowers. These 
are about two inches long, and are contracted m the middle. It grows well 
Avith me in sandy loara, in a cool greenhouse. Our plant was presented by 
Mr. Knorr, who imported the original plant from Belgium. 

PiiARBiTiS LIMBATA. — Also from the same gentleman, and figured in a 
late "Florist," grows "like a weed," and produces us half a dozen of its 
beautiful white edged flowers every morning, in a light part of a moist 
house. It is growing in a pot of rich turfy loam. 

Indigofbra decora. — One of Mr. Fortune's discoveries in China, and 
one of the best of the recent introductions that I have seen. The flowers 
come out in the axils of the leaves of the young growth, in racemes from 4 
to 6 inches long, of a rosy pink and white color. It will become very pop- 
ular. It is easily grown in well drained pots of turfy loara, and grown in a 
light and cool greenhouse. It is very liable to attacks of red spider. Our 
plant was obtained from Mr. Hovey. 

Gomphrena Hoveyi. — Under this name the French catalogues advertise 
Ilovey's new Globe amaranthus, Avhile the London seedsmen ofl'er it as a 
"new orange Globe amaranthus, from Texas." Whatever it is, it is one of 
the few plants which occasionally appear, jrapidly to become of standard 
value. It is specifically distinct from the common G. glohosa — the head of 
flowers being ovoid or elliptical, and the peculiarly green leaves margined 
with long ciliated hairs. Several who had seed tell me they failed to grow. 
I soaked one-half my packet 40 hours in water, and the other just as it 
was. The former came up in a few days ; the others failed. 



278 THE FLORIST AND 

Ltcopodium coesiDM ARBOREUM. — "What the Tree violet is to tlie old 
double blue, this new variety is to the old one. The stems are near an eighth 
of an inch thick, and the fronds are about one foot in length. The shining 
changeable blue color that has always rendered the old kind so welcome in 
all collections, is even deeper in this. It is the admiration of every one 
who sees it here. It thrives well in a soil formed of broken sticks, charcoal, 
and leaf mould, with about a fourth part of turfy loam, in a moist and 
shady part of the Orchid House. It was obtained through Mr. Buist. 

Peomen(EA STAPELIOIDES. — A small orchid belongino; to the Maxillaria di- 
vision. It is not a showy thing, several dozen pseudo bulbs only occupying 
a circle of eighteen inches ; but the flower is very pretty, about an inch 
across, imitating as its specific name imports, the color and markings of a 
stapelia. It grows best suspended in a basket of coarse moss. Imported 
.by Mr. Cope, from Messrs. Loddiges, of London. 

JUSTICIA BICOLOR. — Under this name we received from Mr. Buist this 
spring, what I consider one of the prettiest introductions of the season. 
The plant does not seem a strong grower, or inclined to be very bushy. 
Ours is now, after every encouragement to grow, not over a foot in height ; 
but it has been completely covered with flowers for the past 3 months. 
Each flower is of a pure white, with a large crimson blotch on the lower di- 
vision of the corolla. It is growing in sandy turfy loam, in a rather shady 
greenhouse, and will probably require the protection of a warm greenhouse 
or stove in the winter. 

DiPLADENiA SPLENDENS. — Although not ten years since this was intro- 
duced into English collections it has their become a standard plant for ex- 
hibitions. It was formerly considered an Echites, and, like that family is 
a climber, or as we must here say, "a vine." The flowers appear in clus- 
ters in the axils of the leaves, on the young wood, each being about 2 inches 
across, of a delicate pink color. It thrives well in any turfy soil in well- 
drained pots in a warm greenhouse. Our plant was obtained through Mr. 
Buist. 

My friend, William Grassie, had D. crassinoides at our last meeting in 
flower, from the collection of Mr. Keen, West Philadelphia. It is a much 
smaller species than the above, but very desirable. 

Thomas Meeean. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 2?9 



CALENDAR OF OPERATIONS. 

FRUIT. 

• 

Strawberries. — Plantations may now be put down; see that the soil is 
thoroughly prepared, and select young plants from healthy vines that are' in 
a good bearing condition. Old worn out plantations afford weak runners, 
and should never be employed if plants from robust beds are by any means 
attainable. Another point to be observed, is to plant a due proportion of 
staminate along with the more productive pistillate varieties. In a previous 
allusion to this fruit, the remark was made that, "notwithstanding all that 
has been written on the subject, many good cultivators pay no attention to 
their sexual character." From the above remarks we have been accused of 
endorsing the statements of those who maintain that there is no distinction 
in their inflorescence, we merely stated a fact, well known among strawberry 
growers; if all were agreed on the subject we might look for a settlement of 
the strawberry question. After planting spread a mulching of rotted ma- 
nure between the rows. This in the meantime will arrest evaporation and 
shelter them when frost occurs. Tan bark is also good for this purpose ; 
we lately saw a statement to the effect that tan bark used in this manner 
had killed the plants. Doubtless their death was attributable to some other 
cause ; we have used it many years with successful results on various kinds 
of fruit as a mulcher. A few days ago we visited a gentleman who grows 
strawberries rather extensively, and were shown a two acre patch planted 
last fall, that had received a heavy coating of bark ; we do not remember of 
ever seeing strawberries of the same age so strong and luxuriant, although 
the weather has been particularly unfavorable for their growth; we cannot, 
therefore, conclude that tan bark applied in moderation is hurtful to plants. 

Grapes in houses — will now be maturing their wood for next season's 
fruiting. Air may now be more freely admitted than at any other period 
of the year. Heavy rains should be excluded, and if it be deemed desira- 
ble to water the roots, a thorough soaking should be given, and the surface 
subsequently stirred up, to prevent evaporation, it being desirable to have 
the atmosphere as dry as possible. 

Grrapes, out, doors — the principal attention requisite here will consist in 
tying up the branches, and securing the fruit from injury by winds. The 
extreme points of leading shoots may be pifichcd, but no further dimunution 
of foliage should take place until the fruit is gathered. 

Planting — now is the proper time to make arrangements for fall planting, 
both in regard to the preparation of the soil and selecting the trees. A 
much better estimate of the habit, health, and general condition of the plant 



280 THE FLORIST AND 

can be made wten it is in foliage, than when in a deciduous state; we would 
here caution your planters not to fall into the error of those, who "measure 
men as they do a steeple, by its length," and value young trees according to 
the amount of timber they contain. Medium sized trees will transplant 
■with more certainty., are easier handled, and in nine cases out ten will grow 
faster then those of the largest nursery size. It is quite a mistaken econ- 
omy to suppose that by planting large trees you hasten the production of 
fruit. The older the trees are the stronger are their roots, and these must 
necessarily be cut more or less in lifting. The head must then be reduced 
to correspond with the reduction of roots. The plant may then receive the 
name of a stump and its life or death a matter of uncertainty; on the other 
hand a young tree, say two years from the bud, has made few strong roots, 
and will cotne up with a lafge portion of fibry roots, and if managed with or- 
dinary care, and transplanted at once, will scarcely ever show that it has 
been changed, and in six or seven years will be worth double the larger 
sized tree. Much disappointment in ornamental planting arises from this 
cause. Large trees are preferred for the purpose of giving immediate eifect. 
In the removal of evergreens more especially we have seen the folly of 
planting old trees; we have seen trees ten feet in height and others not four 
planted at the same time and in five years the younger trees were tallest 
and much more healthy and beautiful. This of course, has reference to gen- 
eral planting. Trees of a very large size maif be removed if carefully man- 
aged, without feeling the change. There is also, much difference in the 
tenacity of growth in different liinds of fruit trees; Peach and Quince will 
Btand much indifferent treatment and still make a good growth. Pear, Apple 
and Plum do not grow so readily after the roots are "cut and dried." But 
all trees remove safest when young, you can also train a young tree to your 
mind, and start it with a good low head. Tall, bare stems are unsightly, 
inconvenient, and the trees more liable to casualties. 

Budding — the season for this operation is now at hand. We do not advo- 
cate the propriety of amateurs raising their own stock. It is something 
akin to seed saving, the articles can be purchased cheaper from those that 
make it a business, than they can be raised on a small scale. The only ex- 
ception that might be made is in peaches. Seedlings generally come up in 
the neighbourhood of bearing trees; using these as stocks, a few duplicates 
of superior varieties may be secured to fill up blanks as they occur among 
the older trees. S. B. 

September. 

Flower Gakdex — Evergreens, where not yet planted, will continue to 
claim attention. In addition to what was said in connection with the sub- 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 281 



ject last month, I might ohserve that in planting those which are somewhat 
tender, or the perfect hardiness of which we have any doubt, situations pro- 
tected froni the sUn in winter, should be preferred as well as a light dry 
soil. Where frost kills its thousands, the sun slays its ten thousands. The 
discrepancies we often find in statements of the hardiness of certain ever- 
greens, arises from their different situations. I have frequently seen the 
English Laurel [Cerasus laurocerasus) killed in the neighbourhood of Phil- 
adelphia ; while in the same vicinity a fine specimen on the north side of the 
residence of Pierce Butler, Esq., and completely in the shade, has long 
stood without injury. In the severe winter of 1851-2, most of the English 
Ivy (Hedera Mdix) iri Philadelphia, was destroyed on east, west and south- 
ern aspects; while on the northern it wa's uninjured. Towards the end of 
the month favorable opportunities may arise for transplanting deciduous 
trees, which should not be lost. If the soil can be caught in a moist condi- 
tion, the sooner trees can be transplanted after the fall of the leaf the 
better. If they cannot be planted till late in the fall, they will be liable to 
be "drawn out" by the frosts of winter, which will thwart any advantage 
that would otherwise accrue from' autumn planting. Tender deciduous trees 
do not sufi"er so much from the sun in our winters as evergreens; This is, 
per"haps, owing to the superior manner in which our summers ripeii the wood 
of these trees. In Mr. Butler's place, before alluded too, there is the finest 
specimens of the Acacia juKbrissin I have ever seen, growing close tO' 
the house on the sunny side ; and yet it is seldom kept over the winter in 
many places around. 

Lose no opportunity of observing what does well in yoar locality for bed- 
ding out, and prepare a stock of it fur another year. lu this locality, which 
suffered much from drought this season. Plumbago Larpentce, Pentas 
carnea, the Madagascar periwinkles, and the various kinks of Sagetes, and 
Petunias, seemed in their best elements. Amongst Verbenas, I consider 
Hovey's America the best white for bedding ; lleroine, blue ; Orb of Day, 
crimson. Lucia rosea of former years, gave us a fine pink "scarlet" geran- 
ium for bedding ; we now liave a white kind; it make;; a beautiful bedding 
out plant. "Flower uftiio I'ly," with its variegated foliage, also does well, 
Asclepias curassavica, does very well ; as also do all the Lnntauas. 

Greenhouse. — Repairing, and thorough cleansing must not be delayed. 
Painters say this is the most advantageous month to paint wood work. 
Whenever the night temperature falls to 40, any tender jdanis: in pots should 
be housed, wiihuut waiting for "the first week in October." Thiiigsuoarly 
hardy, as Azalea, lihododen Iron, Oranges, iSic, df> hr';"! oi<t "to the last." 
36 



282 THE FLORIST AND 

Any desirable plant for forcing, that may be growing in tlie open border, 
if potted early in the month, will do very well for that purpose. Weigela 
rosea does excellently this way; as also does Jasminum nudiflorum, Forsythia 
viridissiraa, many Spiraeas, and Persian lilacs. Roses and other things 
intended to be forced early, should have as much air, and be kept as dry as 
possible without injury. Hyacinths and other bulbs should also be potted 
as soon in the month as they be obtained; the former are best planted an 
inch deep. The earlier bulbs are potted the finer they flower — you may 
get Catalogues of any number of kinds or colors at the auction marts. If 
you get ten per cent as represented, when they flower, you will be more fa- 
vored than the writer. Mignionette, Rhodanthe Manglesii, and similar or- 
namental annuals essential for winter blooming in well kept houses should 
be sown at once. Many things for next season's flowering, must not either 
be forgotten. The Pansy, Calceolaria and Cineraria, are in this class.- 
Plants of these that have have been kept over the summer will require a re- 
division, and kept in a close frame a few days afterwards till they get re^ 
established. Propagation of all things will still require constant attention.r 
It should always be an aim to possess one duplicate plant, as a provision' 
against accidents. In many cases young plants are preferable to old ones ;■ 
so that the old ones may be destroyed when these are obtained. 

Hot House — The Aeschynanthus will soon be in the chief ornament 
of this division. Their number has increased so that they have become 
quite a feature. If the pots seem full of roots, they may still have another 
shift — they prefer very fibrous peat ; or, if that cannot be had, turfy loam, 
mixed with a portion of coarse moss. They will, however, do pretty well 
in small pots. Achimenes and Gloxinias, as they go out of flower, should 
be kept dryer and cooler. Look well after a good stock of Pentas, Ces- 
trum and Habrothamnus ; they will go far towards keeping up the interest 
of the department in winter. Justicias, and Acanthaceous plants generally 
will probably require another shift if fine specimens are desired. The at- 
mosphere, if the house be light, can scarcely be too moist for them. 
Plumbago rosea is one of the most valuable stove plants I know for win- 
ter flowering ; it requires a strong heat. Clerodendrons as they go out of 
flower, should be kept in a very airy situation, and rather dry, preparatory 
to being cut down and treated like a Pelargonium for another year. Many 
Begonias will be past their best flowering stage ; very little watering serves- 
them ; they are very liable to damp off by incaution in this respect. It is- 
difficult to lay down rules for orchidese, so much depending on the circum^ 
stances under which they are grown. Those which have finished their 
growths — as many Dendrobiums, Oncidiums, Catasetums, &c., whose flow- 
ers appear just before new growth, should have their supplies of moisture 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 283 

gradually lessened. The temperature, also, is better gradually lowered a 
few degrees, and they should be allowed more liglit than usual. The pe- 
riod when they are about completing their growth is the most critical, as 
any check at this time, spoils the prospects of much blossom for next sea- 
son. Those which flower from the young growth, as Catleya, Laelia, 
Eroughtonia, &c., will require their moisture and heat rather increased 
than otherwise till after their flowering. Vandas Angraecums, Sac- 
colabiums, and other strong rooting aerial kinds, will require con- 
stant humidity until it is evident from the points of their roots, that 
they desire to stop growing. I am often asked "how often orchids re- 
quire to he syringed V If tiie situation in which they are growing be fa- 
vorable, that is retains in its atmosphere a regular humidity, they will re- 
quire very little attention ; in many cases not requiring the syringe once a 
week. Where this cannot be effected the syringe must be oftener applied, 
as a rule I think no better one could be offered, than to syringe orchids 
just so much as will barely keep moss attached to their block and baskets 
green and growing. The real terrestrial orchids will require no moisture 
at all after they have completed their growths, until they show signs of 
pushing again. Care against cliecks in temperature and humidity, is one of 
the secrets of successful orcltid growing. Those which are at rest do well 
in a temperature of 60 at the lowest. Those which are growing well should 
be kept at about 80, 

Vegetable Gakhex — Celeri/ frequently gets injured by being earthed 
up for blanching too much ; the soil should never be allowed to get in the 
hearts. Turnips for the main crop are better sown this month than earlier; 
being less liable to become pithy, and keeping to a later period in the spring. 
Endive will be ready fur blanching— the best way is to put over each plant 
an inverted flower pot with the hole stop'd up, doing a few every week to 
keep up a succession. They do pretty well tied up with string like a Cos 
Lettuce, Spillage sliould be sown in a warm, dry and rich soil; when the 
ground becomes slightly frozen, if a light covering of straw be thrown over 
to protect it from the sun, it will come in very early in spring. RaiUishes 
late in the month may be sown in a spot, where, on the approach of frost, 
they may be protected by a frame. They can be had this way in fine order 
till Christmas, Lettuce for spring and winter use, may be sown in a bed 
ready for planting out. The green and Brown Hammers with arc tho 
hardiest; where slight protection can be afforded, the Drumhead, or the 
Butter, will be preferable, Early Dutch Oauh'Jlowei- and Walchercn Broco- 
li, are staples in all good gardens. The latter is nearly hardy if kept from 
bright sun. It is a few weeks later than the Cauliflower in coming into use. 



284 TPIE FLORIST AND 



Towards the end of the month a bed of small Onions should be planted, 
Proteoted by a little loose straw they will endure the winter and come in 
early in the spring, when the old crop is "just out," ijnd the new one not 
"come in. T. J. 



Botenizing durirjg the hot days of summer is rather severe work ; and we. 
have tramped a good rnany miles under the severest rays of the sun. |>ut 
in the last few weeks the weather has been often of the most delightful 
kind and we hq,ye taken advantage of several cloudy days, and made some 
interesting additions to qur herbariura. The neighbourhood of Gloucester 
in New Jersey, is a very celebrated one for plants ; we have been th.ere fre- 
quently and never without being repaid — the trip down and up in the steam- 
boat is cool and refresbijig ; quite different fronj toiliqg through the sand 
when once there.— Among the beautiful plants we have gotten we can men- 
tion the Rhexia virginica, which with its congener R. maricma are the only 
representatives of the order llelastomacece in the Northern States ; the 
Gerardjia flava and Gfratiola aurea, showy and beautiful species of Scro- 
fhulariaceoe ; Lobelia cardinalis ; TricJiostemma and Monarda punctata, 
well known among theZ/abiatpe or Mint Family, Cassia marilandiea, and- 0. 
nictitans, with several species of Desmodium represent the numerous family 
of Leguminosce. Hibiscus, Oenotliera, Ludwigia macrocarpa, Sida spino- 
srt, several P-olygonuvis and various other plants add to the beauty of field, 
wood and swamp. 

One of our most favourite walks is along the banks and through the woods 
which border the Schuylkill, a river which is without a rival for quiet beauty. 
Shut in as it is by lofty trees, spanned by fine bridges, and with here and 
there a stately mansion standing at the top of a lawn sloping to the river. 
Starting from the western side at Fairmount, passing by John Penn's house 
of "Solitude," the beautiful Egglesfield and Sweetbrier and the once mag- 
nificient mansion of Landsdowne, the seat of Richard Penn, now the pro- 
perty of Lord Ashburton, — picking up beautiful flowers and graceful ferns, 
and "hooking out" of the water the sweet smelling Nymflioea alba, we come 
to the Columbia bridge, 'opposite to Belmont, famous as the country seat of 
the witty Judge Peters, and as a favourite resort of General Washington. 
Here is that avenue of Elms festooned with ivy, which so excited the admi- 
ration of the late Mr. Downing. 

Peter's Island in the middle of the river adds greatly to the landscape. 
Along the tow path blooms the graceful Saggittaria, the Impatiens fulva, 
the Menilia and other he-fnatiful plants. Looking up from this point, the 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 285 

river seems like a quiet lake shut in by the turn at Laurel Hill. The walk 
to Manayunk, about four miles further, is varied and picturesque ; a rich 
^ood above the i'airs bridge well repays exploration. Here we found, last 
spring Orchis spectabilis and Corollorliiza verna. 

Crossing at Manayunk, a walk of two miles brings us to the mouth of the 
Wissahickon. On the river side below the creek is a steep wood where are 
many beautiful plants ; along the river grows the Tradescantia virginica; 
the Gommelyna angustifolia, the type of the natural order to which Trades- 
cantia belongs is now in bloom and forms masses which in cultivation would 
almost rival beds of Plumbago Larpentse — having here filled our "botany 
box," we made a strait walk for home, doing the six or seven miles at a 
pace which gave us an excellent appetite for dinner. We hope soon to be 
up further among the limestone rocks, where Pteris atropurpurea, and 
Oamptosorus and Aspelenium pumatifidum are now in fruit — if we see any- 
thing worth recording, we may give a notice of it. 



THE ORCHID HOUSE AT SPRINGBROOK. 

Dear Sir : — The glazing of this house is not exactly the same as des^ 
cribed in "Florist," No. 8, vol. I., and which is there termed the Ameri^ 
can system. It was originally on the old putty system, but in spite of great 
care would leak with every thaw. In the spring of 1852, jill the putty 
that could be got out was removed, and its place painted over. This bein'g 
fround to answer admirably, all the putty was subsequently taken out, and 
the glass merely painted in, the loose ones being first tack'd in with tir^ 
glazing sprigs— with the exception of the glass laing on the old putty, the 
house is correctly as you described it. It appears to be entirely without 
putty to all but close observers. Though our glazing originated from ne- 
cessity and not from imitation, I was subsequently made acquainted with 
the fact of houses being frequently glazed on this system in the neighbour- 
hood of Boston. I believed the Florist had the merit of first making this 
system known, till I afterwards found that it properly belonged to Sovey's 
magazine; one gentleman denies even this, and is "surprised at our igno- 
rance." His "surprise" adds nothing material to my information. I would 
thank him much more for a reference to the journal in which the system I 
styled American, was published j)reviously to llovey's account. 

Thomas Meehan, 



286 THE FLORIST AND 

Mr. Editor : — There is a large tree of Magnolia conspicua now in full 
bloom in the garden of Mrs. Eliza H. Burd, at the S. W. corner of Chest- 
nut and ninth streets ; it was purchased from Mr. James D. Fulton, for ten 
dollars, two years ago last February, and then transplanted ; it was full of 
buds, which all expanded well at its regular time of flowering, (the end of 
March and beginning of April,) the following spring it had only half a 
bloom, last spring a full bloom, and now a full bloom again. I never heard 
of such a thing before. The tree has been left to nature ever since it was. 
planted. I sent you two flowers yesterday, which I suppose you got. 

There is, also, a large bush of Laurestinus now in bloom in the garden of 
Dr. Charles D. Meigs, Walnut street; it was planted a year ago last spring, and 
a glazed frame or case placed over it during the winter ; it lost eight inches, 
of its top the winter before last, but pushed out vigourously again the foU 
lowing spring, but did not bloom ; last winter it did not lose a leaf and yet 
did not bloom ; about the first of June last, it begau to form flower buds,, 
and now there is a cluster on the point of every shoot over the whole bush ;, 
many have expanded, (one of which I sent you along with the Magnolia) 
and in about a week it will be in full flower, this too, is also singular, as. 
April is the natural month for Laurestinus to flower in. 

If you think these notices worth giving to your readers, you are at liberty 
to do so, if not you may light your segar with the paper,. 

Respectfully, Walter Elder. 
Phila. Aug. 24, 1853. 

We couldn't think of being so disrespectful — we received the flowers, they- 
■were very good blooms. Would it not be advisable to shade the Laurestinus 
while in bloom to prevent the sun burning the flowers ? 



Judging from the preparations being made, the annual exhibitions of the- 
New York and Philadelphia Horticultural Societies, will this year surpass, 
any former ones. In New York they have chosen a new place for holding 
their show, Niblo's garden — and their committee are doing all in their pow-. 
er to have a good collection of flowers and fruit. The crowd attracted by 
the Crystal Palace will be an inducement to them to endeavour to make as 
good a show as possible and we hope that their endeavours will be crowned 
"with success. The exhibitions of the Pennsylvania Society have always 
been successful ones in a greater or less degree. We cannot hope to have 
such large collections of fruit as were brought last year by the Pomological 
Society, still we will have enough. The plant room will as usual present a 
brilliant display ; but we may venture to hope that the rare plants may be 
more visible than formerly, The crowding together the collections to pro- 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 28? 

duce the best effect puts out of view many rare and valuable plants — on the 
other hand setting each collection by itself, would make the small ones look 
meagre in comparison; — a table or portion of the room set apart for novel- 
ties or for specimen plants would be preferable; — at the triennial exhibition 
at Ghent, the collections are placed together and premiums awarded by the 
committees, after that they are arranged on the stages, and the public ad- 
mitted — another thing which should be imitated in this countrj^^all awards 
should be made before the exhibition opens. 



The New Rose " Souvenir de la Reine des Beiges," frotn evidences Col- 
lected by Mr. Van Houtte, seems to be identical with the Rose "Prin'e'e 
Albert," Mr. Laffay, says in a letter to him. 

I received this rose in November, 1851. * * * * From its arrival I 
thought I recognised the wood of this plant ; it resembles very much that of 
one of my seedlings, the Prince Albert. The specimens which I received as 
well as the grafts which I took from them, only furnished me with individ- 
uals entirely like this last rose, as well in the structure of their branches- 
as is their leaves; the buds, calices, and flowers varying in colour, according" 
to the se'a'SOH from a clear red to a shaded and velvety violet. In fine, sir,- 
I have not grafted a single branch for next year, being persuaded that this 
variety is produced by an error. 

The New York Horticultural Society are making arrangements 
for their Fall Exhibition, which ^ve hope will be worthy of the oc- 
casion. We annex the circular of the committee : 

TuE Fall Exhibition of the New York Horticultural Society will 
be held at Niblo's Garden, corner of Broadway and Prince Street, New 
York City, on Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday, September 20th, 21st,' 
and 22nd, 1853, to which the undersigned earnestly solicit your attention. 
The Crystal Palace will doubtless attract large numbers of persons, not only 
from all parts of the Union, but also from various countries of Europe, and 
the undersigned therefore propose to put forth unusual efforts to get up a 
Horticultural E.\hibitiou wiiich shall be worthy of the great commercial me- 
tropolis. The fact of a large number of Europeans congregating in New 
York, will give our next Exhibition something more than a local interest;- 
for they will expect to see in the first City in the Union, a fair exposition of 
what we are doing in the United States for Horticultural Science, and will 
judge us accordingly. It is very important, then, that their minds should 
be favorably impressed. The uudersign-ed confess to feeling something mora 



288 THE FLORIST AND 

than a local pride in this matter ; something atin to fi'Tiat Has been happily 
called amor patrise, and they trust that this feeling will meet with a ready 
and hearty response in every section of the country. The undersigned be- 
lieve that the material exists for getting up a grand general Exhibition, and 
they iknow that there is abundant material in the country for making a dis- 
play of Fruit, which cannot be surpassed, if equalled, in any City of Eu- 
ropcv It is only the spirit that is wanting ; how sadly wanting here in New 
York. This is a subject which eminently concerns the public taste and the 
public good, and all should feel some interest in it, no matter where their 
home, or what their pursuits in life may be. It is thus that we appeal to 
you for your active aid and co -operation. If you have no Fruits, Plants, 
or Flowers to send yourself, perhaps your neighbor has, and a word from 
you mny induce hiin to Send. It is conceived that our List of Awards is 
very liberal and worthy of attention ; but in order to aiford every rersona- 
ble inducement to exhibitors, the undersigned will pay freight on all arti- 
cles sent from a distance, when requested to do so. Communications should 
be addressed to the Chairman of the Committee, Bible House, Astor Place, 
New Yol-k. 

PETER B. MEAD, 
and others, Committee of Arrangement. 



We copy in this number, an article on Underdraining from the Genesee 
Farmer, a paper which we consider as one of the most valuable of our ex- 
changes. It is published monthly, at Rochester, N. Y., at the xerj low 
price of 50 cents a year. 

The Southern Agriculturist, a monthly journal, devoted to the science 
and practice of agriculture, &c., is published at Laurensville, S. C. The 
contents are excellent, and the getting up of the paper is very creditable. 

We are happy to announce the- commencement of an agricultural journal 
at Burlington, Iowa. The Iowa Farmer and Horticulturist, Edited by 
Messrs. J. W. Grimes and J. F. Tallant, has reached its fourth number. 

Answers to Coreespondents. — J. McD. Your pink flower is Sahhatia 
cMoroides, the orchid is Platanthera [Rahenaria) ciliaris. 

D. B., Utica — You should have sent entire fronds, we cannot judge from 
the pinnae — No. 3, is Asplenium acrostichoides. No. 6 and 8 are Asplenia — 
No. 7, Aspidium asplenoide-s — No. 9, Onoclea sensibilis — No. 10, a Botry- 
chium', the rest we cannot identify without larger specimens. As for books 
for g'eueral botany we would recommend Gray's Botany of the Northern I'. 
S. Presl is the best authority in Ferns. 




VERBENA, van. Princesse Marianne. 
' Boucharlat. ) 



THE FLORIST 

AND HORTICULTUEAL JOUEML. 

Vol. II.] Philadelphia, October, 1853. [No. 10. 

VERBENA PRINCESSE MARIANNE, boucharlat. 
Deprived of descriptive notices and of specimens, we do not 
know how to place this beautiful variety in one of the four primi- 
tive stocks of the group of Verbena Melindres. By its leaves and 
inflorescence it would seem to be derived from the Verbena chamce- 
drifolia, Juss. {V. Melindns, Bot. Reg. t. 1184) a species of the 
pampas of La Plata, which flowered for the first time in England 
in 1828. But M. Decaisne assures us, resting on the authority of M. 
Vilmorin,this would never have varied from the brilliant vermilion- 
red which distinguishes its flowers. There remain the V. pklogijlo- 
ra, Chamiss, {V. Ttvsediana, Box. Mag. t. 3541,) incisa, Box. Mag. 
t. 3628, and teucrioides, Bot. Mag. t. .3694, also introduced froTn the 
vast pampas of the La Plata, and which flowered in Scotland, the 
two first in 1836, the last in 1838. It is especially to V. phlogi- 
flora that in the monograph of the Verbeuaceae, M. Schauor (in D. 
C. Prodrom.) refers the greater part of the varieties of all shades be- 
tween bright red and bluish. Perhaps it in into this category that 
the variety here figured, by its white flowers with large lilac star, 
enters. But in this respect, as we have sai'l, the means of forming 
an opinion are wanting. AVhatever mny be its origin, the pl;int re- 
commends itself among all others by the singularity of its flowers. 
At first sight many persons would take it for n Phlox, they will see 
that to this mystifying resemblance to P///oj; Princesie Marianne it 
owes its name, and this proper and picturesque name is of a nature 
to give it success. Already, the first prize of the quinquennial and 
general exhibition at Lyons, held the 15th of September, 1851, has 
proven the rare merit of this acquisition of M. Boncharlat,and with- 
out doubt the plant would have already ornamented parterres, if the 
37 



290 THE FLORIST AND 



desire of proving well the persistence of such remarkable charac 
ters, had not delayed its sending out: reassured on this last point by 
the experience of three consecutive seasons, M. Boucharlat has just 
issued it. L. VH. 



HELIOTROPE. 
Many varieties of the above have been introduced to cultivation 
w'lthin the last few years, but taking all things into consideration 
thire is perhaps none more desirable than the old well known H. 
Peruvianum, a universal favorite on account of its delicious fra- 
grance, which, combined with its free growth and profuseness of 
bloom, makes it a very desirable plant for furnishing bouquets du- 
ring the winter months. By keeping up a succession of healthy 
young plants,' flowers may be obtained at all seasons, with the aid 
of a warm greenhouse in cold weather. As a plant for the flower' 
be Is during summer, it grows luxuriantly, provided the soil is ipod- 
erately enriched. It is however, very susceptible of cold, and will 
sh")w the effects of a slight frost sooner than almost any other shrub- 
by flower garden plant. It is indeed an easily managed plant, cut- 
tings of it will strike root at any season, and grow in any ordinary 
garden soil. To secure plants of sufficient strength to flower du- 
ring early winter, cuttings should be inserted in June. They "will 
form roots in two or three weeks at this season, if inserted in a 
shaded situation; they should be immediately placed in small pots, 
and when these are filled with roots, shifted into flowering pots; 
eight inch pots will be sufficient in size. They now require to be 
grown in a situation fully exposed to the sun, and if the pots are 
plunged to their rims, less water will be required and the plants 
otherwise benefitted. The roots of plants in pots fully exposed to 
the action of the sun and atmosphere are very liable to sustain in- 
jury. A few hours' neglect in watering will counteract the progress 
of weeks. The young incipient points^ of roots are so easily de- 
stroyed that nothing short of the most vigilant attention can keep 
plants in a vigorous'state when the pots are thus exposed. Hence 
the necessity of plunging the pots that evaporation from their outer 
surfaces may be prevented. This is more especially necessary with 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 291 

pots of a soft or porous character. Hard burned pots are condemn- 
ed by many, for what reason I do not know. So far as my expe- 
rience goes I decidedly prefer pots glazed on the outside, both on 
account of the benefit they confer on the plant, and their freedom 
from becoming green and unsightly when placed in a warm, humid 
atmosphere. This latter circumstance alone is worthy of consider- 
ation. 

Whan the plants are removed into the greenhouse, they should 
be placed in the warmest position, near the light, in order to flower 
them freely. Plants that have been growing in the flower beds 
during summer, lifted and potted before frost, will commence 
blooming in early spring. As a permanent climbing plant for a 
greenhouse or conservatory it is worthy of notice. When once 
properly established in such a position it will keep in uower during 
the year, and speedily cover a large surface if allowed sufficient 
root accommodation. Delta. 



THE SARRACENIA. 

My opinion having been asked concerning the identity of the 
species of Sarracenia called undulata by M. Decaisne,* when com- 
pared with the S. Drummondii of Groom, I cannot hesitate to pro- 
nounce at once that the two supposed species are without doubt the 
same. The S. Drummondii grows common enough in the savannas 
of Alabama and West Florida, and differs in nothing from the spe- 
cimen described as undulata, except in having the upper portion of 
the operculum of the leaves, which is sometimes lengthened ont, 
more or less rounded. As I have seen the flower of this plant, it 
is of a most brilliant red color, the same as that of the Amaryllis 
formosissima, the true purple of the Romans and of Linne. I pre- 
sume that Mr. Groom's figure in the 4th volume of the Annals of 
the Lyceum of New York, was taken from a dried nnd faded s|.c- 
cimen, which accounts for the dull color of the petals and the pe. Ur 
liar form of the operculum. 

I add some remarks on the other species of this genus. 

I have seen the purpurea in the lower country of Georgia. As I 

* In the Flore des Serres, vol. vii. pugf ■_'i>7. 



292 THE FLORIST AND 



am acquainted with it, it has always been groAving in bogs, a kind of 
soil unknown in the .submaritime regions of our Southern States. 
How far north it extends there are no means of ascertaining ; it 
has been seen in the southern portions of the Labrador coast. The 
other species are all confined to the Southern States. The Jlava 
is more abundant in the middle parts of North Carolina. In the 
neighborhood of Fayetteville it covers the ground in immense pro- 
fusion ; and flowering at the same time and intermixed with the 
splendid Iris tripetala hiis a most beautiful effect. 

The rubra first appears a little farther south, but it is by no 
means common. The variolaris is confined to a distance of about 
30 miles from the sea shore, in South Carolina and Georgia, in moist 
pine forests. 

As for the Catesbsei of Elliott, it is quite a distinct species, and 
as far as I know it only grows in those parts of the country point- 
ed out by the author from whom it received its name. It has late- 
ly been thought proper to erase this species from our , Flora, but 
whatever errors Mr. Elliott may have committed in other in- 
stances, in this he was certainly right. It is too much the custom 
with naturalists to pronounce opinions on objects described by 
others which they have never seen ; I have myself much to com- 
plain of in this respect, and may at some future time take occasion 
to notice what I have siiifered frorn the whims of others. 

With all these species of Sarracenia I was once very familiar, 
and their forms and peculiarities have not left my memory ; for 
years they were always before my eyes, and their distinctive char- 
acters indelibly impressed upon my mind. 

The locality of the psilfacina with which I am acquainted is the 
immense pine forest to the south Avest of the Altamaha, between 
that river and Florida, 

A word or two about the cultivation of these highly ornamental 
plants : they should be planted in a mixture of black vegetable 
earth, such as is procured from the crevices of rocks, and white 
sand, in equal quantities, Avith a small quantity of poAvdered char- 
coal. They require to be profusely AA'atered. J, LC. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 293 



MANAGEMENT OF CIDER APPLE TREES. 

A practical treatise on the rearing and cultivation of Cider Apple Trees, 
in Normandy, entitled " Traite pratique de V Education et de la Culture du 
Pommier a Oidre, dans hs Departments de VAncienne Normandie," has 
been lately published by the Cercle pratique d' Horticulture et de Botanique 
of the department of the Seine-Inferieure. It contains, as we observed some 
weeks ago, concise instructions on the subject ; and convinced that the work 
has a very useful tendency, we have thought it desirable to furnish our readers 
with a series of translations from it. 

The subject is by no means unimportant. In proof of this it is only ne- 
cessary to adduce the facts, that in the cider counties, in a good season many 
farmers clear their rents entirely by the produce of their cider trees ; and 
hence new plantations of these are being extensively made. The strictures 
in the first part of the treatise in question may prevent errors in the forma- 
tion of these plantations ; and it will be seen, when pointed out, that many 
errors are as easily avoided as practised. We may add, that many of the 
strictures as well as the instructions that follow are applicable not only to 
cider apple trees, but likewise to other trees. 

PART I. 
Critical remarks on various modes of cultivation which have been adopted 
and are still practised as regards the Cider Apple Tree. 

Formation of a Nursery. — When a private nursery is formed for supply- 
ing plants for an orchard, it is frequently established in a very bad situation, 
such as the corner of a yard surrouuded with Quick-hedges in which there 
are large trees ; or even in a narrow space botwcen the back of ^ building 
and a hedge, with the view of getting shelter, or for the sake of economy of 
enclosure. To save the small cost of one or two pieces of fence, a great por- 
tion of the plants is lost, because some are drawn up by the shade of build- 
ings or of trees, and others cannot thrive on account of the ground being 
continually impoverished by the roots of the hedges and of the large trees 
which usually grow in those hedges. 

Choice of the Plants. — A false economy often causes second or third rate 
plants to be selected because of their cheapness. This is a mistake ; for al- 
though plants of the second picking are not altogether to be despised, and al- 
though occasionally some plants may be found from among thera that be. 
come as good trees as those from the first ; yet it cannot be denied, that of 
two plants of the same age, grown in the same soil, and having received the 
same care, but which arc of different vigor, the tallest and thickest should be 
preferred. 



2M THE FLORIST AND 



Preparation of the Plant. — To prevent the apple trees from becoming 
tap-rooted, many prune the roots to half their length, and thus almost make 
■cuttings of their plants, the starting of which becomes more difficult, slower, 
and less perfect than would be the case if the roots were preserved. 

Distance usually left between the Plants. — It is an error to suppose that 
the more plants we put in a given space, the more trees really deserving the 
name of such, we shall have. The apple tree, which should remain from se- 
ven to ten years in the nursery, in order to acquire the necessary strength 
for being finally planted, requires a great deal of air and light to develop its 
stem and head, and a sufficient extent of ground to allow it to form good roots. 
In a nursery where the plants are too close together, as, for example, 2 feet 
between the rows and 12 to 15 inches between the plants in the rows, we of- 
ten obtain only badly rooted trees with slender drawn-up stems, no thicker 
at bottom than at top ; or, as is most frequently the case, some trees more 
vigorous than the rest get the ascendancy, and stop the growth of their 
neighbors, which they eventually annihilate. In this case, he who has planted 
1000 plants is fortunate if he get 500 or 600 trees, we do not say very good 
ones, but merely passable. 

Rearing the Plants and forming the Stem. — If a straight stem is not in- 
dispensable to the formation of a good bearing apple tree, it is at least ne- 
cessary for new plantations in straight rows ; and in all cases it is more eli- " 
gible. Now, to obtain straight stems requires yearly attention to pruning, 
pinchjng off, ^nd bending to a right position, &c. These operations shoakl 
be skilfully performed; but such is rarely the case. In nurseries Avhich are 
pot totally neglected, the shoots which come on the stem are all taken off, 
.and that generally at too early a period. As these shoots, or more strictly 
speaking their leaves, were intended to increase the size of the stem, thepre- 
jmature destruction of the shoots, and the consequent privation of leaves, 
prevent robust, straight growth, and thence come those trees that have bend- 
ing, weakly stems, and which are more especially too slender at the base. 

Neglect of matters relating to Grafts. — Cleft grafting, although most used, 
hs-B flever.al defects. In order to perform the operation, the stem must be 
,cleft from side to side, and this cleft is a chasm which the sap cannot close 
\ip in a single year. By neglecting to keep it constantly covered, the intro- 
duction of water is permitted, decay of the wood follows, an«l this, coiitinual- 
ly spreading towards the interior, shortens the life of the tree, and renders 
it more liable to be broken or uprooted by high winds, because the rottenness 
extends to the large roots, which, from that cause, cannot offer any resist- 
ance. Grafts are often broken by the wind, or by large birds. This is an- 
other result of negligence in the grafters, who should always protect the 
grafts by fastening to the^stock, with osier, a rod to which the young shoots 
from the graft could be secured as they proceed in growth. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 295 

Formation of the Head of the Tz-ee.— Whether the tree has been grafted 
low or high, its stem should be stopped at a convenient height for the growth 
of the branches intended to form its head ; but, instead of keeping these 
branches at a proper distance from each other, and only retaining a small 
number, and allowing them to grow to a good lengthy the branches are all 
preserved and cut very short at the end of every winter, without calculation^ 
without forethought, and without the direction of the bud which has beeu 
pruned on having been examined. 

The consequence of this improper mode of pruning is, that, after three or 
four years the head of the apple tree is a shapeless bush, the numerous and 
■widely-ramified branches of which would hardly afford a passage for a cat, 
although at a later period a man must pass among them. It would be better 
to allow the trees to push freely, without employing the pruning knife at all 
upon them, than to exhaust them in this manner, by inducing them to make 
a number of shoots, most of wbich must be entirely cut off next year ; for 
the inevitable result of this bad prilning, besides exhaustion, is to necessitate 
the amputation of strong branches with the saw which should have been cut 
off with the pruning knife when first developed ; from these amputations with 
the former instrument large wounds result, which only heal slowly and im- 
perfectly ; and the decay of the wood arising from wounds not healed will 
eventually produce the same effects as the neglected clefts of grafts. 

Taking up young Trees from the Nurseries: — We would gladly have said 
that the apple trees are taken vp from the nursery, but as their roots are 
very often cut short by the spade, or by strokes of the mattock ; or, having 
been slightly uncovered, they are drawn violently out, so as to break all the 
fibres, &c., that are twisted, we are obliged to s-.xj that they are torn up. 

Again, the plants are often left exposed to the air, which dries the fibres, 
if any remain ; or to rain, wliich washes them ; or soinetinits, even, to the de- 
structive influence of frost. Yet it does not fe<iuirc much science to know 
that roots intended to live and grow in the earth only, must suffer by ex- 
posure to tlie ail', to liglit, and to frost ; and that they should remain exposed 
to these influences as short a lime as possible. 

The preservation of the leaves on the tree,- if it has been transplanted at 
a time when they are still in a tolerably fresh state, such as the beginning of 
November, likewise affects the success of the operation. At the before-men- 
tioned period, although the leaves may only remain on the branches for a 
single day, the death of the small roots will be the result; because, as the 
leaves, from the effects of light, continue to absorb the sap contained in the 
tree, which latter can draw up no more nourishment from the soil, they con. 
Bequently dry up all the young and tender parts, such as the spongioles and 
the recent shoots. It is, therefore, of the utmost importance to take oflf the 
leaves, if there are any, at the time when wc transplant. 



296 THE FLORIST AND 

Preparation of the Trees and Soil for Planting, -^y(e should never hesi- 
tate about thorough trenching and making deep holes before planting. The' 
rapid growth of the trees will amply repay the expense. The preparation of 
the soil is commonly performed tolerably well, but as much cannot be said of 
that of the roots. Planters are often seen shortening the roots of a tree as' 
if they could make use of the portions cut off; they call that trimming the! 
root. Some, more careful, allow the roots to remain at full length; buttheffe 
are many who, instead of spreading them out as the hole is being filled up, 
content themselves with throwing in the soil and treading it when the roota 
have been sufficiently covered. In conseqeence of this the flexible roots take 
a bad direction, by reason of the weight of the earth, and they are frequently 
squeezed into bundles, in which the weakest ones become hot, moist and rat- 
ten. 

Another bad practice should be pointed out. It consists in introducing the 
earth among the roots by means of a pointed stake. Many old planters would 
think they planted badly if, whilst holding the tree in one hand, they had not a 
■well-pointed stake in the other; with this they make many thrusts through the 
earth that is thrown on the roots, severely bruising the latter and making 
many excoriations. A stake is only used in the case of large trees which can- 
not be shaken, and the roots of which are too large to be lifted and directed by 
hand. When the stake is used, care should be taken not to injure the roots 
between which it is introduced. 

When apple trees are finally planted they no lofiger reqiiire what are called 
the attentions of rearing; other operations, however, become necessary; but 
too frequently neglects and accidents await them.- — Gard. Chron. 

[To be continued.1 



CULTIVATIOjJf OF THE EUEOPEAN GRAPE IN AMERICA. 

Houston, Texas, Sept. 27, 1852. 
I cannot refrain from tendering some information to your paper, and, if 
agreeable, my best services with reference to your suggestions as to the 
grafting of European Vines on robust American stocks in your number of 
the 21st ult. (see p. 531, 1852.) In this neighborhood an opinion prevails 
that the European Grape cannot under any circumstances be successfully 
cultivated, but this opinion I hope to find erroneous, inasmuch as I believe 
it to be founded in entire ignorance of the soil in which it delights, and on 
an impression that the climate and soil of this country can work impossibil- 
ities, and that pruning, and other means of husbanding the energies of a 
plant are here perfectly unnecessary. In this locality a native Grape known 
as the Mustang, or wild Grape, grows with extreme luxuriance, both on the 
sandy banks of streams and the heavy alluvial soil of the prairies ; and al-~ 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 297 

though it does not attain in this neighborhood to so large a size as it does 
on the Brazos, it is still to be met with from 6 to 9 inches in diameter, 
over-topping the highest trees, and bearing an enormous quantity of fruit, 
■worthless for the table, but good as I have proved for wine. On the Brazos, 
six weeks since, the woods were stated to be perfectly blue in appearance 
from the immense quantity of fruit which had ripened, even under the shade 
of a dense foliage. It is entirely free from mildew, and to prevent its ap- 
pearance on European varieties, and to secure a luxuriant growth, I intend 
in the coming season to make use of it largely as a stock, for I have proved 
that it unites most freely with the scion, so much so that a cutting of this 
year's wood attached to a Mustang stock during the last week of May, had 
in a period of from 50 to 60 days not only taken, but had been followed up 
by such a vigorous growth that I counted 37 joints from the point of inser- 
tion. The following statement on this same subject by a Mr. Lincicum, ap- 
peared a few weeks since in the Galveston Journal: — "We have in our 
highly favored country many delicious, healthy, indigenous fruits, particu- 
larly in the Grape family, many of which are of fine flavor, and quite large, 
bear cultivation woll, and might be made with small expense a source of 
much wealth and comfort. Our native Grape will flourish well almost with- 
out attention; alllthat is'necessary is sufiicient space and protection from cat- 
tle. But the foreign varieties, on their own roots, do not thrive well in our 
black and limy soil. They become diseased and die out in a few years. 
Amongst these are many varieties very delicious and suitable for the table. 
These varieties are available notwithstanding their want of thrift in the 
prairie soil, by a very cheap and simple process. In my experients the fol- 
lowing has resulted very favorably. Take a healthy cutting from the last 
year's growth, from the kind of Grape vine you wish to propagate, and by 
the common wedge process, engraft it on a thrifty Mustang grape vine. 
The wedge graft is so simple that a description of the process may be con- 
sidered superfluous. However, any time between the 10th and 20th of Feb- 
ruary, prepare your grafts, having two or tliree buds on each slip, cut the 
upper ends even and smooth , and the lower ends into a true wedge — your 
knife should be sharp — then cut olT the top of your stock Vine, within 2 or 
3 inches of its root, split it down through the coiitre, low enough to re- 
ceive the wedge of your graft, push in your wedge cm one side of the stock, 
sap to sap, and downwards until the cut of the knife on the graft disappears. 
You may insert two grafts in ilio same stock if it is large enough. Then 
wrap a strip of wet domestic (.'arcruJly around all, with .^uflicient lirnmess to 
hold the graft in its place , after which raise the earth around it fo ns to 
cover the sttrck, leaving the buds of the graft only above ground. 1 have, 
however, inserted grafts 3 feet above ground and they grew very well, but 
38 



298 THE FLOmST AND 

they require more protection and are more liable to be sh;ikcn out of places 
The above is the process of engrafting to the Mustang Vines that may be 
found already growing about your premises. I have two grafts which I in- 
.'■ertcd into thrifty Mustang stocks on the 15th of last February; they have 
each run over 200 feet already, and are still growing rapidly. One of 
these grafts put forth a cluster 7 inches long, and matured 93 large Grapes. 
They are a bright red, transparent Grape, very rich and delicious ; they 
■were brought to this country I think by the Germans. I have another graft 
of the Black Sweetwater Grape, which, at the expiration of 17 months from 
the time I inserted it into the Mustang Vine, had matured half a bushel of 
fine large Grapes, much better flavored as I think than when growing on 
their own roots. AVhen it is desired to have them grow where there are no 
Mustang roots, as in the regular form of a vineyard, it is easily effected by 
selecting from the woods as many thrifty young Mustang Vines as you like; 
having them as large as your finger with good roots, top them off to about 
12 inches, carry them to yoiir lot, insert and wrap your grafts properly, and 
then plant them in such manner as to let your graft buds rise just above the 
surface of the ground at the desired point in your vineyard. The hole in 
•which they are planted should be large and pretty well supplied with ma- 
nure, fully rotted. Rotten logs or other decomposed vegetable matter is 
best. The Mustang Vine 'vVill, however, flourish very well in a,lmost any 
kind of soil. It is a strong hardy Vine, and will live to a great age. Grafts 
from the good varieties growing on healthy Mustang roots will after the 
fourth year if properly dressed and cared for produce from 10 to 15 bushels 
of clusters apiece. Twenty such Vines would supply the w^ants of a large 
family. They will bear abundantly the second year, but that injures the 
Vines, and the greater part of the clusters should be clipped off. They 
may on the third year, be permitted to mature half their clusters — one to 
each fruit-bearing joint. There is no actual necessity for putting up expen- 
sive frames for the Vines to run upon. Any kind of a stake sufficiently 
Strong and durable to support the Vine during the _time of its fruiting is 
good enough. It is best for the Vines to fall and remain on the ground 
through the winter. Then, about the middle of February, or before the sap 
begins to run, prune your Vines, stick up your stakes at the proper places 
to receive the branches, and with the ravelling of cotton bagging tie the 
branches to the stakes. A yard of bagging will tie up 500 Vines. Now, 
all this is so simple, so cheap, and so easily done, that three or four years 
hence there will be no plausible excuse for the man who has no Grapes on his 
table — when I pay him a visit." — J. H. S. Stakley. 

Gard. Chron. 
» 



HOUTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 299 

CALENDAR OF OPERATIONS. 

OCTOBER. 

FLOV.'ER GARDEN. 

Continue to plant deciduous trees at every opportunity. Whether spring 
or fall planting has the greatest advantages is swallowed up in the fact that 
"we shall find enough work for the spring." Hardy annuals of many de- 
scriptions will not flower next season unless sown now ; especially Larkspurs, 
Ipomopsis, &o., and all bloom the stronger from being sown now. They caa 
rea.dily be transplanted early in spring to where they are to remain. 

Bulbs that are easily aifectedby frost, as Gladioluses, Tuberoses, and Ti- 
gridias, should be taken up early and dried slowly in a secure place. Hya- 
cinths, Anemones, and similar plants for spring flowering, should be planted 
out as soon as they can be obtained. The latter may be put out an inch or 
so below the surface, and be protected during the winter with a slight cover- 
i ng of leaves ; well decayed cowdung is an excellent manure for them. See 
that the Dahlias are true to their names before the frost destroys their flow- 
ers; after which take them up, dry them slightly for a few days, then stow 
them away loosely in any cool place just secure from frost. If they rot in 
winter it will be either through getting too warm and damp, or too dry and 
frosted. Wherever alterations and improvements are to be effected, get as 
much as possible carried out before winter. Look on the fall as if it were 
the real beginning of spring work. Laying of turf may be well proceeded 
with ; box edgings, though, are best deferred, as their beauty is very fre- 
quently sadly defaced by frost. 

Green House, 
The tendorest plants being housed last month, the remaining will require 
immediate attention. After liousing, the object should be to rest them, the 
temperature not being suffered to fall below 38° ; they will be the better fur 
all the air that can be afforded them. No more water need be given for a 
month than will barely keep them from flagging. Pelargoniums, Cinerarias, 
and similar things which will keep growing, should be kept as near the air 
or glass as possible — the latter, if full of roots, and desired for large, hand- 
some specimens, will require potting about the end of the month into coarse 
turfy loam, with about a third of half rotted stable manure. Roses in puts, 
for early flowering, may be repotted as they arc brought in, if they require 
it; coarse soil is essential to their perfection — a close, compact soil will not 
grow them well ; they should have the lightest part of the house. Many tliia 
the buds of their Camellias as they bring them in doors ; I prefer waiting for 
a time, as the slight change thoy necessarily experience by the move oftea 
causes some to fall. As migniouette grows, pinch out the top of the shoots 



300 THE FLORIST AND 



occasionally, it will make them bushy, handsome specimens, and prolong 
their flowering period. The same may be said of any other ornamental an-j 
nual cultivated this way. A few plants of Petunias and Verbenas potted 
now, and also kept pinched in at every joint, make objects of the prettiest 
class by the spring. Plants of every kind kept in view for winter flowering 
will require continwal care in repotting, watering and staking. It is often 
desirable to have a few Azaleas and Rhododendrons in flower early ; any 
plants selected for this purpose should have even more care bestowed on them 
in getting their wood well ripened by free exposure to sun and air than even 
the others. Chinese Primroses for early flowering will also require repot- 
rng ; it is very fond of coarse leaf mould with the soil in which it is growing. 
Auriculas, the prettiest of spring's blooming plants, are frequently lost in 
the winter; yet they are very hardy, they require to be kept from damp and 
bright sunlight. Chrysanthemums will soon be the chief ornament of our 
houses. If encouraged at this time by occasional doses of liquid manure 
their flowers will be finer. If seed is desired from them, let them flower in 
a cool, light situation, where they can get abundance of air without getting 
frosted. Cuttings of all kinds will continue to receive attention, and those 
rooted be successively removed to single pots. Before the weather becomes 
severe a stock of turfy loam, leaf mould, rotten stable dung and sand should 
be housed so as to have it at command whenever potting is required. Dif- 
ferent combinations of the above materials will afl"ord composts for nearly all 
kinds of plants. 

Vegetable Garden. 
Celery as it grows will require earthing up, and Endive successively 
blanched; but the main business of the month will be preparations for hous- 
ing the root crops for the winter. Beets are generally the first thing at- 
tended to, they being the most easily injured by frost ; Carrots, Salsafy and 
Parsneps following. The latter are never really good until they have been 
well frozen ; and many leave them entirely in the ground, taking them up as 
wanted for use. I prefer taking them all up and packing them in sand or 
half dried loam, in a shed or cellar, which can be kept just above freezing 
point ; yet the cooler the better. If suflered to be in heaps they heat and 
soon rot. In the same situation Endive and Cape Brocoli may be preserved 
to the end of the year — they are taken up with a small quantity of earth ad- 
hering to them, and placed side-by-side together. Tomatoes, if dug up also 
and suspended, roots upward, in such a situation, will keep good along time • 
but this must be done before the least frost has touched them. It is a wise 
plan to sow a little more Early York Cabbage early in the month, as in fine 
mild winters the September sowing grows too forward when protected. A 
very slight protection is better for them than any elaborate aff'air, the sua 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 301 

principally injuring them. The same remarks apply to lettuce intended to 
be kept over winter for spring use, though the sun is less destructive to them 
than to the cabbage, 

Forcing vegetables, wherever the least command of heat can be had, is the 
most interesting and useful part of gardening. It is not by any means what 
it is often considered, an operation by which you pay a dollar for every 
mouthful. The Asparagus, Sea Kale, Lettuce, Radish and Cauliflower can 
be had for months earlier than in the open ground, wherever a regular tem- 
perature of 55° can be obtained, with, of course, the proper amount of air, 
moisture, &c. Asparagus can be had under a greenhouse stage, though of 
courae the tops will not be so green, nor will it be much else but indifferent 
under such circumstances, as it would be in the full light. 

Radishes require an abundance of air, and Lettuce light. Cauliflowers, if 
kept for some months with all the light and air possible, at a temperature of 
50 or 65°, may have it gradually raised to 60 or 65, and even 70°, and thus 
come into use in February, when there is no vegetable more desirable. 

Cucumbers, Tomatoes and Beans require a temperature of at least 65° to 
begin with. If a temperature of 70 can be maintained in the coldest wea- 
ther, a few of these might be sown by the end of the month, which will pro- 
duce some very acceptable dishes about New Year's day. Rhubarb, if care- 
fully taken up at the fall of the leaf and potted, or put into boxes, will also 
come forward well if put under the stage in a house of the last temperature. 

T.J. 

FRUIT. 

Pear Trkes on Quikce. — This method of Pear cultivation is rapidly in- 
creasing and gaining in public estimation, although there is still much oppo- 
sition to its introduction. No doubt failures will occur, but a few isolated 
cases are not to be taken as conclusive proof either for or against any system. 
It may serve a good purpose to note some of the reasons we have lately heard 
advanced against the above, or rather show the circumstant'es which led to 
its being unprofitable. In one case lately examined the trees were dying 
out by degrees, whole limbs suddenly withering and drooping, occasioning 
much trouble and anxiety as to their ultimate fate. The unsuitableness of 
the stock was the supposed cause of failure, and this conclusion had been ar- 
rived at in the face of evident facts to the contrary. The soil was a thin, 
gravelly clay, resting on a hard clayey subsoil ; when wet it became so soft 
and yielding that trees could with difiiculty be kept upright in it when in this 
condition. The retentive sub-soil preventing the downward escape of water; 
iu fact, holding it like a basin, until it was again dried to solidity by surface 
evaporation — conditions evident to the most casual observer quite opposed to 
favorable growth. The "evident facts to the contrary" were apparent in tho 



302 THE FLORIST AND 

g 

healthy state of those planted in move favorable soil, which accidentally hap-> 
pened in grading the surface to that exact level insisted upon by many in 
their garden improvements. 

Carelessness in planting is also productive of future annoyance ; the tree 
should be planted so that the stock may be just covered with the soil. If 
planted higher, the quince will in some cases get hide hound, and not swell 
sufficient for the graft. It also prevents the borer from committing his ra- 
vages upon the stock, which would otherwise most likely occur. We do not 
advise deep planting in any case, but the quince throws out roots so readily 
that little fear need be entertained of not having plenty of fibres near the 
surface. Indeed, the facility with which it roots is a very forcible point ia 
favor of the quince over any other stock that can be employed. 

But the greatest general cause of failure arises from bad cultivation. In 
the first place, there should be no stagnated water in the soil ; then it should 
be trenched and loosened before planting, and the trees receive an annua^ 
top dressing of manure in the fall, to be forked in about the trees in spring, 
the soil kept constantly loose and friable by breaking up the surface crust 
after heavy rains. An application of charcoal dust has been found useful on 
soils of a clayey nature, preserving them from consolidation and increasing 
their absorbent capabilities. Attention to these points, in conjunction with 
proper pruning and pinching will leave no cause for complaint in this method 
of pear cultivation. 

Pruning, — This operation, it is gratifying to observe, is becoming more 
generally understood than formerly. Much has been and will be said and 
written upon the subject; the general principle may be summed up in a few 
■words. A puny, weak growing tree should be encouraged by every availa^ 
ble means during its growth ; not a leaf removed, if possible, until they cease 
to perform their functions in the fall ; then prune it closely down, this will 
induce a vigorous growth the following season. On the other hand, a thrift}', 
strong growing tree should be pruned in summer, and the growth so reduced 
as to admit of little or no removal of wood in winter. The effects and phy- 
siological reasons for these practices having been dwelt upon at some length 
in previous calendars, it is deemed unnecessary to make further allusion to 
the subject at present. 

Strawberries, in pots, will require to be set widely apart, in a situation 
fully exposed to the sun, in order to mature their fruit buds. Towards the 
end of the month provision should be made for keeping them dry, either by 
placing them in a glass protected frame, or by piling them on their sides in 
ridge form. The latter method is simple and eSicient. The pots are laid 
on their sides commencing with two rows about thirty inches apart, laying 
them bottom inwards ; the intermediate space is then filled up with leaves or 
tan, a second layer of pots is then placed on top in the same manner, keep- 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 303 

ing them a few inches further back than the first, and fill up to their level as 
before. This is continued until the pots meet at top. A wide board will af- 
ford sufficient coping to throw ofi" heavy rain. In severe frosts mats of loose 
straw will serve to protect them from injury. 

This is a favorable season for manuring and renewing the soil under old 
and sickly trees. There is no better material for this purpose than well rot- 
led manure forked deeply and plentifully among the roots. Grapes on ar- 
bors that appear weak should be similarly treated, and some of the old shoots 
laid and covered with soil. These in time will emit roots near the surface'^ 
■which will impart additional vigor to the plant. Gooseberry and Currant 
bu&hes should also receive attention, the soil forked over and left rough and 
open, the better to expose the larvae of insects, which by this means are destroy- 
ed in cold weather. Raspberries should be thinned out, properly secured, and 
miahured heavily if you wish superior fruit. Want of proper care in cultiva- 
tion, is the frequent cause of resorting to expedients which have to be em- 
ployed as a means of counteracting defective management.- S. B, 



NEW YORK HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The regular fall show of flowers, fruit and vegetables, under the auspices 
of the New York Horticultural Society, opened on the 20th, September, at 
Niblo's Garden. Tiie concert room has been devoted to this exhibition. — 
Side tables, ranged along each side and end of the beautiful saloon, were 
decked with the choicest flowers, the most delicious fruit, and the most pon- 
derous specimens of vegetables that the gardener's art; can manage to raise. 
In the centre of the room were some half dozen round tables, bearing hot- 
house plants, bouquets, baskets of flowers, &c., regailing at once the senses 
of sight and smell, and indicating the refined taste which devotes itself so 
successfully to this branch of horticulture. The exhibition, though perhaps 
not so large as on former occasions, bears the palm over them by the excel- 
lent quality of the articles. It would be at once a difiicult and a needless 
task to enumerate the beautiful varieties of fruits and flowers, which were ex- 
hibited. The d;ililias were in endless and many-colored variety, and there 
■were some beautiful specimens of fuchsias and verbenas. The grapes and 
pears are alsa peculiarly excellent. We would snggesty however, to exhib- 
itors, the propriety of a more strict and general compliance with the follow- 
ing rule : 

As a largo number of persons visit our exhibitions to learn the names of 
plants for future use, it is requested that the botanical and common name (of 
plants, &c.) be distinctly written on the same label. 

An address was delivered by the ilcv. Mr. Chapin, on the beauties and use 



304 THE FLOPllST AND 

of Horticulture. The judges or committees on fruit, vegetables and flowers 
awarded the following prizes : 

FRUIT. 

Apples — For the best collection of named varieties, Silver cup, or $10 — 
Mr. Bailey, Plattsburg. 

For the second best, silver medal, or $5, Mr. L. C. Lighthisse, Orange, 
N. Jersey. 

For the best six named varieties of table apples, silver medal, or $5, H'y 
Thacker, Oneida Community, Madison county. 

Pears — For the best collection of named varieties, silver cup, or $10, C. 
M. Hovey & Co., Boston. 

For 2nd best, silver medal, or $5, John Brill, N. J. 

For the best six named varieties of table pears, silver medal, or $5, Alex. 
Gordon, gardener to E. Hoyt, Astoria,. 

For the second best, bronze medal, or $3, Mr. Grant, gr. to Mr. Vande- 
venter, Astoria. 

Plums — For the best three named varieties, silver medal, or $5, Henry 
Thacker, Oneida co. N. Y. 

Quinces — For the best twelve quinces, bronze medal, or $30, Jno. White, 
gardener to Gov. Morris. 

Grapes — For the best six named varieties foreign grapes, silver cup, or 
$15, J.Daillidaze, gr. to Robert Renny, Lodi, N. J. 

For the second best, silver cup, or |lO, J. McMillan, gr. to Fran. Morris, 
Throgg's Neck. 

For the best three named varieties, silver cup, or $10, J. Daillidaze. 

For the second best, silver medal, or $5, Thos. Sprunt, gardener to J. D. 
Wolfe, Throgg's Neck. 

For the best bunch of black Hamburgs, silver medal, or $5, J. Daillidaze. 

For second best, bronze medal, or $3, J. McMillan. 

For the best bunch of white Muscats, silver medal, or $5, Alex. Gordon. 

Discretionery premiums have been offered to 

For fine collection of pears, Thomas Sprunt. 

For six fine specimens of pears, do 

For like, Henry Thackor. 

For extra fine specimens of second pears, Gerard Hopkins. 

For nectarines, Mr. Griffin. 

For three fine dishes of peaches, C. V. Spencer, West Farms. 

For sweet potatoes, James Angus. 

For fine collection of pears, Matthias Coleman, Gardener to A. P. Cum- 
mings, Williamsburg. 

For extra large specimens of apples, A. B. Coleman, Cincinnati. 

Melons. — For the best two watermelons, bronze medal, or $3, Alexander 
Gordon. 

For the second best, diploma, or $2, RJr Lighthipe. 

For the best two muskmelons, bronze medal, or $3, Isaac Bucharan, As- 
toria. 

For the second best, diploma, or $2, Mr. Lighthipe. 

The committee on fruit consist of Messrs. Thomas Hogg, Wm. S. Carpen- 
ter, and Charles Moore. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 305 



VEGETABLES. 

Potatoes— ^For the best peck for the table, bronze medal, or $3, Mr. 
Sprunt. 

For the second best, diploma, or $2, E. Sherman, Seersville, Orange 
county. 

Beets — For the best twelve long blood beets, bronze medal, or $3, Mr. 
Thacker. ' 

. For the best twelve turnip rooted beets, bronze medal, or $3, Mr. John 
Brill. 

Carrots — For the best twelve carrots, bronze medal, or $3, Mr. Mathe- 
8on. Gowanus, L. I. 

For the second best, diploma, or $2, Mr. Brill. 

Parsnips — For the best twelve parsnips, bronze medal, or $2, James 
Angus, gr. to W. W. Fox, West Farms. 

For the second best, diploma, or $2, Julius Kartman, gr. to William H. 
Paine, Bloomingdale. 

Salsify — For the best twelve roots of salsify, diploma, or $2, Mr. 
Thacker. 

Cabbage — For the best three heads of Savoy cabbage, bronze medal, or 
$3, Francis Briell, Astoria. 

OxiONS. — For the best half peck of white onions, bronze medal, or $3 — 
James Angus, for three varieties. 

Celery. — For the best twelve stalks of celery, bronze medal, or $3 — ■ 
Mr. Hartman. 

For the second best, diploma or $2 — Mr. Angus. 

Tomatoes. — For the best half peck of red tomatoes, bronze medal, or $3 
—John Brill. 

For the second best, diploma, or $2 — Mr. Angus. 

Ego Plants. — For the best three egg plants, bronze medal, or $3 — Mr. 
Sprunt. 

For the second best, diploma, or $2 — Mr. Angus. 

Beans. — For the best half peck of Lima beans, in pod, diploma, or $2 
— Francis Briell. 

For the best half peck of kidney beans, diploma, or $2 — John Brill. 

Corn. — For the best twelve ears of corn for the table, bronze medal, or 
$3— Mr. Spn»]t. 

For the second best, diploma, or $2 — James Angus. 

Turnips — For the best half peck of turnips, bronze medal, or $3, Joha 
O'Connell. 

For the second best, diploma, or $2, John Brill. 

Squashes — For the best three sqashes lor the tiible, bronze medal, or 
$3, Tliomas Martin, gr. to H. Dehilield, Seventy-ninth street. 

For the second best, diploma, or §2, Mr. Sprunt. 

Ge.vkral Di:<PLAY — For the best general display of vegetables, silver 
medal, or $3, Mr. Angus, for tiiirty-two varieties. 

The vegetable committee consisted of Messrs. John Fick, Joseph Cudlipp, 
and David Clark. 
39 



306 THE FLOfllST AND 



PLANTS IN POTS. 

Hothouse Plants — For the best four specimens of hothouse plants in 
bloom, silver cup, or $10, Mr. Thomas Duncan, gr. to F. J. Wolsey, As- 
toria. 

For the second best, silver merlal, or $5, Mr. Louis Menand, Albany. 

For the best single specimen of a hothouse plant in bloom, bronze medal,- 
or $3, Isaac Buchanan, Astoria. 

For the second best, diploma, or $2, Alexander Gordon, 

Greenhouse Plants — For the best four specimens of greenhouse plants, 
in bloom, silver cup, or $10, L. Menand. 

For the second best, silver medal, or $5, J. Buchanan. 

For the best single specimen of a greenhouse plant, in bloom, bronz» 
uaedal, or $3, L. Menand. 

For the second best, diploma, or $2, J. Buchanan. 

AcHlMENES — For the best three specimens in bloom, bronze medal, of 
$3, Martin Collopy, gardener to J. H. Prentice, Brooklyn Heights. 

For the second best, diploma, or $2, A. Gordon. 

Conifers — For the best collection of conifera3, in pots, silver medal, or 
$5, Thomas Hogg & Son, Yorkville. 

For the second best, bronze medal, or $3, Thomas Richardson, Rockland, 
"West Farms. 

Special premium for collection of plants, $8, Adolf Schutz, gr. to Mr. 
Munn, Motthaven. 

Do. for Cactus, $2, Thomas Richardson, Rockland. 

Do. for Ericas, to L. Menand. 

Bouquets, Baskets, etc. — For the best pair of hand bouquets, composed 
of flowers promiscuously arranged, bronze medal, or $3, Mr. Buchanan. 

For the second best, diploma, or $2, John T. Mahon, Broadway. 

For the best parlor bouquet, bronze medal, or $3, Mrs. Archibald Hen- 
derson, Brooklyn. 

For the second best, diploma, or $2, John Cranstown, Hoboken. 

For the best basket of flowers, not to exceed 15 by 12 inches, bronze 
medal, or $3, George Hamlyn, Yellowhook. 

For the second best, diploma, or $2, Mr. Gabrielsen. 

For the bestbas,ket of wild flowers, bronze medal, or $3, Mr. John Crans- 
town. 

CUT FLOWERS. * 

Roses — Discretionary premium for design — Adolf Schulz. 

For the best twelve named varieties, bronze medal, or $3, Matteo Donaldi, 
Astoria. 

For the second best, diploma, or ^3, Chas. More. 

Dahlias — For the best twelve named self colored dahlias, bronze medal, 
or $B, James Weir, Gowanus. 

For the best twelve named fancy dahlias, bronze medal, or $3, same. 

Verbenas — For the best twelve named varieties, bronze medal, or $3, 

Martin Collopy. 

For the second best, diploma, or $2, James Weir. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 307 



Phloxes — For the best six, bronze medal, or $2, J. B. Lenoir, Broad- 
way. 

Discretionary premium for beautiful seedling Petunia, $8, Adolf Schulz. 

The flower committee consisted of Messrs. J. E. R<iuch, 'j.'hos, Diinlap, 
and Andrew Fruzer. 



PEN>[3YLVANrA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The Stated Meeting of the Society was held September 20th, 1853. 
Dr. W. D. Brinckle, Vice President in the chair. 

The Committee of Finance reported, that they had examined the Treas- 
urer's semi-annual statement and found the same correct. 

AD INTERIM REPORT 

OF THE FRUIT COiMMITTEE FOR SEPTEMBER, 1853. 

Philadelphia, September 20th, 1863. 
To the President Penna. Hort. Society : — 

The Fruit Committee respectfully Report, that since the August meeting 
of the Society, se^feral interesting collections of Fruits from various locali- 
ties have been presented for their examination : 

From Paschal Morris, of Westchester : — Two specimens of a Pear, from 
ahold farmer near Westchester. Size above medium, two and thirteen-six- 
teenths inches long, by 2i broad ; obtuse pyriform ; greenish yellow, with 
some russet markings especially at the insertion of the stem, and a faint 
B.ilmon cheek ; stem 1 inch by one-sixth, inserted somewhat obliquely in a 
small superficial cavity, russeted, and slightly plaited ; calyx in a shallo\T 
basin, sometimes russeted ; seed rather large, dark, flat ; flesh of fine tex- 
ture, buttery, melting; a little more flavor would be desirable; quality at 
least '■'■good." 

From Amos L. Wifman, North Co vent}', Chester County, Pa. — Three 
varieties of Seedling Plums. 

1. Fruit an inch and a half long, by one and a half broad ; obtuse cor- 
date, suture indistinct; red with a white hloom ; stem five-eighths to three- 
fourths of an inch long, by one-twelfth thick, inserted in an open, moder- 
ately deep depression ; flesh una<lheient to the stone, of pleasant flavor, and 
"^ooti" quality. This variety appears to be wonderfully productive; a 
twig three inches long by one-sixth thick, contained eight Plums — another 
two inches long by one-fourth thick, contained seven. 

2. Fruit an inch and a half long, by one five-sixteenths: obovate ; pur- 
ple, covered with blue bloom ; stem eleven-sixteenth by oue-sixteenth ; qual- 
ity inferior except for culinary purposes. 

3. Only one specimen — large, one three-fourths by one and eleven-six- 
teenths inches; roundish obovate; greenish yellow, mottled and dotted with 
white ; suture broad, extending on one side from the base to the apex ; stem 
three fourths by one-twelfth inserted in a slight depression ; stone partially 
adherent. The specimen being pulled somewhat prcuiaiiirely, a correct es- 
timate of its merits could not be form« 1. We are, however, inclined to 



308 THE FLORIST AND 



think favorably of it, and should be happy to see specimens of it next sear 
son. 

From Thomas Hancock, Burlington, N. J. — Three boxes containing gpe- 
cimens of a Plum, and thirty-seven varieties of Pears : 

1. Drnp d' Or d' Esperin — a small, round, golden yellow Plum, with oc-; 
casionally a few crimson dots; stone unadherent, quality '■'■very good." 

2. Cabot — specimens too much decayed to judge of its quality. 

3. St. Gkislain — in good condition, "very good." 

4. Cumberland — of fine size, but in quality "scarcely good." 

5. Muscadine — ^'■good." 

6. Beurre Gobault — '-good." 

7. Dillen or Doyenne Dillen — of large size and fine appearance, similar 
in form to the Hosen Schenck ; three and three-eighths inches long, by 
three and one-fourth broad ; round, obovate; greenish yellow, with spots 
and splashes of green russet ; stem from three-fourths to 1 inch long, by 
one-fifth of an inch thick, rather fleshy at its insertion ; little or no cavity ; 
calyx open, set in a wide, shallow, sometimes russeted basin ; seed ovate, 
brown, medium ; flesh buttery, flavor pleasant, quality '■'■very good." In the 
London Horticultural Society's Catalogue, and in Downing's Fruit and 
Fruit Trees of America, Dillen is given as a synonym of Beurre Diel. 
We regard it, however, as a distinct variety, ripening earlier than the 
latter. 

8. Washington — a favorite fear with us, attractive in appearance, and 
of '■'■very good" quality. 

9. Copia — a very large, handsome, Pennsylvania variety, of "^ooc^" qual- 
ity when eaten at the exact inoment of its maturity 

10. Great Citron of Bohemia — scarcely worth cultivating, 

11. Golden Beurre of Bilboa — fair, and '■'•very good." 

12. Urbaniste—"Best." 

13. Heathcot — ^h'ery good." 

14. Belle et Bonne — '■'good." 

15. Marie Louise^ — specimens not being fine, the quality was only 
"good." 

16. Onondag-a — inferior specimens, quality only ''good." 

17. Capshenf—"good." 

18. A Seedling from the SecJcel — originated with Mr. Wm. W. King, of 
Burlington, N. J. Small ; roundish-obovate ; uniform yellow russet ; stem 
five-eighths of an inch long, by one-eighth thick, fleshy at insertion ; no cav- 
ity ; calyx ne^,rly closed, spt in a superficial basin ; quality inferior to the 
Seckel. 

19. Beurre d'Anjou — "best." 

20. Adele de St. Denis — a new Belgian variety; quality "good." 

21. Fondante d' Automne — high flavored and delicious; quality "best." 
This variety has recently been extensively imported under the name of Seig- 
neur d'Esperin. 

22. Bon Gretien Fondante — "very good." 

23. Fulton— "good." 

24. Super Fondante — specimens small ; "good." 

25. Gendesheim — scarcely "good." 

2.6, Valle Franche — quality indifferent. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 309 



27. Napoleon d'Hiver d'Esperin — decayed. 

28. Sullivan — scarcely '■'■good." 

The follotving ten kinds were rot in eating condition; Althorpe Crassane, 
JSuffum, Flemish Beauty^ Colmar Neil, Jean de Witte, Beurre Diel, Beze 
de la Mottey Josephine, Figue de Naples. 

From Samuel Ott, Two varieties of Pears and fine specimens of 

a Plum. 

1. Bartlett, large, handsome, '■'■very good." 

2. Lodfje, specime ns remarkably fine, 3J inches long by 3 broad, posses- 
sing the rich, vinous flavor of the Brown Beurre, quality '■'■very good." 

3. A large Red Plum, If inches long by If broad; oblong; light red; 
suture extending on one side from the base to the apex ; stem three quartars 
of an inch long by one-twentieth thick; flesh partially adherent to the 
stone ; quality '■'■very good." 

From Robert Buist — specimens of two pears and one apple. 

1. A supposed seedling Pear, bearing some resemblance in form and 
flavor to Henry 4th — rather small, two and one-eighth inches long by one 
and one-eighth broad ; obovate pyriform; yellowish green with large green 
russet spots and blotches, and a brownish red cheek , stem broken — fleshy 
at its termination, inserted without depression : calyx closed, set in a shal- 
low, furrowed basin ; seed small, black — flesh melting, buttery, of fine tex- 
ture — flavor vinous — quality '■'•very good." 

2. Doyenne Robin — rather large, two and a half inches by two and three 
quarters round, bergamot shaped — greenish, covered with russet dots and 
splashes — stem usually very long and thick, from one and a quarter to two 
inches long by one-sixth thick, inserted in a deep, narrow cavity — calyx 
small, set in a narrow, moderately deep basin — seed large, black — flesh 
melting, somewhat granular — flavor pleasant — quality '■'■very good." 

3. Fair Maid Apple — the only specimen on the tree ; rather large, 
roundish-oblate, inclining to conical, beautifully and delicately striped with 
carmine, flavor sub-acid — quality inferior. 

From Wm. G. Waring, Boalsburg, Centre County — A box of fruit con- 
taining specimens of 15 varieties — 3 of pears, 4 of apples, and 8 of plums. 

1 The Julienne — Mr. Waring says his variety was introduced into Cen- 
tre county from Germany, as the Summer Boncretien. The specimens were 
very fine and quality '■^very good." 

2. Summer Bon Cretien, cultivated at Boalsburg under the names of 
Sugar and Honey pear , flavor very saccharine, but of inferior quality. 

3. Dearborn's Seedling — very handsome specimens, and of "t/ery good" 
quality. 

4. The Sink Apple. Mr. Waring informs us that this native red apple 
"originated on the farm of the Hon. Geo. Boal, of Boalsburg. The origi- 
nal tree, which is now dead, stood over a cavern into which a stream emptied 
— hence the name. It was famous for its constant and abundant yield of 
fruit, which was in great demand for cooking, and continued in use from 
July to October." Specimens, when received, were entirely decayed. 

5. The Sumyner Bell Flower — considered, in Centre County, a superior 
early baking apple, and in season the last of July and August, — also en- 
tirely decayed when the box was opened. 



310 THE FLORIST AND 



6. The Royal Sweet — a large "good" sweet apple, which is apt to fall 
from the tree. 

7. The Bush — a native apple on the farm of Mr. Christian Dale, near 
Boalsburg, and found' growing in the woods by his father. Mr. Waring 
says this variety is "an excellent bearer, and a great favorite in an orchard 
of choice sorts." Size two and three-quarters by three inches; oblate, in- 
clining to conical — greenish yellow, with many russet dots near the crown, 
and occasionally a faint blush — stem seven-eighths of an inch by one-ninth, 
inserted in a deep, open, furrowed cavity — calyx very small, set in a deep, 
narrow, plaited basin, seed brown, broad, short : flavor pleasant — quality 
'■'■very good." 

8. Early Yelloio Prwwe-^said to have been obtained from Bedford coun- 
ty, many years ago, and is represented as being "a free grower, prodigious 
bearer, and not apt to roi."- Size one and five-eighths by one and one- 
quarter — oval, pointed at each end-stem five-eighths of an inch long, by 
one-twentieth thick — flesh free from the stone, flavor delicious — quality 
"■very good." 

9. Red Prune — also introduced into Centre county from Bedford. This 
variety was sent on a former occasion from Lancaster, under the name of 
"Bottle Plum." Two inches long, by one and one-eighth broad — pyriform, 
with a long slender neck — suture extending on one side from the base to 
the apex — pale red; stem one inch long by one-sixteenth thick — handsome 
Plum of peculiar form and '■'■good" quality — but said to oe an indifferent 
bearer. 

10. Imperial Gage — Mr. Waring remarks of this variety, that "the tree 
is very free from leaf blight, and the fruit from rot, hanging long, shrivel- 
ling, and becoming very sugary." Specimens fine, quality ^^very good." 

11. A very large, late purple Plum, resevihling Duatie's Purple, and 
said to be "a very excellent grower, a full bearei', und not inclined to rot." 
very large, two inches long by one and thirteen-sixteenths broad ; oblong — 
purple — stem three-quarters of an inch long by one-twelfth thick — flesh 
free from the stone. Specimens not suificiently ripe to test their quality. 

12. The G-alhrailh — an early Plum, said to have originated with the late 
Mr. Galbraith, near Boalsburg, and is represented as being a straggling 
grower, but the best early plum cultivated in that vicinity. An inch and a 
half long by one and five-sixteenths broad — oval, purple, — stem five-aighths 
of an inch by one-fourteenth — flesh tender, juicy, adherent to the stone ; fla- 
vor luscious, quality "i>er«/ good" if not '■'best." 

13. Prune Damson Plum — One and a half inches long, one and three- 
sixteenths wide, one and one-sixteenth thick ; flattened oval, blue, stem one 
and a half inches long by one eighteenth thick; flesh rather dry, entirely free 
from the stone; flavor agreeable, quality '•'■good." 

14. Coes Golden Drop — received from England for the Magnum Bonum; 
specimens large and fair, but not mature. 

15. A variety cultivated in the neighborhood of Boalsburg as the Peach 
Pluni — from which it difl'ers in several particulars. Large, one and three- 
quarters inches by one and nine-sixteenths ; oblong ; salmon colored ; stem 
three-eighths of an inch by one-fourteenth; stone adherent, long-obovate, one 
and one-sixteenth inches long, five-eighths wide, and seven-sixteenths thick; 
of pleasant flavor; quality between "good" and ''vcrg good." 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 311 



From TJiomas M. Harvey, JennerviUe, near Wentchester, Pa. 

The Beurre Oudinot — One of the very new French Pears, imported by 
Mr. Harvey in 1851, and probably named in honor of Marshal Oudinot, 
Duke of Reggio. Size very large, three and three-eighths inches long by 
two and three-fourths broad ; pyriform ; yellowish green, with a brownish 
cheek; sterti one inch long by one-fifth thick, curved, inserted somewhat ob-^ 
liquely with little or no depression; calyx of medium size, set in a wide, shal- 
low basin ; seed of a pale cinnamon color, long, acuminate, flesh of rather 
fine te.xture, juicy, flavor pleasant, quality '■'very good." 

From Isaac B. Baxter, three varieties of Pears and the Jane Peach. 

1. The Bartlctt — One specimen of immense size, measuring three and f 
inches long by the same breadth, and weighing twelve ounces. 

2. The Kingsesmig — Specimens from a tree double worked on quincey 
large and fine, measuring three inches by three and one-eighth, and weighing 
eight ounces. When grown on quince the fruit is larger, broader, and more 
fair than that grown on pear stock; quality '"best." 

3. The Washington. Specimens remarkable for size and beauty; quality 
"very good." 

4. The Jane Peach (Ba,x.ter, No. 1.) Very large and of delicious flavor; 
quality "very good." 

From Charles Kessler, of Reading, a box of fruit containing a Seedling 
Plum, a Peach, an Apple and six varieties of Pears. 

1. Seedling Plum — An inch and five-eighths long by one and five-six- 
teenths broad, obovate, light red, suture extending on one side from the base 
to the apex; stem three-fourths of an inch long, one-eighteenth thick ; stone 
partially adherent, flavor sweet and pleasant, quality '■'good." 

2. Peach, grown by Mr. Lott. Large, three inches long by three and 
one-eighth broad; roundish, dark red on a greenish-white ground; suture dis- 
tinct, extending more than half round; cavity moderately deep, flesh white, 
red around the stone, juicy, unadherent, delightful flavor; quality "I'ery 
good" if not '■'■best." 

3. Apple — small, two inches by two and a half, roundish oblate, inclining 
to conical; fair yellow, with occasionally a faint blush on the side exposed to 
the sun; stem three-Fourths of an inch long by one-twelfth thick, inserted in 
a deep, open cavity, russeted in rays; calyx closed, segments very long, set 
in a medium sized basin, which is sometimes slightly plaited; flesh yellowish 
white, tender; flavor sprightly, quality -'good." 

4. Itushmore's Boncretien, grown by Mr> Wunder — very large and beaa- 
tiful; quality scarcely "good." 

5. Bartlctt — specimens large and handsome. 

6. The Washington — .specimens quite large and exceedingly beautiful. 

7. White Doyenne — specimens much fairer and finer than those usually 
grown in the country. 

8. A Pear resembling the Cushing — two and a half inches long by the 
same in breadth; round obovate, fair yellow, stem three-fourths of an inch 
by one-seventh, inserted in a very narrow cavity ; calyx open, set in a shal- 
low basin; seed rather large, brown, plump, wiih an angle at the blunt end; 
flesh ot fine texture, buttery, melting, fine vinous flavor, quality, " very 
good." 

9. A Pear having some resemblance to the Chinese Stone Pear. Spcci- 
Biens n»t in eating order. 



312 *rHE FLORIST AND 



From SamuelJones. The Hanover Pear, from Hanover Furnace, N. J; 
These were the finest specimens of this variety that we have yet seen; some 
of them measuring nearly three inches long by two and five-eighths broad. 
In size it is usually rather small; round obovate, green, with dull green rus- 
set markings, and a brown cheek; stem one inch by one-ninth, inserted in a 
shallow cavity usually angular ; calyx open, set in a plaited sometimes fur- 
rowed, irregular basin; seed large, plump, acuminate, flesh greenish yellow,- 
exceedingly melting and juicy; flavor pleasant, quality '■'■good." 

From Dr. J. K. Fshleman. A box containing fine specimens of twelve 
varieties of Pears, including the Diller. The four following kinds were not 
in eating condition : Catinka, Thompson, 3fexican and Doyenne Boussock: 
The variety bought for the Louise Bonne de Jersey is not true, and is 1)To- 
ha,h] J Capiaumont. Barrlett, &ne specimens oi ^^very good" quality. Dun- 
more, "good." St. Crhislain, "very good." Fondante de Malines, "very 
good." The Duke de Bordeaux is the same as Dmnas, Epine Dumas, and 
Belle Epine Dumas; quality "good." Hewes scarcely " good" specimens 
very small. The Diller — size below medium ; roundish ovate, with one of 
more of the longitudinal depressions or sutures seen in Dearborn's Seedling; 
skin cinnamon russet; stem an inch to an inch and a half long by one-seventh 
thick, inserted by fleshy rings without depressions; calyx open, set in a shal- 
low, rather wide basin; seed small, dark, with an angle at the blunt extremi- 
ty; flesh somewhat granular, buttery, possessing a fine perfumed flavor; qual- 
ity "very good." Period of maturity last of August. 

From W. S. Cleavinger, of "West Philadelphia. Large and fine specimens 
of the Bartlett, from his own garden, and the noble Susquehanna Peach 
from Harrisburg, its original locality. The Susquehanna is a peach of the 
largest size, abounding in juice of a most delicious flavor. Quality "best." 

From Caleb Cope. Beautiful specimens of the Flruge and. Vermash Nec- 
tarines, remarkably fine in appearance as well as in quality. 

From Dr. Arrott of this city. A Seedling Grape — size medium ; round ; 
greenish-white, bunches small, flesh pulpy, odor peculiar, flavor pleasant, 
tjuality good, leaf trilobed. 

From Gerhard Schmitz. A Seedling Grape — large, oval, purple, bunches 
loose large; resembles the Isabella in appearance and flavor, quite equal to 
it in quality, and perhaps a little earlier. 

From Charles Jones, through Mr. Alan W. Corson, Montgomery County. 
Large and fine looking specimens of the Vandiver Apple, not ripe. 

From Isaac Garretson, through the same. Handsome specimens of a 
small, pleasant, half-breaking Pear, grown on the premises of Mrs. Rachel 
Maulsby, which we regard as the Gros Rousselet, and which, by the London 
Hort. Soc. is deemed unworthy of cultivation. 

From Samuel Quern, steward of the Girard College, remarkable fine spe- 
cimens of the Seckel Fear, grown on the College premises. 

From Mrs. J. B. Smith, two varieties of Pears. 

1. The Moyamensing. The fruit of this variety remains only a short 
time in perfection ; but this defect is compensated by its ripening in succes- 
sion for a considerable period. When eaten at the exact moment of its ma- 
turity, the flavor is delicious, and the quality " best." 

2. Poire d' Aboiidance. This little pear is always beautiful, and a most 
abuadant bearer; quality sometimes "good," occasionally "very good," very 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 313 



often indifferent. In the " Fruit and Fruit Trees of America," D'Abond- 
ance, D'Amoia; and Ah Mon Dieu, are considered one and tlie same Pear. 
In appropriating tliese names to a single variety, Mr. Downing followed, and 
■NVas misled by the catalogue of the London Hort. Soc. But so far from be- 
ing identical, Poire d'Amour and Poire d'Abondalice are two entirely dis- 
tinct varieties, differing essentially in size, form, color, and period of maturi- 
ty. The fruit of the former is very large, while that of the latter is small. 
The error of considering them identical probably arose altogether from the 
fact that the name. Ah Mon Dieu, was an acknowledged synonym of both. 

It is stated, however, on the authority of a distinguished French pomolo- 
gist, that this appellation was given to each for a very different reason — to 
one, in consequence of its beauty and productiveness — to the other, on ac- 
count of its enormous size. 

From Wm. Canhy, Wilmington, Delaware, a Seedling Grape. Bunch 
four and a half inches long by two and three quarters broad, so compact as 
frequently to destroy the rotundity of the berry. Berry from seven-six- 
teenths to nine-sixteenths of an inch in diameter; roundish, inclining to oval; 
skin of a violet color, thickly covered with bloom, and semi-diaphanous; seed 
small, dark cinnamon; flesh tender, very juicy, not pulpy, flavor sweet and 
pleasant; quality "best" for a grape that will grow in open culture; leaf tri- 
lobed but not deeply, interruptedly serrulate, auriculate. 

On motion, Resolved, that the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society hereby 
offer a premium of one hundred dollars for an efi'ectual and economical rem- 
edy, which shall prove satisfactory to the Society, against the ravages of 
the Curculio. 

3Iemhers elected. — B. A. Mitchell, AYilliam B. Goddard, and Robert L< 
Rutter. 

T. P. James, Rcc. Sec; 
♦♦ 

MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The Twenty-fifth Annual Exhibition of the Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society was held iu Boston, on the three days 21st, 22iid, and 23rd of Sep- 
tember. 

The daily papers, for which we are indebted to the kindness of Thomas 
P. James, Esq., jirouounco the exhibition to have been extremely attrac- 
tive. 

The plants shown were numerous, the designs and bouquets tasteful. The 
greenhouses and gardens of Messrs. llovey & Co., Evers & Bock, James 
Nugent, Azell Bowditch, Thomas Page, J. S. Gushing, Winship & Co., and 
M. P. Wilder were represented. 

The Fruit, as is usual in Boston, was vei'v fine and in great quantities—^ 
the Hon. Marshall P. Wilder contributing between 300 and 400 varieties of 
Pears. 

We annex a list of the premiums awarded : 

Pears — For the greatest number and beat grown, Ilovey k Co., first 
premium, $40 00 

M. P. Wilder, Rpcoml premium, 20 00 

Best twelve varieties — First premium to W. R. Austin, 20 00 

Second premium to Josiah Richardson, 15 00 

40 



12 


00 


8 


00 


6 


GO 


5 


00 


4 


00 


3 


00 


B 


OTV- 


10 


00 


7 


00 


10 


00 


7 


00 



514 THE FLOJRIST AND 



Third premium to Josiah Stickney, $ 

Fourth premium to Hovej & Co., 
Best dish — First premium to Josiah Richardson, 
Second premium to Chas. M. BrocI<et, 
Third premium to Samu-el Dnwner, Jr., 
Fourth premium to Samuel Walker, 

For the best collection — Gratuity of ten dollars to ^nnniel Walker. 
Assorted fruits — For the best basket, first premium to Azell 
ditch, $ 

Second premium to Samuel Walker, 
Best design — tirst premium to W. C. Strong, 
Second premium to John Hill, 
Apples — Best 12 varieties of 12 specimens each, to Mrs, Burr, the So- 
ciety's Plate, value, $20 00 
Second prize to Josiah Lovett, 15 00 
Tliird prize to A. D. Williams, 12 00 
Fourth prize to B. V. French, 8 00 
For the best dish of 12 specimens of one variety, first premium to Jo- 
siah Stickney, (for Gravenstein,) $8 00 
Second prize to M. H. Simpson, (for twenty-ounce pippins,) 5 00 
Third prize to H. Vandine, (for Porters,) 4 00 
Fourth prize to George Everett, (for Baldwins,) 3 00 
For handsome varieties, to John Gordon, gratuity of six dollars. 
• Grapes — For the best 5 varieties, 2 bunches each. 

First premium to Mrs. F. DurfFee, Fall River, $12 00 

Second premium to W. C. Strong, 8 00 

Third premium to Breck & Son, 5 00 

For the best 2 varieties, 2 bunches each. 

First premium to Nathan Stetson, 6 00 

Second premium to B. D. Emerson, 4 00 

Third premium to Dr. Durfee, 2 00 

Gratuities— 'Vo R. i^I. Copeland, 2 dollars; J. M. Fessenden, 5 dollars; 
M. C. Poore, 2 dollars ; Thos. Waterman, 5 dollars. 

Vegetables — For the' best display and greatest variety — first premium to 
J. B. Moore, $10 00 

Second best to Chas. Stone, 8 00 

Third best to A. D. Williams, 6 00 

Fourth best to B. V. French, 4 00 

For best mammoth squashes, silver medal to Jas. Dunn ; second, 3 dollars 
to A. W. Stetson. 

Collection of Squashes— To A. W. Stetson, the Society's silver medal. 
For fine collection — First premiums to Hyde & Son, $5 00 

Second premium to Henry Bradley, 3 00 

Third premium to B. Harrington, 2 00 

Fgg Plants— Best to B. V. French, 1 dollar; Parker Barnes, 1 00 

Lima Beans— To J. B. Moore, 2 00 

For fine collection— C. S. Holbrook, 3 00 

For Tomatoes — To Nahum Stetson, 1 00 

Fine collection — To Jas. Nugent, 5 00 

" " Mrs. Burr, • 5 00 

" Stone & Co., 1 00 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 315 



Fine collection. — Josiali Stickney, $3 00 

A. D. Webber, 4 00 

For Pumpkins — First premium to Thos. Page, 1 00 

Fur Potatoes — To C. A. Hewins, 1 dollar; J. B. Moore, 1 00 

Large Pumpkins — To A. VV. Stetson, silver medal; and for two extra 

Cuba squashes, §3 00 

For Squashes — Hyde & Son, $1. 

•To Charles VV. Stone, for black Spanish Melons, $i<. 

Flowers. Vase Bouquets — For trie best pair suitable for the Bradlee Vases, 
to Hovey & Co., the Bradlee Plate, value, $J0. 
Second best, Winship & Co., ®6. 

For the best pair of bouquets for the Society's Vases, to Jas, Nugent, $|0. 
Gratuity, to Evers & Bock, $5. 

Parlor Bouquets — Best round, for parlors, to Hovey & Co., first premium, $8 ; 
James Nugent, second do., .§6; M. P. Wilder, third do., $5; Evers & Bock, 
fourth do., "Ji-i. 

Cut Flowers — For the best display, Thomas Page, $8. 
iSecond best, to Winship & Co., $11. 
Third best, to P. Barnes, $4. 

For Plants — Eor the best display of not less than 20 pots, to J. P. Cushing,$12. 
Second best, to Azell Bowdiich, $10. 
Third best, to Thos. Page, $8. 
Fourth best, to Hovey & Co., $5. . 

Cockscombs — For the best 6 pots, J. P. Gushing, first premim of $3. 
Second best, to Evers & Bock, $2. 
To James Nugent, a gratuity of $2. 

Gratuities. On Bouquets — To Winship & Co., $2; Thomas Page, $2; B. B. 
Mussey,'.$2; VV. E. Carter, .•{)2. 

For Wreaths — To Miss Mary Fisher, JljE. M. Howard, for Verbena, $2; N. 
R. Preston, for Fig-Tree, $i. 

For Cut Flowers— Jas. Nugent, $3; Hovey & Co., $2, Messrs. Burr, $3; Mr». 
John Heard, for Caladium odorum, $1. 

To C. Griffith, for two cockscombs and bouquet, $1. 

To Dennis Murray, for native flowers, .^3, and dried specimens of ferns, !}i.5. 
For Pot Plants — Gratuities: to Winship <5i Co., Jji.o; M. P. Wilder, $5; James 
Nugent, .$;'); Evers & Bock, $5. 

For Designs. Gratuities — To Miss Russel (for a floral temple), $3; and (for a 
floral basket), $2. 

To B. B. Mussey, for a basket, $2. 

To Azell Bowditch, for a floral design, $10. 

To Mrs. E. Storey, for a basket, $2. 

To .Messrs. Burr, for a grass vase and rornucopise, $5. 

To Miss M. A Kendrick, for a floral basket, *2. 

To Mrs. Wm. Kendrick, for a floral screen. >}i3. 

To C. S. Holl)rook, for a bouquet design, ^2. 

Dahlias. For the premier prize, no competition. 

For the best specimen blossom to las. Hyde & Son, S3. 

For the best tipped, to .Messrs. Burr, .$1. 

" scarlet, to James Hyde lii Son, $1. 

" striped, " ;Jil. 

" blush, " SI. 

" dark tipped, " .•Jjl. 

« red, to Azell Bowditch, $1. 

♦' scarlet, to Jas. Nugi^nt, -tl. 



$16 THE FLORIST AND 



For the best maroon lipped, to.Tqs Nugent, $1. 

For the best twenty-four dissimibr blooms, to Messrs. Hovey & Co., $7. 

Second best to I'aiker Barnes, $5. 

For the best eighteen dissimilar blooms to Jas. Hyde & Son, $6. 

Second best to Jas. Nugent, $4. 

porthe best twelve dissimilar blooms, to Hovey & Co., $5. 

Second best, to Azell Bowditch, $3. 



PENNSYLVANIA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The twenty-fifth Annual exhibition of this Society, was held in the Chi- 
nese Museum, on Wednesday, Thursday and Friday, the 21st, 22d and 2Sd 
of September. 

The display of plants and flpwers was as usual varied and interesting : no 
■where are to be seen rarer plants, or more beautiful flowers. The lower 
fialoon, which was used for this part of the display, was arranged as usual 
■with rows of tables, on which were shown contributions from the -various 
collections of our amateurs and nurserymen, the collections of plants and 
cut flowers for premiums. For the first premium were shown three collec- 
^iof]s by amateurs, and two by nurserymen. Among the plant.s worthy ot 
note were the Cissus discolor, and the Dictyanthus Pavonii, in the collection 
of J. F. Knorr; the Brownea grandiceps in that of F. Lennig; the Ne- 
penthes Rafllesiana belonging to James l)undas ; the flowers and leaves of 
Nelumbium speciosum, and Saccolabium Blumei major and Peristerk, from 
Mr. Cope, and Cattleya bicolor from Mr. Buist. 

The upper saloon was tastefully ornamented with wreaths of Laurel and 
Hemlock boughs: a great improvement on former years. The display of 
fruits, especially of grapes, which were arranged around a rustic temple at 
the west end of the room, was very good. The Vegetables, which occupied 
the eastern half of the room, divided from the fruits by a pavilion decorated 
with evergreens and plants, were as usual in great profusion. The number 
of visitors was almost a third larger than for some years previous ; and taken 
altogether the exhibition was one of the most successful we ever had. 

The designs were — a large fountain from Mr. Raabe ; a sumraerhouse 
from Mr. Copk, and a design of cottage and garden from Robert Egee. 

Premiums Aivarded for Plants and Cut-flowers. 

For the best collection of 2Q plants in pots, $15, to Jerome Graff, gard- 
ener to J. F. Knorr. For 

Nierembergia grandiflora, Allamanda cathartica, 

A. Aubletia, A. grandiflora, Cissus discolor, 

Veronica Andersonii, Clerodendron squamatum, 

Dictyanthus Pavonii, Lycopodium coesium arhoreum, 

Geranium Tom Thumb, Ipomcea ficifolia, 

Ipomoea sp., Pharbitis limbata, 

Schubertia graveolens, Nepenthes distillatoria, 

Begonia fuchsioides, B. manicata, 

Abelia rupestris, Tabernoemontfina longiflora, 

Beaumontia grandiflora. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 317 



For the best collection of 20 plants, to a commercial grower, $15, to 

Thomas Farley, foreman to R. Buist. For 

Veronica Andersonii, Ceropegia elegans, 

Catharanthus albus, Angelonia Gardnerii, 

Fuchsia Mazcppa, Chamcerops Borbonica, 

F. Gem of the season, Medinilla magnifica, 

F. Confidence, M. erythrophylla, 

Stigmaphyllon ciliatum, Ageratum coelestinum, 

Plumbago capensis Pentas carnea, 

Clerodendron squamatum, Epacris Copelandii, 

0. speciosissimum, Cyrtanthera magnifica, 

Ixora coccinea, Dracoena ferrea. 

Dahlias — For the best 24 blooms, a silver medal to R. Buist. 
For the best American seedling, self colored, to G. Schmitz, 2 00. 

For the best parti-colored, 2 00. 

Roses — For the best 12 named varieties, by a commercial grower, 3 00, 
to John Sherwood. 

For the second best, to R. Buist, 2 00. 

ToRENiA AsiATiCA — Best specimen, to T. Meehan, gardener to Caleb 
Cope, 1 00. 

Pentas Carxea — To R. Buist's gardener, 1 00. 

Gloxinias — Best collection to T. Robertson, gardener to Harry Ingersoll. 

Veronica — Best specimen to F. Lennig's gardener. 

RcsSELiA Juncea — Best specimens to Peter Raabe. 

Manettia Glabra — Do. do. do. do. second best to Gen. 

Patterson's gardener. 

HoYA Carnosa — Best specimen to Thos. Meehan. 

Verbenas — Best six varieties to R. Buist's gardener ; 2d best to Thos, 
Meehan, C. Cope's gardener. 

Ferns — Best collection to James Bisset, gardener to James Dundas. 

AcaiMENES — Best collection to Harry IngersoU's gardener ; 2d do to D, 
Rodney King's gardener. 

Orchids — Best collection to Thos. Meehan, gardener to C. Cope; 2d best 
do to T. Farley, to R. Buist. 

Special Premiums. 

Five dol. to Jas.Dundas' gardener for Allamanda Cathartica ; 5 00 to C. 
Cope's gardener, for Nelumbium speciosum; 3 00 to 11. Pratt McKean's 
gardener, for Agave geminiflora; 3 00 to James Dundas, for Torenia Asi- 
atica. 

Design formed of cut flowers, etc — Xot to exceed six feet square at the 

base : 

For the best and most appropriate — to Peter Raabe • - §30 00 

For the 2d best " do to Joseph Cook - - 20 00 

For the 3d best do to Robert Egee - - 10 00 

Bouquet of Design — Suitable for an ornament to the table: 

For the best and most approved — to J. Kmnier, gr. to John. Dunlap, 

Silver Me4al 



318 THE FLORIST AND 



For the 2d best do to err. to R. Cornelius - $5 00 

For the 3d best do to Robert Egee - - 4 00 

For the best formed of grasses to Miss Webb, Wilmington, Del. 5 00 

For the 2d best do to N. A. Koe - - 3 00 

For the best of indigenous flowers, to Thos. Meehan gr. to C. Cope 3 00 

For the 2d best do to Jno. Mcintosh - - 2 00 

For the best basket of flowers, to Thos. Meehan, gr. to C. Cope 5 00 

For the 2d best do to Benj. GuUiss - - - 3 00 

For the 2d best do to Robt. Kilvington - - 2 00 

Special Premiums. — Verbenas. 

Five dollars to Peter Raabe, for a design of growing — two dollars each to D 
Rodney King, for a basket of indigenous flowers, and to Isaac GoUins, gr. to Gen. 
Patterson, for a neat design — and one dollar each, to Andrew Dryburgh for a 
bouquet; to Peter Raabe, for a basket ; to Thos. Meehan, for a small design ; 
to D. Rodney King, for a small design ; and to Joseph Gross, gr. to H. A. Dreer, 
for a bouquet. 

Q-RAPES (Jfative). — Forthe best named collection — to T. Hilliard. Silver Medal. 

For the 2d best do to Isaac B. Baxter $3 00 

For the best six bunches, Isabella — to E. Smith, gr. to K. Wain 2 00 

For the 2d best do do to J. Bisset, gr. to Jas. Dundas 1 00 

For the best do Catawba to E. Smith, gr. to M. W aln 2 00 

For the 2d best do do to Dr. Chamberlain - - 1 00 

For the best do Elsiaborough, to Townsend Hilliard 2 00 

For the 2d best do do to Peter Raabe - - 1 00 



Grapes (J^ative). — For the best six bunches of another variety. Bland, — to 

Townsend Hilliard 2 00 

For the 2d best do do to W. Savery 1 CO 

Geapes (Foreign). — For the best named collection — to Geo. Roberts Smith 

^ Silver Medal. 

For the 2d best do to G. Lazenby, gr. to 

David S. Brown - - - - - - 3 GO 

For the best 3 bunches Hamburg, to G. Lazenby, gr, to D. S. Brown 3 00 

For the 2d best do do " to Robert Corneliu-; - - 2 00 

For the best do Chasselas to G. Lazenby, gr. to D. S. Brown 2 00 

For the 2d best do do to W. Westcott, gr. to H. Cowperthwait lOO 

?or the best do White Muscat, to G. Lazenby, gr to D. S. Brown 3 00 

■ For the 2d best do do to Hiram B. Filden - 2 00 

Forthe best do Frontignac to H. W. S. Cleveland - 3 00 

For the 2d best do to G. Lazenby, gr. to D. S. Brown 2 00 

Forthe best do of another variety, to A. J. Smith, gr. to E. Hall 3 00 

For the 2d best do do to A. J. Smith, gr. to E. Hall 2 00 

Your Committee cannot refrain from expressing their gratification at the splen- 
did display of foreign grapes, surpassing in that any other heretofore presented. 
Your Committee take great pleasure in calling the attention of the society to the 
many new varieties of seedlings from foreign grapes, especially those from the 
crarden of Peter Raabe, who is entitled to great praise for his perseverance in that 
department. And also to a delicious grape from Wilmington, which is evidently 
a variety of the Burgundy; decidedly the most delicious of the seedling kind 
ever exhibited. And your Committee would direct attention also to some re- 
markably fioe Han-steretto grapes, from the garden of Dr. W. Wright. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 319 



And closing;, recommend a special premium of two dollars each, to William 
Johns, Geo. M. Smith and John Kiley, gr. at Insane Asylum. 

Peaches — For the best one bushel, of a named variety, to Wm. D. Clark, 

Delaware City ..... Silver Medal. 

For the 2d best, one bushel, of a named variety, to J. J. Glover, Mt. 

Ephraim, N. J. - - - - - - .?4 00 

For the best, one peck, of a named variety, to S. H. Penn - 3 00 

For the best, one dozen do to"C. M. Harker, Mt. Holly 3 00 

For the 2d best do do to Sol. Gaskill, Mt. Holly 2 00 

Nectarines — For the best, one dozen do to Hiram B. Tilden, Tacony 2 00 
For the 2d best do do to T. Meehan, gr. to C. Cope 1 00 

Plums — For the best, two dozen, of a named variety, (Coe's Golden Drop) 

to Samuel Grasius, Huntingdon, Pa. $3 OXf 

For the 2d best, two dozen, of a named variety, to Benj. Hunt 2 00 

Special Premiams of one dollar each for seedling Peaches to Benj. GuUiss; to 

Benjamin Buckman, Mt. Holly, for seedling Peaches; and to Mrs. J. B. Smith, for 

English Walnuts. 

Melons — For the best three specimens, named variety, to Elisha Roberts, 
for citron, ^2 ; for 2d best do, to Thos. Meehan, for do, $1. 

Watermelons — For best three specimens, Mountain Sweet, to David 
Perre, $3 ; for second best, three specimens. Mountain Sweet, to Stacy H. 
Scott, $2 ; for best three specimens, of another variety, to T. D. Brown, for 
Spanish, §3. 

Native Pears — For the best collection, named varieties, to Thomas Han-' 
cock, silver medal ; for 2d best, Thos. Hancock, $3 ; for the best one peck 
Seckcl, to George W. Earl, $3 ; for the 2d best, to Mrs. J. B. Smith, $2 < 
for the best, si.x specimens, of another named variety, to J. B. Baxter, for 
Washington, $3 ; for 2d best do do, to A. M. Eastwick, for Petre, $2. 

Foreign Pears — For best collection, named varieties, to Mrs. J. B.- 
Smith, silver medal ; for 2d best do, to Thomas Hancock, $3; for best, one 
peck, any named variety, to J. B. Baxter, for Duchess D'Angouleme, $3 ;' 
for 2d best, one peek, to J. B. Baxter, for White Doyenne, $2; for best half 
peck, to H. W. S. Cleveland, for St Michael Archange, $2; for 3d best, doy 
to J. Vandeventer, for Louise Bonne de Jersey, $1. 

The Committee recommend that a special premium of two dollars be awarded* 
to each of the following contributors: 

R. Buist, for a fine and extensive collection. 

Jos. S. (Jabot, Salem, Mass. do 

Robert Cornelius, do 

Mrs. Liggett, f'oi a dish of remarkable fine '-Regnier." 

Mrs. Kreider, for do do White Doyenne. 

H. WetheriU, for do do do 

Mrs. J. B. Smith, for do do do 

W. H. Keichline, for do do do 

James Harrison, for do do Duchesse d'Angouleme. 

Mrs. J. B. Smith, lor do do do 

J. W. Hartmann, & Co., for do Bartlett. 

Also, a premium of one dollar to Elisha Roberts for 2 very fine specimens Of 
Citron Melons — being short in number for competition. 



S20 THE FLORIST AND 



Apples — For the best collection, J. S. Thomas, Macedon N. J; for 
second best do, Charles Kessler, Reading, Pa; for the best bushel, John 
Perkins, Moorestown, N. J ; for the second best do, John Perkins, Moores- 
town, N. J; for the best peck. John Perkins, Moorestown, N. J; for second 
best do, John Perkins, Moorestown, N. J ; for best six specimens, Charles 
Kessler, Reading, Pa. ; for second best, do John Perkins, Moorestown, N. J. 

Figs — For the best twelve specimens, Mrs. Knorr, Rising Sun. 

Quinces — For the best half peck, Samuel Hutcheson ; for the second best 
do, W. W. Keen. 

Special premiums to J. Bisset, for a fine dish of Quinces, also a special 
premium to L. Chamberlain, for a fine dish of Figs. 

They also recommend a ^special premium of a silver medal to B. V. French, 
Braintree, Mass, and to A. H. Erust, of Cincinnati, Ohio; also a premium 
of three dollars, to D. Miller, Jr., of Carlisle, Pa., for contributions, all ot which 
were received by the Society too late to come into competition, and which your 
Committee think fully deserving the awards now asked. They are also pleased 
to call the attention of the Society to two dishes of fine Apples, grown by H. B. 
Lindley, Athens, Ohio; finer specimens than any exhibited before them this year, 
which also came too late for competition. 

Potatoes — For the best, one bushel, to Thos. Yeamans - - $3 00 

For the 2d best do to David P. Caley. Delaware Co. 2 00 

For the best Sweet do to Wm. Cook, Bridgeport, N. J. 3 00 

For the 2d best do to Jesse Rambo, Gloucester Co,, N. J. 2 00 

Beets, Long. — For the best one dozen, to Jas. Jones, gr. at Girard Col. 2 00 

Round — For the best do to Albinus L. Felton - - 2 00 

Careots — For the best do to James Jones - - - 2 00 

For the 2d best do to Daniel Riley, Germahtown 1 00 

Salsify — -For the best do to James Jones - - - 2 00 

Onions — For the best, three dozen, yellow, to Jno. Riley, gr. Insane Hosp'l 2 00 

For the best, three dozen, white, to Jas. Jones - - 2 00 

The committee would call especial attention to a Basket of fine Mexican Wild 

Potatoes shewn by Jas. M. Tage, Burlington; also to another of Potatoes raised 

from Bermuda tubers by Mrs. M. Krider as possessing merit. 

Cabbage — For the finest six heads, J. Riley, gardener for G. W. Carpen- 
ter No. 282 ; for the second J. Riley, Insane Hospital, 261 ; for the best of 
another sort, Caleb Cope, 153. 

Lettuce — For the best six headSj Albanus Felton, 165 ; for the second 
Daniel Qiley, 266. 

Celery — For the best six stalks, Albanus Felton, 165 ; for the second 
W. W. Keen, West Philadelphia, 155. 

Egg Plants — For the best six, Joseph Jones, Girard College, 163 ; for 
the second, J. Campbell, gardener to J. C. Bayard, 272. 

Tomatoes — For the best peck, J. Riley, Insane Hospital, 261 • for the 
second, Albanus Felton, 185. 

Sweet Maize, for table use — For the best three dozen, Albanus Felton, 
165" for the second, Daniel Riley, Germantown, 266. 

Marrow Squashes — For the best three, Stacy H. Scott, N. J., 259. 
second best to T. D. James, Woodbury, N. J., 152. 

Pumpkins — For the best, John T. Trite, 280 ; for the second, Daniel Riley, 
Germantown, 266. 



AID IIORTICULTUEAL JOURIAL. 

Tol. n.] PMladelphia, November, 1853. [No. 11. 

VISIT TO DR. J. KIRTLAND. 

Br S. S. IIalueman. 

Dr. Kirtland is a professor in the medical college of Cleveland, and as 
one of the best naturalists of the country, was employed some years ago in 
the natural history department of the Ohio Geological Survey. Ilis resi- 
<lence is about six miles from Cleveland on the Lake shores, and during the 
sessions of the college, he returns home every evening. 

Besides liis niedical and natural history pu'-suits, he is a most successful 
. farmer and horticulturist, and has added some fine new varieties to the list 
of cherries. His grounds are kept in excellent order, and his e.tperiin'er'ita; 
are systematically conducted and under way at all times. 

Dr. K. has, I think, the best Madura hedges I have seen. He recom- 
mends them strongly, and says they are objected to by those who do not 
know how to' cultivate them. They require a good soil, well dug or ploiigh'ed, 
and will succeed in forming an impenetrable hedge if they are forced to' 
thvow out lateral shoots close to the groimd by cutting down from time to 
time to such an extent that must seem fatal to those unacquainted with the' 
hui?dy natur6 of the plant. 

I was shown several American' plants, which, strange as it may appear* 
were imported from France with' more facility and certainty thati they coiild 
have been procured here. 

In modern horticulture, much of the value of a nursery arid orchard de-' 
pends upon the accuracy with whicli the plants are named, and the judicioug* 
cultivator will prefer making his selections from a limited number of varic-' 
ties which he Can depend upon being what they are represented to be, to' 
supplying himself from much fuller catalogues of doubtful authenticity. 

As the laws which liave brought forth a particular variety contirtue to' titii 
upon it, we have no evidence of tlreir permanency by continued propagatioa 

41 



S22 THE FLORIST AND 

of the same kind. It is tlierefore, necessary for the horticulturist to make' 
experiments both to secure new varieties und to revive old ones ; and in 
such experiments it is of the greatest importance that there should be no- 
douut about the authenticity of the labelling, arising from carelessness, 
misplacement, neglect in taking notes, or want of permanency in the 
labels. 

The Jjoetor's mode of labelling involves some tromble, but he considers 
himself repaid by the certainty of his results. His mode Is to use Avooden 
labels Hjarked with branding irons, which render the name as permanent 
as the stick, and more permanent than those written with acid upon zinc. 

The mode of forming the irons is as follows : A set of bold faced print- 
ing types is selected, capitala only being used, about half an inch in the 
height of the letter. These are used as models in an iron foundry; from 
which iron types are cast, together with some spaces ; and hollow brand- 
ing irons in which to set the types forming a name. These may be fast- 
ened by a screw, or by spaces. A vertical iiandle of thick iron rises out 
of each. For the commoner varieties the types may be less in their re- 
Mpective irons, and large quantities of the finished labels may be kept on 
hand. 

Dr. K. uses bones freely placed: upon the ground around the base of such 
trees as are starved or bad bearers, and he showed me several which had 
been resuscitated by the materials afforded by the slow decomposition of the 
fertilizer. 

Although Dr. Kirtland Is advanced in years, he is in full activity, and 
enjoying a separate reputation in medicine, natural history, and horticulture, 
sufficient to make him distinguished in each, without the aid of the other 
two. 

He is now studying Insects, a subject which he commenced at a period 
■when must people would feel themselves justified in relinquishing old studies. 

In the opinion of Dr. Kirtland, the climate of northern Ohio is so well 
adapted to the culture of grapes, that the time Is not distant when it will 
rival Cincinnati in the production of this fruit and the manufacture of wine. 
Unfortunately, there is some danger that the cultivation of the vine and the 
manufacture of Its product, are destined to receive a check from the com- 
bined action of a few fanatical residents of towns, who wish to trammel the 
the great body of the agrioultural population with laws of merely a local 
application. 



HOPtTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 323 

For the Florist and Horticultural Journal. 

CURRANTS. 

With the exception of the Strawberry, there is not a small fruit 
that hold.s a more important position than the Currant. It is of the 
most hardy nature ; subject to no disease, good, better or best in all 
localities, accorliug to treatment, and even when it is cast aside and 
only visited whin its fruit is matured for the table or the market. 
In niueteen cases out of twenty it is entirely neglected, receiving 
neither pruning, manuring or culture — degenerating, as it is termed 
— degenerate — 'Uo — never. It will produce rich scarlet, silver or 
jet black clusters, five inches long-, and three in circumference, almost 
e|ual to bunches of grapes, and a certain crop. 

Culture— V]iint in a deep, sandy loam, that is very highly ma- 
nured, that is, manure from the stable or barn yard laid on three or 
four inches thick, and well incorporated with the soil eighteen inch- 
es deep — select plants that have been grown from cuttings, and 
about two or three years old ; cut the wood of the past season down 
to three or four eyes, and fiom the stcni or roots cut out every eye 
or slioot leaving the stem clean six inches to a foot above ground — 
dig the holes one foot deep and five feet apart ; the soil that is re- 
placed amongst the roots must be broken fine with the spade and 
gently tramppcd down; — give a Ccw waterings in dry wc;ithcr and 
you will have a growth of from one to two feet the first season. — 
During winter, prime back those shoots to williin fix inches of the 
proceeding year's wood, and thin out any branches that are not six 
inches from ench other — the fruit is produced on spurs of the old 
wood, and when those spurs make a small growth, it should be cut 
back to one eye. AVhen tlie bushes have reached three feet in 
height after pruning, they should then have there young wood cut 
back every pruning season to one eye, and whenever the branches 
offer to 1)0 nearer to each other than six inclies they should be cut 
clean out, forming tlie busli always with a round liend and quite 
open in f'lc centre. After their regular yearly pruning, tliey must 
have a periodical manuring ; digging or forking it in nniorcst the 
roots. You m;iy tliereafter rest iissured of a full crop in wet or 
drought; — no failure; — always a supply for the table, the confec- 



324 THE FLORIST AND 



tioner or market, where they meet a ready sale at a very remuner- 
ating price. 

Now for the Sorts ; — :"what a catalogue these nurserymen do 
make, it puzzles nie to choose," is the conclusion amongst so pifiny 
high sounding names, all veryfim, very large, veryhmutiful and other 
expressable terms ; but let us see what they are really worth. The 
most important are Red, viz : 

Cherry Currant — the very largest fruit in large clusters ; but to 
my taste rather tart. Holland Grape, cannot be distinguished from 
the Red Dutcli. Goliah, not so large as its name imparts, very lit- 
tle iniprovement on the Red Dutch. Fertile de Pallnau, said to be 
very productive, but with me not more so than the old Red Dutch, 
■wl^en under equal culture : it is, howevpr, a shade darker in color 
to a clqse observer. Knight's Siueet — we had hoped that this sort 
was really sweet, to make it a very palatable desert fruit, but find 
it quite acid enough for any palate ; it is a good bearer, and makes 
long tapeing bunches. Victoria, or the old Raby Castle currant can 
be more readily distinguished by the foliage than the fruit; it has, 
however, the advantage of hanging longer on the bushes than any 
qf the other kinds ; by tying a mat over the bush they may be 
kept till August ; a few bushes should be covered with some ma- 
terial to shade theni, as soon as nearly ripe, which prolongs their 
maturity at least one month. 

White Currants ; we have only fruited the White Dutch, White 
Grape and White Crystal : the last is certainly a very poor affair in 
size but quite transparant and sweeter than either of the others; the 
genuine White Dutch is as largo and productive as any of them, 
and shows that horticulture in this particular has not advanced in 
fifty years. Let every one try the coming season to grow a new 
and better white currant ; in three years it will produce fruit ; and 
report to the Editor of the Florist ;^nothing could be more desira- 
ble than an improvement in this branch of fruit, which is emphat- 
ically the fruit of the million ; every garden can produce them, and 
eveiy citizen will purchase the product, which is neverfailing. The 
best quality commands from nine to twelve cents per quart ; a 



HORTICULTURAL JOaRNAL." S25 



good bush will produce five quarts, in value equal to a bushel of corn, 
and with no more labor. 

Black Currants, are known by the names of Black Grape, Black 
Naples, Old Black and Early Black. Two kinds only are worth at- 
tention, the Black Naples and the Early Black, the former for its 
size and lateness, and the latter for its flavour and earliness ; if 
I was to have only one sort it would be the Early Black. Their 
culture, pruning and management are the same as above described, 
with the exception that they do not succeed so well in warm cli- 
n^ates, and even with us do best in a half shaded situation. Such 
as on the north side of a wall or fence, but not under, or in the vi- 
cinity of large trees which impoverish the soil. As a confection ii) 
sickness, sore throat, or bronchitis, there is nothing equal to black 
currant jelly ; they make also most excellent pies and iraddings, 
which every good housewife should know and try. If, Mr. Editor 
these few remarks will induce any one to try and grovy those exr 
ceedingly desirable fruits, to even approach the perfection they are 
capable of attaining, I will not have spent this hour in vain ; or if 
any one requires to renew the stock of those they possess, they have 
only to take the young shoots that are about a foot long — dcj)rive 
them of all the buds on the lower part ; set them six inches deep 
in rich soil, partially shaded from the sun — cut the top to within 
four inches of the soil, and in three years they will form handsome 
plants for removal or permanent planting. 

Yours Trul}', R. Buist, 
Rosedalc, Oct. 18.53. 



STRAWBERRY QUESTION. 

Cincinnati, Oct. 4, 1853. 
When Mr. Meehan has for twenty years cultivated as great a va- 
riety of' foreign iiiiil native strawberries, as Walter Elder (a late 
writer in tlio Florist) has done, and paid special attention to their 
sexual character, he will know the Ilovey's seedlings, Mc- 
Avoy's superior, and the extra red. by the leaf, and see no changes 
in their sexual charaotei'. Even Mr. Downing, knew nothing of 



326 THE FLORIST AND 



the varieties of the strawberry from the stem and leaf, and his 
Hovey, when sent to the Horticultural Society at Boston, was by 
all pronounced not to be the Hovey. It is easy to procure evidence 
to satisfy Mr. Meehan. He received three plants of the Extra Red 
from Cincinnati, and one was Hermaphrodite, or not a pure pistill- 
ate. I direct the varieties I cultivate to be kept in separate beds. 
Yet in many of them, from neglect or a chance seedling I yearly 
find many staminates, but have never yet seen cue (except stami- 
nate neclced pine seedling) but could by the stem and leaf, be de- 
tected. During forty years, I have got strawberry plants from the 
east, and often found mixture. One of our most reliable gardeners 
eold east a variety of our seedlings which he bought here from a 
reliable gardener, hut found to his regret, there was a gi'eat mixture. 
Stranger still, Mr Meehan claims I have admitted a change by cul- 
tivation, in the sexuiil character of the plant. He said the Extra 
Red, with him, whicli is pistillate, bore some staminate blossoms. 
I stated, that I raised the Extra Red, and that it was a pure pistil- 
late. But as we do in raising seedlings, find an occasional Ilerma- 
phrodite, that sometimes bear a few pure pistillate blossoms, I have 
' no reason to doubt, that a plant strongly pistillate might be pro- 
duced, bearing a few staminate or Hermaphrodite blossoms. What 
bearing has this on the question, of changing the character of a pis- 
tillate to a staminate, by cultivation ? All ask of Mr. Meehan, is, 
to get either of his friends, Mr. Buist or Dr. Brinckle, of Philadel- 
phia, to endorse his doctrine, or get from eitfcer of them plants of 
the Hove}', or necked pine, and satisfy them of a change by culti- 
vation. The Editor of the Florist is severe on his correspondent, 
Mr. Elder. I would inquire what has been the Editor's experience ? 
Has it been for more than twenty years, and his attention directed 
to the question, or as long as Mr. Medians, one or two years, on a 
small scale ? I give Mr. Meehan credit, as he came from England, 
for admitting the existence of pure staminate and pistillate plants. 
When he has for a year operated on plants furnished by either of 
his friends that I have named, he will promptly acknowledge his 
error. I fear no injvny from Mr. Meehan's error in the west, 
among our strawbcny growers. Men who give daily attention to 



HOllTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 327 

their plants, and bring from 20 to 120 bushels of a day to market, 
cannot be mistaken. And those who cultivate for family use, will 
be governed by their opinions, and their own experience. For all 
say, till instructed on the subject, they would not produce a fourth 
of a crop, and often not a single fruit. Mr Meehan says, my gar- 
dener, Mr. Pentland, found plants with both sexes in my bed of 
Extra Red. He did find an interloi^er there, and a large number 
among other kinds — and being recently from England, where the 
character of the plant was not known, and being unacquainted with 
our seedlings, could not readily distinguish them by the stem and 
leaf. He is now satisfied it was a different variety, and not an Ex- 
ti'a Red. For information on the subject, I would refer to the vete- 
ran strawberry grower of Philadelphia, Col. Carr, who is I presume 
still living. I believe that he has for fifty years cultivated the old 
pistillate Hudson. I would inquire of him, if he has in fifty years' 
ever seen a change in the sexual character of that, or any other va- 
riety ? Mr. Meehan declares, as he can b}^ a change of heat, change 
the sexual character of a few plants, " the distinction between 
staminate and pistillate plants is worthless." If true, it would 
not lessed the value of the principle, and 1 would ask Avhere Mr. 
Meehan's common sense had strayed, when he made the assertion. 
I have for many years cnltivated a great variety of strawberries, off 
the south, west, and north borders of high stone walls, and never' 
had a change in the sexes. Yet here was a greater change in the' 
atmosphere, than Mr. Meehan had in his greenhouse. 

N. LONGWORTH. 

In tlie October nmabcr of tlic Farm Journal, llr. W. R. Prince of Fhish- 
ing, L. I., couUibutus a long article on the Strawberry question ; to say the 
leaat, it is, like the former articles by the same gentleman, in very bad' 
taste : the writer indulges in remarks not proper in any discussion ; but itis- 
a 'well known axiom that those ■who are in the wrong ahvays make the noise.- 

There has not been as we have said before, anything in the way of argu- 
ment on the side of i\\o'unehai'igeahle Cincinnati theorists, all is assertion, 
denial, and, on the part of Mr. Prince abuse of Mr. Meehan. 

As a scientific fact, the change from apparently pistillate to perfect flow- 
ers is one of tlic simplest ; — the strawberry in its natin-al state has perfect 



328 THE FLORIST AND 

'^ __^ '__} 

flowers, is furnished with pistils and stamens ; chance seedlings produce 
U'nder a high state of cultivation flowers in which the stamens are abortive;' 
left to themselves, they return to their natural condition of flowers with perfect 
parts. The pistillate flowers of "improved varieties" are degenerations,' 
the results which Mr. Downing and Meehan as well as many others have 
observed are merely nature exerting her forces to mend what a "high state 
of cultivation," and so on, has made faulty. 

If Mr. Prince's article Avere not solong, or if it had any scientific bearing or 
imparted any instruction on the subject we should have copied it; but as it ia 
we can only say that for his sake we regret that the Farm' Journal has solarge' 
a circulation and so many readers. 

Since writing the above we have received the Icttei" of Mr. Longwortn, 
in which, as will be seen he makes the same admission alluded to by the 
Editor of the Farm Journal; "I saw no reason to doubt, that a plant 
strongly pistillate may bo produced, bearing a few staminate or herma- 
phrodite blossoms." He adds " what bearing has this on the question of 
changing the character of staminate or pistillate by cultivation ?" Just as 
much as the fact that the Editor of the Florist's having no experience in' 
strawberry raising has to do with the fact that the change is possible. 
When Mr. Meehan and Mr. Downing produced pistillate plants ( for no 
other reason, at least in Meehan's case for declaring therri " not Hovey's," 
than that they had evident stamens,) the cry was "the thiiig is impossible," 
now Mr. Longworth has acknowledged that it is possible ; I cannot find 
that any one has said that a full crop can be produced without staminates' 
being planted among the pistillate ; even Mr. Meehan announced that thS 
plants from which he took his runners were so pistillate that he was obliged' 
to procure a staminate plant to fertilize them. Whether in the advance 
of horticultural science, the possibility of retarding or developing any part 
of a plant, the stamens or the pistils, the petals or the leaves, may not be 
arrived at, who shall say ? But before that is done we shall have to do' 
away with all talk of "impossible things," and when anything is presented' 
for our dissent or approval examine whether it be reasonable or nbt', with*-' 
out at once stigmatising it as either impossible or nonsensical. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 329* 

AZALEAS. 

These are the most valuable of all greenhouse }3lants for the 
amateur cultivator, being easy of cultivation, and affording a rich 
display of flowers during winter and the early spring months, and 
that too, without any great degree of artificial heat. Natives of the 
Ohinese hills they are not injured by being subjected to a few de- 
grees of frost if the wood is ripe and the plants in a state of rest. 
Tlieir roots, like those of the Rhododendron, are very small, tender 
and fibry, requiring a regular supply of water; at the same time air 
must find ready access to the roots. In potting a plant requiring 
these conditions, proper efficient drainage must be secured, the soil 
should also be of a porous free kind. A fibry loam, mixed with 
clear sand and small charcoal will answer this purpose. The quan- 
tities of sand and charcoal dust necessar}'', will depend on the na- 
ture of the loam. If clayey a good portion will be requisite to 
counteract the adhesiveness. It is difficult to convey an accurate 
idea of the kind of soil to be used, the term loamheing so indefinite, 
embracing soils of widely different quality. A good criterion is to 
press a handful of it when in a half dry state, and throw it down, 
if it breaks and crumbles up, it will be in a fit state for use, but if 
it remains hard and lumpy, more of these corrective matcriala 
should be added. 

Spring is the most convenient and suitable season for repotting,-. 
just before they commence growth. The only season that they re- 
. quire particular care is wliile they are making a growth. During 
this they must be carefully watered and kept in a moist, somewhat 
shady, and warm atmosphere. This can easily l)c afforded them in 
a greenhouse by placing them all together whore they can lie fro-- 
quently syringed, and slightly shaded from intense sun. AVatef 
must be carefully administered, those that are fresh potted will not 
require so frequent applications as those that have filled the pots 
with roots. I would here caution the amateur against the extensive' 
use o£ so-called peat soil. Mu(^,li of the material that goes under this 
name is unfit for the growth of any plant, being for the most part 
42 



330 THE FLORIST AND 

vegetable matter in the last degree of decompositiou, inert, and 
worse than useless when used p^lone. I have seen a black unctuous, 
sour mass of bog-mold carefully stored as being "just the stuff 
for Azaleas." Such "stuff" when composted with barn-yard ma- 
nure and other substances may be formed into a valuable applica^ 
tion for hungry soils, but for the growth of delicate rooted green-^ 
house plants it is injurious rather than beneficial. 

During the plants growth, attention should be given to pinching 
ths points out of strong shoots, and otherwise, prune and tie out to' 
preserve a uniform habit. Towards the end of June, the young 
wood will assume a brown colour, when this is observed, the plants 
should be taken out of the house and placed in a situation where 
the mid-day sun can be kept from them by shading or other means, 
this will be a salutary check on the growth and favor ripening of 
the wood and formation of flower buds. About the month of Au- 
gust they should be placed in an exposed position, and the pots 
plunged to pi-eserve the roots from sudden changes of wet and dry. 
After remaining two months in this position the point of every 
shoot will feel round and hard, indicative of a well set head of bloom. 
After removal into the house they should be rather sparingly 
watered and kept cool and airy, unless they are wished to flower 
early, which is easily attained by j)lacing them in a warmer tem- 
perature. 

Cuttings of the young wood strike root very readily in the 
spring, especially of the large leaved varieties. , The smaller leaved 
sorts grow better Avhen grafted on such as Phoenicea, a strong 
growing variety, easily increased by cuttings. Very fine standard 
plants may be produced by grafting on tall stems, .1 once saw a 
plant of variegata, grafted on a four feet stem as beautifully depend- 
ent as a weeping willow. Delta. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 831 

SOUTHERN PLANTS WORTHY OF CULTIVATION 

In passing tlirough the gardens in America, one cannot help being struck 
with the little attention which has every where been bestowed upon our 
native productions. In Europe, they are properly estimated, and their 
cultivation sedulously attended to. Many plants that might be made the 
ornaments of our flower-beds, but which are now overlooked, would be 
highly esteemed on the other side of tlic Atlantic, if they could be pro- 
cured, or if the climate there was suited to their culture. AVe pay large 
sums for foreign flowers, which frequently have little to recommend them, 
and suffer others of the greatest beauty to "blush unseen" in our native 
forests. 

I have undertaken in this fragment of a communication, to point out a 
few shrubs and herbaceous plants, with which we ought to ornament our 
gardens, and which can be obtained without much difficulty from South 
Carolina and Georgia. 

If the same care be bestowed upon them, as has been lavished upon plants 
originally not possessed of half their beauty, there is no reason to doubt but 
that from amongst ourselves we might produce the most brilliant results, and 
in many instance:) eclipse all that has been effected in the improving plants 
from abroad. 

Tiio names of the plants wliich I beg leave to recommend are taken from 
Elliott's Botany of South Carolina and. Georgia. Many of these have, 
since the publication of that work, been changed and perhaps in a few years 
will again be altered, but that is of no importance; they are as well known 
by their old names as by their new. 

I shall first enumerate the shrubs which I think worthy of cultivation, and 
afterwards the herbaceous plants, interspersing here and there a few re- 
marks. 

Pinckneya pubens, a small tree about ten feet high, the foliage dark green, 
and the flowers, with their largo bracts, bright red. 

Cyrilla racemosa, fragrant white flowers. 

Gelsemiuni nitidum, the most beautiful of flowering shrubs, whether we 
consider tho' permanency of its leaves, the golden color and copiousness of 
its flowers, or their most delightful perfume. It may not be able to with- 
stand the severity of the winters here without some protection, but in » 
greenhouse would be invaluable. It grows naturally as far north as Norfolk, 
in Virginia. 

Kalmia hirsuta, very dwarf species of this pretty genus, seldom rising up- 
right more than six or eight inches. 

ElUotta racemosa, Andromeda nitida, and A, m^triana, all voiy orna- 
mental and the A. nitida, an evergreen. 



382 THE FLORIST AND 



Vaccinium arhoreum, a small t.ree aboTit six or eight feet high ; -ffhen in 
flower is entirely covered by a profusion of white blossoms; the fruit ripena 
in October. 

Styrax grandiflorum and S. ffJalrum, highly ornamental, and the last 
very fr' grant with the odor of the white jasmine, which it very much tct 
eembles in the form of its flowers. 

Halesia diptera. I b^ve seen thcf H. tetraptera growing in this city, the 
flowers of this other species are double the size and full as numerous. 

Stuartia malacodendron ; most beautiful ; when one considers what has 
made of the Camellia, which in its original and natural state makes but iv 
poor appearance, what may we not expect from an assiduous, continued and 
proper cultivation of this splendid flower. 

3Iylocariwm ligustrinum, an evergreen, and highly ornamental when io 
flower. 

Bejaria racemosa, possessing all the beauty of any of the Azaleas, and 
at the same time time having fine shaped, glossy, evergreen leaves. 

Asimina grandijlora, a shrub not two feet high, producing large white 
flowers. 

Heebceous Plants. 

Canna fiaccida ; Thalia dealbata, grows in the water, they are therefore 
perfectly protected from the effects of frost. Salvia azurea ; Iris tripetala, 
as fine a species as can be found in any quarter of the globe. Houstonia 
rotundifolia, a small plant which hardly rises from the earth, one of the first 
offerings of the spring, growing on the road sides, and resembling small 
patches of snow, Spigelia marilandica ; Phlox glaherrima, flowers througli- 
out the whole summer ; Phlox pilosa, Phlox suhulata ; Viola pedata, with 
two and three colourci S.o\fers ; Convolvulus sagittifolius ; Sahhatia pani- 
culata, Sahhatia gentianoides, with rose coloured flowers three inches in 
diameter; Asclepias p)aupe7-ula ; Ilydrolea corymhosa ; the four different 
species oi Pancratium; Lillium Catesbcei; Helonias erythrosperma ; Mhex- 
ia glahella, the ornament of the forests in the month of Jijne. j Silene 
fimhriata ; Jussieua glahella, a water plant which frequently covers the sur- 
face of the ditches and canals with its golden flowers. Lythrum alatum ; 
Sarraccenia variolaris and S. Jlava ; Hypericum glaueum ; Passiflora in- 
carnata ; Hihiseus grandiflorus, H. speciosus, and H. scaber with yellow 
flowers. Polygala lutea ; Lupinus villosus ; Clitoria virginica; Liatris 
seounda, L. elegans, Liatris odoratissima ; Aster squarrosus ; Chaptalia 
integrifolia. 

All these arc perennial, and with probably one or two exceptions would 
bear the greatest intensity of our winters. They can be obtained without 
much difficulty and at little expense. J. LC. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 333 

MANAGEMENT OP CIDER APPLE TREES. 

Tree Guards. — Many proprietors at tlie present time go to the expense 
of posts, two, three or four of which they join together with cross-pieces. 
This is unquestion-ably the best morie of protecting the trees against cattle 
and wind, but it is not everywhei-c adopted. In many places guards are 
employed that injure more than they protect the trees, and which cannot in 
any case maintain them against the action of the wind. 

With the view of preserving them from the shock of axles, shafts, horses' 
collars, &c., the stems of the young Apple trees which are in tilled ground 
are completely and closely twisted round with straw ropes to the height of 
4J feet. The bad effects of this guard, which in nowise prevents the trees 
from being thrown down when they get a severe shock, are to cause strang- 
ulations of the stem, and, above all, to deprive it of the free access of air 
and light, which are always of great benefit to the young bark ; and lastly 
beneath the straw covering various insects that are hurtful to vegetation 
breed in perfect security. 

Leaning Trees. — Many Apple trees, especially in the fields, lean to one 
side from the effects of the wind ; and in our part of the country they lean 
so much over from the west, that a stranger, if he were lost, could find the 
right direction by merely looking at the stems of these trees. The majority 
of them have been thus blown aside for want of a post guard, to which they 
might have been fixed, or the tree might have been kept upright by means 
of some sods piled against the stem on the side opposite to the direction of 
the wind. 

The neglect of these precautions renders the trees disagreeable to the eye, 
obstructs cultivation, and makes them more liable to be overthrown by high 
winds. 

Suckers. — Trees often throw up suckers which absorb the sap to no profit, 
but, on the contrary, to the injury of the head of the tree. Common sense 
would tcaeh us to uncover these suckers to the place where they originate, 
and then cut them off close, so that they may not again spring up ; but this 
is not the usual way of going to work. 

The most careful, pass a spade between the stem of the tree and the suck- 
ers ; then striking vigorously, they wound the former, and by breaking and 
tearing away the suckers from the roots, wounds arc formed which in heal- 
ing absorb a portion of sap which would have gone to promote the growth 
of tho tree. But still more frequently no attention is paid to the removal 
of these suckers, tho care of stopping their growth being left to the cows and 
sheep. 

In arable land, bruises and tearing of the bark by axles, plough beams, 
collars of horses, &c., are of frequent occurrence, because the ground is 



334 THE FLORIST AND 



worked as near as possible to the tree, in order to have less to dig. These 
wounds and cankers continually recurring, if they do not directly kill the 
trees, soon stop their growth, diminish the produce, and shorten their ex- 
istence. 

Crathering tJie Fruit. — This is also a frequent cause of injury to the 
trees. Instead of waiting till the Apples are sufficiently ripe to detach 
themselves by the branches being shaken, either by a person up in the tree, 
or by one on the ground with a hooked stick, they are often gathered too 
soon,and as they do not readily part, the branches are struck with poles. 
By thus bringing down the fruit, many fruit-spurs and leaf-buds which would 
possibly become flower-buds, are likewise broken off. 

Modes of lieeping the Fruit. — If the quality of the cider depends on the 
fitness of the instruments and vessels used, on the temperature, or the 
manner of crushing and pressing the Apples, as well as on the fermentation 
of the juice, it also greatly depends on the mode adopted in preserving the 
fruit, on its state of ripeness, and on the mixture of particular varieties in 
certain proportions. If the growers only knew how much rain deteriorates 
Apples that are laid in heaps out of doors for want of sufficient buildings to 
protect them, they would construct very cheap sheds by means of straw 
mats, formed and supported with rods, in order to preserve the fruit from 
this drenching, which, being repeated, doubtless takes away part of the juice, 
especially when they are ripe or nearly so. If this fact were not acknowl- 
edged, I would say to the unbelieving, "put a sound and nearly ripe Apple 
in a glass of pure water, and leave it there for seven or eight days ; after 
that time you will find that the water is of a reddish tint, and the Apple al- 
most without flavour. 'Now, how can this be explained, if not by the fact, 
that a part of the juice of the Apple has passed through the pores of the 
skin, and diffused itself in the water ; whilst the latter has taken the place 
of the juice and penetrated into the flesh of the fruit. Apples, therefore, 
should be gathered in dry weather and afterwares sheltered from rain. The 
custom of mixing together different kinds of Apples is also injurious, for the 
following reasons. The different sorts, although gathered at the same time, 
do not afterwards acquire, in equal periods, the same degree of maturity, 
and some keep longer than others after being fully ripe. The consequence 
is, that whilst waiting for the ripening of the later sorts, the others rot, and 
no one, I should suppose, will venture to say that the pulp of rotten Apples 
can give a juice fit for making good cider. Occasionally, to avoid this evil, 
the Apples are crushed too soon, and those that are not ripe only yield a 
colourless juice, which which is very liable to become acid. It is, therefore 
advantageous to separate the sorts, because each heap being composed of 
equally ripe fruit, we are not exposed to the danger of crushing green or 
decayed Apples with those of which the colour and perfume indicate a per- 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. S35 

rf .^ - ' ■ . — . -- ,. .. , , , , ... 

feet degree of maturity. This is not the only advantage derived from keep- 
ing each sort separate, for by adopting this plan we can mix any sort in 
proper proportions so as to obtain cider of the best quality. Those well 
acquainted with cider-making know, by experience, that if a certain sort of 
Apple were employed by itself, it would produce a sour, pale cider ; and, on 
the other hand, that another sort would yield thick, syrupy juice, which 
would clarify with difficulty, or would even become dark by the action of 
the air ; but by mixing these two sorts of Apples, a cider of very good 
quality is obtained. It would be difficult to generalise the principles on 
which we should make mixtures of the varieties of Apples with the view of 
improving the quality of the cider, because the nature of the soil, the aspect, 
and the age of the trees? greatly the quality of the juices of fruits, and also 
because it is almost impossible to know the identity of varieties, the names- 
of which vary according to the locality. 

This important part of cider making cannot therefore have any light 
thrown on? without repeated experiments made by good practical observers. 
We know that intelligent cultivators manage well in this respect, but no one 
has yet thought of assisting his brethren hj publishing those modes of pro-' 
Deeding which are the results of his own experience ; and this is much to be 
regretted. The action of frost also injures the quality of cider, and late 
Apples are nearly always kept, if not out of doors, at least in buildings 
readily penetrated by cold. In this case we can easily prevent the frost 
from affecting the Apple, by covering the heap with a layer of straw from' 
eight to ten inches in thickness, which is again covered with damp cloths, 
such as waggon tilts, &c. This simple and easy protection is neither new 
nor unknown, but it is too seldom made use of. 

We will not continue further our strictures on the neglect and bad treat- 
ment of which the Apple trees are too generally victims. Although this 
enumeration is far from being complete, we think that we have said enough 
to show the advantage there would bo in taking better care of this tree, which 
is in Normandy what the Vine is in the countries more favoured in point of 
climate. To manage better than is generally the case is neither attended 
with more difficulty nor with greater expense, as we shall endeavor to show 
in the following part of this manual. 

(To ba continued.) 



336 THE FLORIST AND 

The following from an address by Dr. John H. Ranch, of Bur- 
lington, Iowa, before the Southern Iowa Horticultural Society, is a 
worthy tribute to the merit, and a just censure of tlie neglect of our 
own Flora. 

The cultivation of our indigenous plants, is a subject to which I would 
call the attention of this society, one which you have so far almost totally 
neglected, a neglect of v.'hich I am sorry to say you not alone but nearly all 
who have been similarly engaged in this country are guilty. Your gardens 
are filled with plants of a foreign grov/th, plants that are dilEcult to culti- 
vate and in many instances far less beautiful than -those which grow upon 
our prairies neglected. Why this is so, I really cannot conceive ; there are 
many who know all about foreign plants, but take them into our fields and 
forests, and they are not able to distinguish one plant from another. — This 
is fashionable floriculture, a species of cockneyism not to be admired- That 
we are governed too much by fashion is a deplorable truth, and it is one of 
the prevailing sins of the present day that fashion in these things is ofteu 

mistaken for taste. 

"Despotic Fashion in fantastic garb, 
Oft by her vot'ries, for the magic robe 
Of Taste mistaken, with ill guiding step', 
Directs our path." 

For Americans to cultivate foreign plants which are not as handsome as 
those that are indigenous which they neglect, is certainly in bad taste. 
The ignorance of men, with regard to our own plants, who should know- 
better, is also surprising. In illustration of this, I will relate an instance 
that occurred in your own midst. Quite a number of plants were sent here 
from a long distance, as great and rare curiosities ; they were received as 
Buch, but lo and behold, upon examination they were found to grow abund- 
antly in our swamps and lowlands. Many will no doubt be surprised when 
I say that we have a rival in Nelumhium hdeum, for the .famous Victoria 
regia ; it is found growing in the waters of our own Mississippi, and I have 
no doubt would be as all other plants could be greatly improved by cultiva- 
tion. Many will no doubt also be surprised, when I tell them, that on our 
more elevated and sandy prairies, we have a plant belonging to the Mexi- 
can Flora, Amorplia eanescens, the flower of which will vie for beauty with 
the cactus that they take so much pains to cultivate because it blooms indi- 
genous on the table lands of Mexico, and I have no doubt if it were gener- 
ally known that this plant belongs to the Mexican Flora, it would have ere 
this received their attention, and occupied a prominent place in their 
gardens. By these remarks I do not wish to be understood as condemning 
the cultivation of exotics, but let ours claim your attention first, then those 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 837 

of a foreign country may with propriety. It is like many Americans visit- 
ing other countries without first making the tour of their own land. It is 
high time that we should throw ofl", in this respect the thraldom of fashion, 
emancipate ourselves from this slavery, and be American in our floriculture 
as well as in government. I am an American, I love everything that is Amer- 
ican, we have the largest lakes, the longest rivers, the widest and most fer- 
tile prairies, and if not the largest the most useful plants. It seems to me 
that everything which nature has given us, is of a much more practical 
character, than the productions of other climes, and this may no doubt have 
some influence in causing ours to be the most practical nation on the Earth ; 
that while the Victoria regia only gives pleasure to the sight and calls forth 
our admiration, tlie ITc'lamhium luteu7n helps to nourish and sustain the ■ 
life of the wandering Indian, untutored in the arts and schools of civilization. 

Our lily, moccasin flower, butter-fly weed, orchis, dogbane, and many 
others will vie for beauty with any that are found in other parts of the 
world. I had prepared a list of plants found in this vicinity, which would 
adorn any garden, but shall not tax your time and patience by reading it 
upon this occasion. 

During the past sun^mor in order to call the nttention of the members of 
the Society to the beauty of our native plants, I selected some of them and 
brought them to their monthly meetings, and if I can in this manner suc- 
ceed in awakening an interest in them, I shall during next season willing- 
ly incur the trouble of procuring a number of such plants as may be in 
bloom at the time of each regular meeting, and as an evidence of the inter- 
est this Society takes in the cultivation of our indigenous plants, would sug- 
gest the propriety of offering a premium by it, for the greatest number and 
finest cultivated. 



A NEW PITCHER PLANT. 

To the Etlifcor of the Florist. — I was much gratified with tlie ac-» 
count of the Sarracmias you have in your hast. This interesting 
tribe has had justice done it by cultivators, and I am pleased to see 
any notice of them tending to draw attention to their peculiarly 
pleasing forms. In a recent number of the "Smithsonian contri- 
butions," I find another new member of the family figured and de- 
scril)ed by Dr. Toi-rey. It is said (o have been first discovered in 
northern California by Mr. Brackenridge in IS 12, growing in a 
43 



338 THE FLORIST AKD 

marsh. Dr. T. establishes it as a distinct genus from Sarrareniaf 
dedicating it to Dr. Darhngton of V/est Chester, Pa., the well 
known author of so many valuable botanical works, under the name 
of Darlingtonia Californka. " It differs from SarracPMia in the calyx 
riot being calyculate ; in the form of the petals ; in the somewhat 
definite and uniserial stamens ; in the dilated turbinate ovary ; 
and especially in the absence of the large umbrella shaped summit 
of the style, which is so conspicuous in the former genus." From 
the plate the flower has somewhat the form of a Pyrola, and is al- 
together very beautiful. Will not some of our Horticulturists un- 
dertake to show us this in cultivation ? 



NEW OR RARE PLANTS, FLOWERED FOR THE FIRST 
TIME THIS SEASON, AT SPRINGBROOK. 

No. vm. 

Pentapetes pucenecia. — This plant has been long ngo described by Bo- 
tanists, but is not now I believe in cultivation. I raised my plants from 
seed introduced as 1 believe by the late Mrs. Knorr, of West Philadelphia. 
It has a very erect, uninviting habit of grovi'th, but the flowers which_ap- 
pear late in the fall are very pretty, about one inch across, and of a bright 
crimson, having in the centre 5 fingcr-lihe processes — probably petaloid 
stamens. It is allied botanically with the Mahcrnias, but in general ap- 
pearance would be taken for some Malva. Its straggling habit will per- 
haps be against its value as a greenhouse plant, but it is a good addition to 
our stock of fall flowering border flowers. 

Peuisteria elata. — The "Spiritu Sancto" of the newspapers, and 
JJove flower of orchideous collections. A pseudo-bulb presented to Mr. 
Cope last spring by Col. Totten of the Panama railroad, flowered beautiful- 
ly this fall. Its waxy dove resembling blossoms, with their delicious fra- 
grance, and long period of remaining in blossom, combine to render it a 
most desirable orchid. It is growing in a pot of broken charcoal and 
moss. 

Erunfelsia (Franoisea) undulata. — Some writers speak of "Freaks of 
Nature;" such would suspect her of placing the flowers of Qesneria tubi- 
flora on some luxuriant species of olive, to form this plant. The same de- 
lightful fragrance too exist in the flowers. The plant is of a very erect 
obstinate habit of growth, and, so far does not show a tendency to bloom 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 839 

freely. Imported by Mr. Cope last year from Mr. Lee of London. It 
grows well in co.ir.se, turfy loam, in a stove exposed to the full sun, at a 
temperature of 65° in winter ; and kept in a slightly shaded greenhouse in 
summer. 

MrLTO:jrA. CLOwn:.?r.AXA. — A small growing orchid resembling in size and 
appearance the well known Epidendrura cochleatum. The flowers come out 
in a. three flowered spike about six inches long at the base of the pseudo 
bulb as it approaches raatui'ity. Each flower has the ground color white, 
changing to yellowish, on which is thickly set large brown blotches — and 
with the column purple. In my specimens they measure about 1 to IJ 
inches across. It grows well on a block of wood with a little moss attach- 
ed to it. Though not one of the handsomest orchids, it can scarcely be 
called second rate. It was imported by Mr. Cope from Loddiges of Lon- 
don. 

Saccolabiu.m Blumei Major. — In speaking of one of these plants ex- 
hibited at Chiswick, the reporter styles it "a living fountain." An appella- 
tion more characteristic could not perhaps be selected. Though our plant 
is but young its pendulous raceme of over a hundred flowers measured 14 
inches long and 2 broad. It is easily managed. Our plant is growing in 
pot of broken charcoal and crocks — an old root is planted in this up which 
the aerial roots creep. It delights in being frequently lightly syringed, if 
it never at any time becomes overdosed. It was imported by Mr. Cope from 
Mr. Low, of Clapton. 

Calantiie VEiiATRlFOLIA. — A Well known white flowering terrestrial or- 
chid of standard character as an exhibition plant, and generally found in 
good collections. It is of easy culture, doing well in a pot of moss, char- 
coal, and coarse turfy peat. Imported from Messrs. Loddiges. 

TuojiAS Meeiian. 



CALENDAR OF OPERATIONS. 

NOVEMBER. 

Flower Garden. — One of the last thought of thing.s, too frequently, is 
to apply manure to flower beds. Rut it is scarcely less essential to a fine 
summer display, than it is to the production of fine vcgotnblcs; and certain- 
ly as necessary as to trees, or the lawn. Still it should be applied with 
caution. While a poor soil will only grow plants to a diminutive niinature 
size, which, though clothed with a profusion of small, starved looking blos- 
soms, make no show ; a soil over rich will cause too great a luxuriance of 
foliage, which is always opposed to an abundance of bloom. In most cases 



340 THE FLORIST AND 

I prefer half-decayed leaves — where these could not he had I would use 
stable manure. The former spread over the soil two inches thick, or the 
latter one inch — would form a dressing which in ordinary cases should lasfe 
two or three years. It is difficult to get flowers to do well in even the most 
favorable soil, if it is liable to hold water to stagnation in winter. Where 
flower gardens or beds exist under such circumstances, advantage should be 
taken of the present season to have it thoroughly underdraiaed. It will bo 
more beneficial in the end than the most judicious manuring; it is indeed in 
itself a powerful means of fertilizing the soil. Where circumstances render 
the draining of such places inconvenient, a temporary advantage can be 
gained by digging up the soil at this season very roughly, so as to expose 
as much as possible to the action of the frost. This is at best but putting a 
patch on an old garment — an apology for the want of means to do better. 

The planting of trees will still continue to engage our attention at every 
favorable opportunity. Man}' prefer at this season to remove trees in the 
■winter by the "frozen ball" system. There is nothing gained by this prac- 
tice. To those unacquainted with this mode of planting, I may as well de- 
scribe it. Just before frost is expected, a trench is dug around a tree a few 
feet from its base, leaving the tree so, that with a rope at the top, it can be 
easily drawn over. A hole is then dug for it in the situation desired. When 
the "ball" hds become frozen through around the tree, it is removed to the 
prepared hole ; and, when a thaw comes, the soil is filled in around it. I 
hare said there is nothing gained by it, and there are many disadvantages. 
If the tree has been removed a "time or two" before, as most nursery trees 
have, it will )iave an abundance of fibres near the stem, and can be succes- 
fully removed without much regard to the "ball of earth' ' either in fall or 
f^pring. If it has never been removed before, that is a tree growing natu- 
rally, it will have no fibres at its base, and so no "ball of earth" can pre- 
serve them, so that a tree which can be moved successfully on this freezing 
system, can be as successfully done without it. The disadvantages of it are 
that it exposes the injured roots for a long time to the injurious action of the 
frost and the elements, besides the frequency of the operation being impro- 
perly done by several attempts being made at its completion. I have given 
the system a fair trial, and have done with it. The main object should be 
to preserveTall the roots possible with the tree, keep them moist and preserve 
from injury, then go-a-head and don't wait for frost. 

GuEEN House. — I have very few remarks to ofi"er under this head in ad- 
dition to what I made last month. Watering, airing, and preserving from 
insects, occupying most of a gardener's spai-e time at this season. Growth 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. S41 

s hould not be much encouraged at this season ; plants ■will consequently not 
requii-e much air, the main object for its admission being to keep down the 
temperature on sunny weather, and to guard against damp. Those plants 
which will grow, as Pelargoniums, Cinerarias, Heliotrope, Chinese Primroses, 
and many plants required for winter or spring blooming, should have all the 
light possible, and would be benefitted by the application of manure water 
once a week. Guano water is as good as any thing; a half pint to about 10 
gallons of water. The sweepings of the fowl or poultry house is nearly as 
good, in about the same proportions is Correas, Epacrises, Pimelias, and a 
host of ornamental plants will now be coming into blossom, cheering their 
possessors during many an otherwise dreary hour during the wintry season, 
and rewarding a thousand fold by their freshness and beauty the outlay they 
may have occasioned, or the trouble they have given to those who have 
loved and protected them. 

HoT_.HousE. — The most critical season to these plants is fast approach- 
ing. A very common error, especially in houses heated by smoke flues, is 
to keep the temperature too high. Unless the house be heated by hot 
■water, a temperature of 55° will do perfectly well. The absorbent proper- 
ty of heated bricks in flues is so great, that the excessive waterings neces- 
sary to replace the moisture they absorb is more injurious to the plants 
than a moderately low temperature. In a house heated by hot water, a 
temperature of G5° may be maintained with advantage. The house will be 
very gay with llabrothumnus, Cestrums, Begonias, Pentas, Plumbagos, 
and so on, and the syringe must be kept in daily requisition. It is highly 
advantageous to put a little sulphur, lime water, or soft soap into the syring- 
ing water occasionally ; as the red spider, mealy bug, or scale, respectively 
may make their appearance ; this, with a vigorous use of one's eyes and 
fingers at times will keep them pretty well in check. Orchideae, those of 
them which bloom on finishing their growths, will begin to add considerably 
to the attractions of the hot house. As any come into flower they should 
have less water at each time, but be watered more frequently than they have 
been accustomed tod; a very slight "dewing" with the syringe is all that is 
required. Heavy waterings and high temperature together destroy more 
orchids than many would dream of. Still atmospheric moisture must be re- 
tained for them in any case. 

VEflETABLE GARDEN. — As in the Flower Garden, so here the season 
calls attention to the improvement of the soil. Draining and trenching arc 
two of the most important operations. In performing the latter the soil 
need bo only loosenal to the depth of two or tiiree feet, with manure mixed 
well through it. Fine gardens are frequently rendered barren for years by 



342 THE FLORIST AND 



the sterile clayey subsoil being brought to the surface. Asparagus beds, as 
soon as the stalks are cleared off, may have a good portion of the soil on 
them raked off into alleys, and its place supplied with three or four inches 
of rotten manure. If the ground is of a light or sandy nature salt may 
be applied before the manure. In wet soils it is injurious. Where the 
root crops are unhoused the remarks in last month's calendar will still be 
applicable. It is a nice point to preserve celery well through the winter to 
the spring. The main things are to keep it cool, just above freezing point, 
and just moist enough to keep it from withering. Many take it up, and put 
it in a cellar, where the above mentioned conditions can be obtained, packed 
in sand. My usual plan is to take it up and pack them pretty close to- 
gether side by side in some sheltered spot, putting a thick coating of dry 
straw on them on the approach of severe frost; keeping it dry by, laying old 
shutters over all. , T. J. 

Fruit. 

» 

Gathering and storing fruit. The preservation of winter fruit is a 
matter deserving more attention and care than is generally bestowed upon 
it. It is not now as formerly when fruit eaters and growers were content 
with a few months supply. Nothing less should satisfy the cultivator than a 
dish of fresh, ripe fruit every day in the year. Of course, very much de- 
pends upon a judicious selection of trees, that ripen fruit in rotation ; but 
the dependence for a winter supply lies mainly in the mode of keeping the late 
sorts through the winter and spring. The time of gathering requires par- 
ticular attention ; if allowed to remain too long on the tree, the fruit be- 
comes deteriorated. It should be picked just as the seeds commence chang- 
ing color. The sacrifice of a few fruit in ascertaining this period is of no 
importance, compared with the advantages of having them stored in proper 
season. Choosing a fine dry day, pick every fruit carefully by hand, and 
guard against bruising them in the slightest degree. The smallest bruise 
lays the foundation for putrefaction. The object now is to preserve the 
juices of the fruit without subjecting them to decay. The way to insure 
this is to place them in a temperature which will neither drain them of their 
juices by evaporation, nor promote decay through damp. Light also should 
be excluded. The difficulty of keeping the finer fruits in cellars arises from 
either moisture or heat in these apartments. It has been found in the pre- 
servation of ice, that houses constructed above ground, secured from ex- 
ternal influences, keep it much longer than the best constructed well. The 
same principles occur in the preservation of fruit. An exclusive artificial 
temperature must be maintained, as uniform as possible. A minimum tem- 
perature of 34° and a maximum of 40° may be considered the greatest 
fluctuation desirable. The principal difiiculty lies in keeping a proper hy- 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 343 

grometrical state in the atmosphere ; should any symptoms of damp or mil- 
dew appear, it should be removed by ventilation. Care should be taken in 
the admission of external air whenever its temperature is much above that 
of the room. When this is the case a deposition of dew will take place and 
the evil be increased rather than lessened. 

Frequent and careful examination will be necessary to remove all that 
shows symptoms of decay, such should be promptly removed and every- 
thing kept as sweet and clean as possible. The late keeping pears as 
Easter Beurrerequire to be removed into a warmer temperature, say about 
65° for a week or ten days before eating. This has a tendency to remove 
all grittine3s,and heightens the flavor of many varieties. So much depends 
upon the keeping and ripening of winter fruit, that many kinds of the high- 
est repute in Europe have been considered here unworthy of notice, simply 
from want of proper treatment in this respect. 

Planting trees should be proceeded with without delay, the past month 
has been peculiarly favorable for trenching and preparing soil. The ad- 
vantages of preparing soil when in a dry state are very great, as it crumbles 
and mixes better, lays open and permeable to the atmosphere, and retains 
more heat. It is very hurtful to clayey soils to work them in a wet state. 
The eifects may be traced in years afterwards in the hard cemented lumps 
which nothing but lengthened exposure to rain and frost can pulverize. 
Where trees are to be permanently planted the should be put in the best 
condition, and left as light and friable as possible, since it cannot afterwards 
be remedied without injuring the roots. Should the weatiier continue fa- 
vorable planting may be continued until the end of the month, after that, 
except on very dry soil, and elevated locations, it will perhaps be as well to 
defer it until spring. AVe must again urge the advantages of autumn planting. 
Not only on account of there being more leisure to attend to it at this time, 
and the soil in the best possible condition for its performance, but princi- 
pally because of the additional certainty that the trees will make a rrood 
growth the following season, consequent upon the increase and establish- 
ment of roots during winter, and the diminished risk of losing them should 
a dry summer occur. 

Grapes — both in and out doors should be winter pruned towards the end 
of the month. Whatever mode of pruning is practised should be strictly 
carried out. A continued change of systems will be unsatisfactory. Nor 
indeed is this the proper season to commence a change, even should one be 
contemplated. The management of the plant during summer must be con- 
ducted with reference to the winter pruning, so that the present will only 
be the completion of the years labor so far as pruning is concerned. The 
borders should be slightly forked over, adding a topdressing of woodashos, 



344 ' THE l-'LORIST AND 

which snpply ingredients largely used by the grape, refuse charcoal is very 
effective in preserving a proper degree of porosity. A covering of six or 
eight inches of half rotted manure may then be spread on the surface, ivhich 
will enrich the soil, and prevent frost from injuring the roots. 

Orange and Lemon trees, should receive very little water from this until 
spring, when the wood is properly ripened, and the soil kept comparatively 
dry, a few degrees of frost will do them no harm. If kept in a cellar n'6 
water will be required, unless, as we have observed in some cases they are 
placed near a furnace in order to keep them warm. This kindness, however, 
is entirely misplaced. A close cellar is sufScient, fire heat is more injurious 
then beneficial, but where the plants are unavoidably set near heat, on oc- 
ca!sional watering will be required, to supply the evaporation from the leaves. 

S. B. 



SAVE YOUR PLUMS— THE CURCULlO CONQUERED! 

Editors: — I find by experiment that the curculio, that curse of all plum 
trees, can easily be conquered. The little fellow is not so bold as some 
imagine. If he were large enough perhaps his ozvn shadoio .would affrighten 
him. Although so small an insect, he has a keen eye, and can discern an 
object. I have heard it observed that plum trees growing near a door or 
path, that is frequently passed, would be exempt from the curculio. We 
conclude that this object passing the tree keeps them at bay. 

For several years past I have let the curculio have his own way ; and he 
has taken every plum for his own use and behoof. But I came to the con- 
clusion last spring, that the little imps were rather too selfish and greedy — 
that I would put in for a share with them; I procured' cotton batting — put 
3 circles, 6 to 12 inches apart, around each tree; for several mornings I 
"sjiiudged" the trees with ashes, as recommended; two trees, of the same 
variety standing some 3 rods apart, treated as above, each tree will set with 
plums; on one of those trees I suspended a piece of ivhite cotton cloth, 
about half a yard square, in this way ; — Shave out a rod as long as your 
cloth is wide, tack one edge of the cloth to the rod, suspend it from a limb 
of the tree, at the centre of the rod, and a little breeze of wind will keep 
the /a^ in motion, and the little rebels will quit the field. On two other 
trees I suspended newspapers which had the same effect, but the rain and 
wind will soon displace the papers — cloth is best. 

The result is, those three trees promise a good yield of sound plums, 
while all the others are destroyed — not one remains on the trees. 

L. NoREis. — Jn Farmer's Qompanion. 



-*- 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 345' 

PENNSYLVANIA HOTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

OCTOBEE 18, 1853. 

The stated meeting of the society was held ia the Lecture Room of the 
Museum this evening. 

Dr. Win. D. Briuckle, Vice President, in the chair. 

The following Premiums Avere awarded: 

Design of Cat Flowers, for the best, to Thos. Meehan, gardener to Caleb 
Cope ; for the second best, to Joseph Cook. Basket of cut flowers, for the 
best and for the second best, to Thomas M«ehan. 

Pears, for the best, the Doyenne Oris, and for the second best, the Duch- 
esse d'Angouleme, to Mrs. J. B. Smith. 

Special Premiums. — Two dollars for a fine display of Grapes, to H. B. 
Tilden. One dollar for a display of Reine Claude de Bavay Plums, to 
Thomas Meehan. The Apples exhibited, although of fine appearance, were 
unripe, and not in condition to test. 

The fruit committee submitted the following : 

AD INTERIM FRUIT REPORT. 

To the President Penna. Ilort. Society : — 

Tlie Fruit Committee respectfully Report, That since the September 
meeting of the Society, the following Fruits have been submitted to their 
examination : 

From Alex. Parker, of Moyamensing — A Seedling Peach, nearly three 
inches in diameter; roundish; dull yellow, witli a reddish cheek, and so dark 
about the base as to appear almost black; flesh yellow, very juicy; flavor 
delicious; quality "very good." 

From A. 31. Fmtwiek — The Pet re Pear, from the original tree — speci- 
mens very fine, two and three-quarters inches long, by two and one-half 
broad; stem variable, in one specimen five-eighths of an inch by one-sixth, 
in another one and one-quarter by one-eightli ; flavor luscious ; quality 
"best." 

From Isaac B. P.ajtn— The Jane VcA.c\\ (Baxter's Seedling, No. 1); 
large, ten and one-half inches in circumference ; roundish oblate ; greenish 
yellowish white, with a red cheek; free; flavor delicious; quality "very good" 
to "best." 

Frovi Mr. Ladd, 242 Filbert Street— T/te Larissa, a Seedling Pear of 
small size; obovate pyriform; greenish yellow, a good deal russetod, witli » 
mottled red cheek; Uesh rather dry; flavor saccharine and pleasant; quality 
scarcely "good." 

From Peter Williamson, 296 South Second Street-^Spectimens of a 
Seedling English Walnut, of extraordinary size and excellence; two and 
one-sixteenth inclies long, and one and five-eiglitiis wide, _niie and otie-lialf 
thick; shell remarkable for its thinness ; kernel delicinus ; quality "best." 
The tree sprung from an imported nut planted in 1.84L>, and is now fiflut.a 

44 



346 THE FLORIST AND 



and one-half inches in circumference at the surface of the earth. It hore 
in 1852; for the first time. The attention of Nurserymen is directed to 
this variety, Avhich could prohably he dwarfed and bi-ought into speedy 
bearing by being worked on the Juglans prreparturiens. 

From Mrs. George Liggitt, 140 Christian Street — The Regnicr rear-- — 
size full medium, two and one-half to three inches long, by two and one- 
half to two and three-quarters broad; some specimens weighed eight ounces; 
obovate ; yellow, with a number of minute russet dots, and vtry often a 
brilliant carmine cheek; stem cinnamon color, three-quarters to seven-eighths 
of an inch long, by one-sixth thick, inserted in a rather deep, narrow cavi- 
ty; calyx open, with short erect segments, set in a wide, shallow basin; seed 
dark, plump, acute, with an angle on one side of the blunt end; flesh fine 
texture, buttery, melting; flavor exceedingly luscious; quality "best." Un- 
der the name of White Doyenne or Butter Pear, which it is to all intents 
and purposes, this variety has repeatedly received a premium at our Annual 
Exliibiiions. And not until recently were we informed by Mrs. Liggitt that 
it originated from seed of the Butter Pear planted about twenty-five years 
ago by her grandmother, Madame Regnier. On examining the tree, wdiich 
is now two feet seven inches in circumference at the surface of the earth, 
there is no appearance of its having been worked. Many suckers have 
sprung up from the root, presenting a similarity in wood and foliage to the 
tree itself. The growth is more eieot and the top moro full and rounded 
than is usual with the White Doyenne. We would suggest a trial of this 
viiriety in localities where the White Doyenne has long since ceased to 
flourish. 

From Henry W. Tei-ry, Hartford, Connecticut — The Clark Pear, a sup- 
posed Seci'ling. Size medium, two and one-half inches by two and seven- 
eighths, roundish; inclining to turbinate, broad at the crown, rounded at the 
base; skin smooth, greenish yellow, with numerous small russet dots, and 
Bometiuies a warm salmon cheek; stem one-inch by one-seventh, inserted in 
a very superfieinl depression; calyx small, closed, set in a wide, rather deep, 
furi ov/ed basin; seed brown, flat, inclining to oval, with a slight angle at 
the blunt end; flesh fine texture, buttery, melting; flavor excellent, with a 
delicate aroma; quality at least "very good;" perhaps we should not err in 
saying ''best." The Clark Pear bears a good deal of resemblance in form, 
texture, flavor and seed, to the Autumn Bergamot of Col. Carr, described 
in tlje Tiansactions of the National Congress of Fruit Growers, for 1849, 
page 72. 

Frojn Peter Paahe — Four varieties 'of his Seedling Grapes. Jn 1845, 
Mr. Raabe obtained a collection of Grape Seed from Germany, which he 
planted in a bed in his garden. Many of these seed vegetated ; and as 
the young plants were exposed, without the slightest protection, to the in- 
clemency of the weather, none but the hardiest survived. Of these the 
following four have already fruited, and are unquestionably varieties of 
great merit: 

The BrineMe — {Raahe's No. 1) — Bunch large, rather compact, sometimes 
ahouldered ; berry five-eighths of an inch in diameter ; round ; black ; flesh 
solid, not pulpy; flavor rich, vinous, and saccharine; quality "best." Fruit- 
ed in 1850 lor the first time. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 347 



The Emily — [Raahiis No. 2)— Bunch large, not very compact, occasion- 
ally sliouhlereJ; berry below medium, from three-eighths to one-half an inch 
in diameter; rouml ; pale red; flesh very juicy, with little or no pulp; 
flavor saccharine and delicious; quality "best," for an out-door grape. 
Fruited in 1S60 for tlie first time. 

Tke Raahe — {Raabn's No. 3) — Bunch small, compact, rarely shouldered; 
berry below medium ; round; dark red, thickly covered with bloom; flesh 
very juicy, with soai'cely any pulp; flavor saccharine, with a good deal of 
the Catawba nroma ; quality "best." Although the Raabo originated in 
the same bed with the Bcinckle and Emily, its unequivocal Catawba flavor 
and native leaf induce us to believe that it sprung from a chance seed of the 
Catawba that had accidentally gained admission into the bed. This opinion 
is strengthened by the fact that tlie Catawba was in bearing in Mr. Raabe's 
garden at tlie time he planted the seed Le received from Germany. It 
fruited in 1S50 for the first time. 

The Clara — (Jta.abe's No. i) — Bunch medium; not compact; berry me- 
dium ; round; green, faintly tinged witli salmon when exposed to the sun; 
flesh tender, juicy ; flavor ricli, sweet, and' delicious ; quality "best." 
Fruited the present season for the first time. 

From Benj. G-tdlks — The Gorgan Peach, two and one-half inches by two 
and throe. quarters ; roundish, with a slight prominence at the apex ; dull 
greenish wliite, clouded and blotched with red on the exposed 'side ; cavity 
wide, rather deep ; stone free ; ilesh whitish, slightly stained at the stone, 
juicy; flavor saccharine and exceedingly luscious; quality "best;" perioil 
of maturity middle to end of Sept'r. This fine serrate variety originated 
with Benjamin Gulliss, N. E. corner of Pine and Schuylkill Eighth streets, 
from a stone of the Morris White , planted in 184G. It fruited in 18o0 
for tlie first time. 

From II. B. Lladleij, Athens, Ohio — Enormous specimens of an apple, 
\i>}a(i\\Qii. Rhode Inland Sweet, but which we regard as Lyman's Pumpkin 
Sweet, Some of them were more than three inches long, and nearly four 
wide, and weighed 17 ounces; seed small, short, plump, oval; flavor sweet 
and pleasant; quality "good." 

From Win. Graham, gardener to the Philadelphia Blocklcy Almshouse — 
The Graham Grape; an accidental seedling raised by Mr. Graham. It 
sprung up in 1S4;3, and fruited in 1S50 for the first time. Bunch of me- 
dium size, shouldered, not compact ; berry half an inch in diameter, round, 
purple, thickly covered with a blue bloom; contains little or no pulp, and 
abounds in a saccharine juice of agreeable flavor; quality "best." The 
leaf indicates its native parentage. It is prcjbably a natural cross between 
the Bland and Elsinborough, both of which wore in bearing in the garden 
whore it originated. 

From Abraham Wismer, near Norristown, Pcrkiomcn township, Mont- 
gomery County — The Per kio men Shell-bark. This is the largest variety of 
Shell-bark we have met witli, measuring an inch and threc-cjuarters long, 
one and five-eighths wide, and one thick, and with the hull on two and a 
half inches long, two and three-eighths wide, and one and seven-eighths 
thick ; reverscil oblong — cordate; shell thin; kernel of "best" quality. 

From Wm. Canby, Wilmington, Delaware — more specimens of the deli- 
cious Seedling grape, described at the close of the ad interim lleport for 



548 THE FLORIST AND 



September, and Tvliich we hn,vo since nnnieil Delaniare Burgundy. We con- 
t"mno to entertain the same favomble opinion of its merits ; and regard it a 
decided acquision. 

From J. Fisk Allen, Salem, Masr-.achnsetts^^—St.GMdain Pear — Speci- 
mens remarkably fine and of unusual appearance ; two and five-eighths 
inches long, and two and five-eighths inches broad ; roundish, yellow with 
red eheek ; stem three-fourths of an inch long, one-fourth thick, very ileshy; 
flavor fine ; quality "very gooil." 

Frovi Robert Buchartan, Cincinnati, through Hugh Campbell, Esq. — 
very fine specimens of "six varieties of native Grapes." 

Alexander, Snhuylki.ll lIuKoadeUe, or Cape Grape. Althoiigh this va- 
riety is of inferior qualify for the table, the late Mr. Resor, of Cincinnati, 
made from it a superior wine, so similar to the Constantia as to be mistaken 
for it by some of our best wine connoiseui's. 

Mammoth Cataivba — Bunch large, shouldered, not compact ; berry large, 
seven-eighths of an inch in diameter ; round ; of a deeper ^red, and larger 
size than the Catawba, but not so high flavored; quality "very good." 

White Catawba — rBunch small ; berry large, seven-eighths of an inch in 
diameter; round; greenish white ; inferior to the Catawba in flavor and 
quality. 

Venango — a seedling from the Fox Grape. Bunch of medium size ; ber- 
ry three-fourths of an inch in diameter; round: pale red, attractive in ap- 
pearance ; superior in the size of the bunch, and in quality to its parent ; 
quality "very good." 

Ohio, or Segar-bflx — Bunch rather large ; berry below medium ; five- 
eighths of an inch in diameter ; roundish inclining to oval ; specimens 
scarcely ripe. Frotn this grape Mr. Longworth makes a wine of fine quality, 
closely resembling in flavor the Spanish Manzanilla. 

From the Rev. S. C. Brinckle, Wilmington, Delaware — Bonne de Zee — 
8ize full medium, two and a half inches long by two and five-eighths broad; 
roundish; cinnamon russet, interspersed with patches and irregular mark- 
ings of fair yellow; in which respect, it bears a striking analogy to the ex- 
terior coloring of the Uvvchlan; stem three-fourths of an inch long, and 
iwo-nintlis thick, inserted in a narrow, superficial cavity; calyx medium, set 
in a moderately deep, even basin; flesh fine texture, buttery, melting , flavor 
delicious; quality "very good," if not "best." These specimens differed 
in form and color from the Bonne de Zee we have more than once received 
from Boston, which was yellow and obovate. 

(To be continued.) 

MARYLAND HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

This Society held their annual exhibition at Carrol Hall, on the 27tb, 
28th, and 39th, of September. The display of flowering plants and vege- 
tables was vei'y superior — fruit was deficient in quantity. An assortment 
of pears from S. Feast & Sons, comprised several superior specimens. 

Grapes from J. Standenieyer, gardener to Geo. Brown, Esq., grown under 
glass, were highly creditable. As usual here the display of native grapes 
was vei-y extensive. But neither were they so well flavored or colored as 
they have been shown heretofore, with the exception of Isabellas from G. 
Brown, Esq^, these were very superior, 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL.' 349 



The following are the awards of the Committee : 

Best six bunches Isabella grapes, J. Standemeyer, gardener to Geo. 
Brown, Esq., 2nd. Capt Pracht. 

Best six bunches Cawtaba, W. C. Wilson, Esq., 2nd. F. J. Fuss, Esq. 
Best six bunches Madeira, Mrs. J. Albert, 2nd. W. C. Wilson. 
Best display native grapes, W. C. Wilson. 

Best three bunches Black Hamburg, Capt Pracht, these were grown in 
the open air, 2nd J. Standemeyer. 

Best display foreign grapes, J. Standemeyer, 3nd. Thos. V. Brundige, 
3rd. Robert Gibson. 

Best display of pears, S. Feast & Sons; among others were superior fruit 
of Vicar of Winkfield, Winter Nelis, Van Mods, Beurre Gria, Dutchess d' 
Angouleme, Bezy de Montigy, Doyenne de Alencon, Passe Colmar, Due de 
Bourdeaux, &c. 

Best half peck of pears, Charles Klasson, White Doyenne. 
Best Doz. Mrs. J. Albert, 2nd Pentland, Bro. 
Best doz. Plums, Mrs. J. Albert. 
Best Figs, W. C. Wilson, 2nd. Mrs. H. Easter. 
Best Cantelope melons, John Regester, 2nd. W. M. Lushby. 
Best Water-melons, John Regester. 

Discretionary premiums were awarded to Mrs. B. Whitely, for Peaches, 
Hon. S. Walker, Roxbury, Mass. for Pears, E. Kurtz for Pomegranates and 
Capt. J. Hugg, for Zante currant grapes. 

Vegetables were superb, considering the severe drouth of the past season. 
In general competition the awards were given for the best bushel of 
Potatoes to 0. Kemp, gardener to Miss Tiffany, 2nd. Whittemore & Bro. 
Best new var. potato, C. Campbell, gardener to Dr. Edmondson. 
Best dish Lima-beans, C. Campbell, 2nd. Whittemore & Bro. 
Best Carrots, D. K. Lushby, 2nd. Whittemore & Bro. 
Best Salsify, D. K. Lushby, 2nd. Wm. Lushby. 

Best Onions from seed, Wm. Saunders, gardener to Mr. Winans, 2nd. 
Whittemore & Bro. 

Best Red Cabbage, Hamilton Easter, 2nd. C. Campbell. 
Best Lettuce, D. K. Lushby. 

Vegetable marrow, H. Easter, 2nd. J. Standemeyer. 
Best Turnips, John Regester, 2nd. Whittemore & Bro.. 
Best Celery, James Galbraith, gardener to J. Ridgely, Esq, 
Best Egg-plants, D. K. Lushby, 2nd. J. Galbraith. 
Best Tomatoes, D. K. Lushby, 2nd. Wm. Lushby. 
Best Corn, C. Campbell, 2nd. Whittemore & Bro. 
Best Pumpkins, O. Kemp, 2nd. Whittemore & Bro. 
Best Crookncck Squash, Whittemore & Bro., 2nd. Jolin Regester. 
Best pickling Cucumbers, S. Feast & Sons, 2nd; C. Campbell. 
Best Parsnips, AV. Saunders, 2nd. D. K. Lushby, 
Brocoli, D. K. Lushby. 
Kohl Rabi, C. Campbell. 
Pepper, Whittemore & Bro. 

Amateur Premiums — Best Beet and Cabbage, C. Campbell. 
Best display of Vegetables, C. Campbell, 2nd. Hamilton Easter, Esq. 
Gardeners Premiums — Best Beet, D. K. Lushby, 2nd. Whittemore & 
Bro. 



350 THE FLORIST AND 



Best Cabbage, J. Regester, 2nd. Wm. Lusbby. 

Best display of Vegetables, 2nd. Whittemore &Bro. 3rd. D. K. Lusbby. 

Plants and Flowers— Best twenty-four greenhouse plants, C. Campbell, 
gardener to Dr. Edinondson, for large specimens of Hoya carnosa, Crinura 
araabile, Astrapoja Wallichii, Bonapartea juncea in flower, Gardenia amo- 
nse, Rhyncospernum jasminoidcs, Stigmapliyllum ciliatum. Cactus pereskia, 
Coffee, Tea and Pepper plants, Loquat and bitter and sweet Orange Trees, 
with other valuable large specimens. Second, Wra. Saunders, gardener to 
T. Winans, Esq., for Epacris impressa, E. Copeii and E. palludosa, Ericas 
Bowei, intermedia, versicolor, rubra and verticillata. Begonias manicata, 
sanguinea, hydrocotylefolia, odorata and fuchsiodes, Russelia juncea, Bur- 
chellia capensis, Veronicas Speciosa, Andersonii and Lindleyana, Achim- 
enes grandiflora, &c. Third, S. Feast & Sons — best twelve new and rare 
plants, 1st. John Feast, with Gardenia tubiflora, Hoyas mollis, imperialis 
and picta, Stephanotis Thouarsii, Echites picta, Ceropegia elegans, Plecth- 
ranthus picta, Bouganvillea spectabillis, Hovea Manglesii, Bauera rubiodes, 
and Dipladenia urophylla, 2nd. S. Feast & Sons, who had Gardenia Stan- 
leyana, Rhododendron Dalhouseanum, Alloplectus Speciosa, Combretum 
grandiflorum, Hoyas imperialis and cinnamomifolia, Chirita Moonii, Quis- 
qualis sinensis, Allamanda Schottii, Cyrtoceras multiflora, Clerodendron 
einuatum and Achimenes Longiflora alba. 3rd. Mr.- John Feast, for a lot 
of Commersonia rugosa, Phyllica imbricata, Adamia cyanea, Calladium 
bicolor, Correa Harrisii, Passaflora amabilis, Anthoceres speciosum, Allo- 
plectus speciosus, Combretum macrophyllum, Posoqueria longiflora, Proa- 
tanthera rotundifolia and Clematis indivisa lobata. 

Best twelve Roses in pots, Pentland & Bro. 

Best seedling rose to the same for a fine Noisette. 

Best twenty-four cut blooms roses, Mr. John Tuomay, 2nd. Pentland & 
Bro. 

Best twenty var. dahlias, W. C. Wilson, 2nd. J. Galbraith. 

Best twelve dahlias, 0. Kemp, 2nd. S. Feast & Sons. 

Best seedling dahlia, J. Galbraith. 

Best six var. Achimenes, J. Standemeyer, 2nd. S. Feast & Sons. 

Best Balsams, Mr. Fuss. 

Best Asters, Mr. Kurtz, 2nd. Mr. Sharp. 

Best display of Verbenas, W. Saunders. 

Best Tuberoses, J. Galbraith. 

Best seedling Petunia, W. Saunders. 

Best Phloxes, Dr. Edmonson. 

Best Cockscombs, Mr. Sharp. 

Mr. Levering sent in leaves of Paulownia imperialis that measured three 
feet by two. 

For the best hand bouquet to Mr. J. Galloway, 2nd. H. Bosse, 3rd. S. 
Feast & Sons. 

Best design for decorating the room, Mrs. Rodiewald, 2nd. S. Feast & 
Sons, 3rd. Miss A. Feast, 4th. Linnaeus Feast. 

Best table design of cut flowers, S. Feast & Sons, 2nd. Miss Kurtz, 3rd 
S. Feast & Sons.-; 

Best basket of flowers, S. Feast & Sons, 2nd. Miss Pigman, 3rd Miss L. 
Feast. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 851 



Discretionary premiums were awarded for larp;e and beautiful design not 
entered in coTipetition to Pentland & Bro. For baskets of flowers to Miss 
Kurtz, and Mrs. Pentland, and bouquets to Miss Edmondson and Pentland 
& Bro. • Wii, Sau:nders, Cor. Sec'y. 



Arborial Curiosity. — The interest you take in trees, Mr. Editor, leads 
me to present to your cabinet of curiosities a note on a "curious curiosity." 
You have no doubt often seen trees with one trunk and two heads; but did 
you ever see one with one head and two trunks? You may have heard of 
one — the celebrated Welbeck oak, with an opening large enough to drive a 
carriage and horses through ; but tliat was cut artificially for a wager. This 
is, for aught any one living can tell, a "natural case." On the road leading 
from West Chester to Marshallton in this State, is the White Hickory, pro- 
bably three feet in diameter, which stands on two bases from three feet of 
the ground. Long heads and round heads have been equally puzzled as tO' 
the liow and the ivhij. M. 



COLLECTANEA FRAGRARIANA. 

Oar present number contains a long article on this vexed question, almost 
sufBcient of itself to form a treatise. Having promised the author space 
for another hearing, we could not well decline publishing it, which we should 
have done had we been apprised of its great lengtli. 

The importance of the subject to practical farmers w^ill not warrant the 
»ise of so much space, particularly as it has now been narrowed down to a 
mere abstract point. It seems to be admitted all around, that a bed of pis- 
tillate varieties will not proiluce a full crop witiiout the presence of stami- 
natos. This is not the question at issue, but whctlier, under any circum- 
stances, a pistillate plant will vary its prevailing characteristics, be liable to 
become staminate or perfect, and ^^rocZttcr fruit. On the one side it is con- 
tended this is impossible, and as unnatural as for a cow to turn into a bull, 
the pistillate or other peculiarity being the Ji.rcd law of its nature — its true 
normal condition. By fruit, in this connection, we understand to bo meant 
what is usually called the fruit of the strawberry, {the rece])tacle containing 
the secil,) and not the seed itself, which is the real fruit. Leaving the fact, 
or otherwise, of this in the case of the strawberry, analogy would seem to- 
settle it as neither impossible or improbable. The Maclura, a diocciou& 
plant, produces the osage orange apple, or receptacle containing imperfect seed^ 
many miles away from any staminate influence, and as Dame Nature is usu- 
ally a consistent old lady, what she does once slie may do again. 

Neither will it be denied that the strawberry plant, in its normal condi- 
tion, has perfect flowers, and there are very many analagous cases, of plants' 
under a change of circumstances, reverting back to, or varying from their 
original character. This is no new fact in vegetable Physiology'-. 

But when the very foremost champion of the fixed sexuality of the straw- 
berry plant, voluntarily comes forward over his own signature, and gives up 
the whole case, and of his own accord knocks away every prop of the plat- 



B52 fiiE FLOHIST AND 



form on which he and his friends have been contending, there is surely no 
use in further discussion in the Farm Journal or anywhere else. 

N. Longworth, in a late number of the Western Horticultural Review, 
concludes an article as follows : "AsLongworth's Prolific (which is herma- 
phrodite) produces a chance pistillate blossom, I see no reason for saying 
that there may not be a pistillate bearing an occasional hermaphrodite or 
Stammate blossom."' This admission covers the whole ground, and is ex- 
actly what T. Meehan has been assailed for asserting. One remark further, 
in conclusion, which simple justice to him seems to require. It is insinu- 
ated, and indeed directly asserted, that he had seen the article by W. D. 
before penning his own, and had copied the ideas from it. On the contra- 
ry, being accidentally on a visit to West Chester, he informed us that he 
had forwarded his article to the Horticulturist, and this was before the issue 
of the number of the Farm Journal containing W. D.'s essay. That their 
views should have been identical, is no more strange than that the views of 
scientific men should happen to agree on a scientific question when they are 
2000 miles apart, and had never met. — Farm Journal. 



Our actual opinion is this : that a pistillate by itself may, and often does 
produce fruit to some extent ; but that to insure what is called a crop it is 
absolutely necessary to plant staminates near them. — Ud. Horticulturist. 



" I have a pistillate strawberry flowering ; there is not, nor has not for 
many months, been a staminate in flower on the premises, nor perhaps for 
twenty miles, and the fruit is swelling very well. I merely notice this as 
showing that fruit will sometimes swell independent of pollen. I always 
thought so, now I know it." — W. S., Bait, Sept. 23. 



The Pennsylvania Fakm Journal. — This valuable and interesting mag- 
azine comes out this month under partly new management. Mr. J. M. 
Meredith having retired from the Register and Examiner will devote him- 
self entirely to the publication of the Farm Journal. The circulation is 
deservedly very large, and we hope that it will still continue to increase. It 
is published at Westchester, Pa., at 1 dollar per annum. 



Major P. R. Freas, of the Germantown Telegraph, has disposed of vA 
interest in that paper to Mr. John C. Stoever. We believe that the Tel'e- 
graph is more largely circulated in the neighboring counties than any other 
paper. It is an excellent family paper, and the agricultural portion is con- 
ducted by Mr. Freas : no further recommendation is needed. 



Through some unaccountable delay, on the other side,, several plates 
which were shipped on the 31st. of May last have failed to come to hand. 
We are therefore, compelled to issue this number without one ; the deficien- 
cy will be made up in the December number. 

» 

We again ask the attention of our delinquent Subscribers to the bills 
which we mailed them some time ago ; in most cases it has proved a mere 
waste of postage stamps. 




QUEEN VICTORIA 




rdi" Nil I 



THE FLOEIST 

AID IIOETICULTUEAL JOUEIAL. 

Vol. n.] Pliiladelpliia, December, 1853. [No. 12. 

ROSE QUEEN VICTORIA. 
Tlie Rose which Ave fio;ure in this nilmbcr is a seedlinc; raised in 
t'rauce, and named in honour of his Queen by Mr. Paul, the cele- 
brated English Horticulturist, who obtained the stock of the plant. 
M. Van Houttc, says of it that " it places itself in the first rank 
among Hybrid Perpetuals ; nothing equals the softness of the 
colour of these large flowers so delicately shaded with rose on a 
white ground, and even the fact of its being less full than the Rose 
lie la Rcine, turns to its advantage, because it renders uiore easy 
the symmetricid opening of its^ flowers." The place of its nativity, 
whether near Paris or at Lyons is uncertain. 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF THE PACANE NUT. 

By John Le Conti!:.__ 

This species of Ilickorea, which I found cultivated in Georgia, is 
a native of the State of Texas. The small altitude which it attains, 
the later period of its foliation, and the very dift'erent form of the 
nut, readily distinguish it from every other hitherto described, I 
have adopted Mr. Rafinesqiie's name, Ilickorea, for the genus, in 
preference to Mr. Nuttal's Carya, on the ground of priority. What- 
ever may have been the errors or aberrations of Ralinosque, Nuttal 
was not justified in clianging a name proposed by the former, years 
before any publication of his own. 

IIicKOREA TEXANA. — Tree about ten feet high. Leaves 13 inches 
long, frequently rather over than under this nioasuremonl, rom- 
40 



354 THE FLORIST AND 

> 
posed of six or seven pairs of leaflets, scarcely petiolated, with a 
terminal odd one on a rather long petiole; leaflets lanceolate acn-- 
minate, the lower ones more convex on the upper than the lower 
edge, dentate on the upper edge from about one third the distance' 
from the base ; the lower edge is alwa3^s most entire, except a few 
small teeth near the point. The terminal leaflet is dentate on both 
edges, but not near the base ; nut somewhat ovate, pointed at the 
upper extremity, less so at the lower, flattened, somewhat rough, and! 
slightly angled ; 14 inches long, one inch broad. ^ 

Differs from H. olivaeformis or common Pacane nut, in being; a 
much smaller tree, seldom being more than 10 or 12 feet high, 
whilst the other frequently reaches to 80 or 90 feet ; in the smaller 
size of the leaves, which rarely exceed 14 inches in length, the 
leaflets being 4 or 5 inches long, whilst the H. olivseformis has the 
leaves from 19 to 20 inches long and the leaflets 7 inches ; but 
most peculiarly in the shape of the nut ; this, in our species, is 
ovate, flattened, although protuberant on the sides and rough ; ini 
the other very smooth, cylindrical, pointed at each end. The 
leaves of the H. oliveeformis are fully formed before this specieS' 
shows the least sign of foliation. 








H. OLIV-^FORiMIS. H. TEXANA. 

From tJie' proceedings Acad. Nat. Set. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 355 

STRAY THOUGHTS ON GRAPE CULTURE. 

When Mr. Chorlton announced his work — '-The Cold Grapery," we felt 
much disposed to bring up a cut bono argument on the subject. What good 
thought we, to write another full treatise on a subject so simple, and whicli 
every one who has a grape vine tJiinJcs he understands ? But the past sea- 
son has dispelled all doubts of that kind ; the late exhibitions have told 
another tale ; the miserable apology for "luscious grapes," which we find 
every where through the country, with a few worthy exceptions, have de- 
monstrated that Chovlton's treatise, or a treatise of some kind, should be iu 
the hands of the majority of those who now attempt to grow grapes. The 
reason given for the falling off in New York is, that the atmospheric con 
ditions necessary to perfect culture have been imperfect during the past 
season ; but, as some few grape growers there have been as successful as 
formerly, the atmosphere can have had little to do with the inferiority of the 
others. In Pennsylvania, judging by the specimens from many parts ex- 
hibited at its meeting, the same inferiority was observable. There was, it 
is true, a larger display, and the bunches on the average were larger than 
last year; some Black Hamburgs reaching the perhaps hitherto unparalelled 
weight of five pounds eight ounces each. But in the main essentials of a 
well grown grape, color and size of berry, the display was more deficient 
than we ever noted any one before. That no atmospheric causes effected 
this was apparent from the fact that some few bunches were perfect and 
these too, frequently from the same locality as the badly colored ones ; and 
indeed every experienced horticulturist knows, that this has little to do with 
the coloring of grapes, whatever it may have to do with their ripening ; and 
that in management alone the great secret lies. We have, indeed, lieard it 
argued, that color is meve]j fanci/ ; and that grapes badly colored, if they 
are larger, and better flavored than others of the same kind, are really su- 
perior, and should be awarded so. This if subjunctive is too often taken for 
the positive. In all our experience — and this has been "some" — we have 
not yet met with that "Red" or "Wliite" Hamburg, the flavour of which 
equalled the genuine. We have certainly met with them sweet and 
eatable, resembling thickened lioncy, or half frozen ice cream ; but havirg 
that inexpressible "lusciousness" of a real perfect grape — never. We have 
often been deceived into pronouncing a badly colored grape fine, when no 
opportunity afforded for immediate comparison; but not in a single instance 
where that could be made — mere size is soon overruled ; for that without 
flavor, should only be tested by judges who are hungry. 

We fear no material objection in stating that as a rule, badly colored 
grapes, though famous for their obesity, are but the products of diseased 



356 THE FLORIST AisB 

vines. Many causes may produce this disorder, and no one in particular ; 
over cropping is a fruitful source of evil ; although that term is one which 
it would take a whole treatise in itself to explain — a healthy, vigorous vine, 
with strong luxuriant roots, will safely hear to perfection double the crop 
that a poor scrub with half rotten roots will do. We have seen the most 
scanty crop of grapes, ill colored, wliile, on the other hand, we have seen 
crops on an old vine, which had fine vigorous roots, feeding on the water of 
a neighboring pond and not slaughter house drainings, bear crops that 
most gardeners in these days would think "tremendous," and yet most 
perfectly colored. The greatest aim in good grape growing should be to- 
preserve every root, and encourage an abundance of them. The borders 
should be drained to prevent injury from stagnant water ; while they should 
not be made so dry as to allow the roots to get scorched in summer. It 
should be composed of materials favorable to the ramification of the fibres,. 
such as a coarse turfy loam, having mixed with it a quantity of coarse 
silicious matter, or broken bricks, soft stones or even lime rubbish. It 
should be enriched with materials Listing in tlieir tendency, and not having 
the property of turning ultimately into a "slimy, gelatinous mass." It 
should not be cropped, or get an annual digging, but every year get a fresh 
but moderate dressing of manure, and every precaution taken to encourage 
the fibres to keep as near the surface as possible. A good supply of roots 
aifords a firm foundation upon which to build ones future hopes ; but this is 
but the beginning of the end. Roots are injured by other causes separable 
from the border. Severe summer pruning; an insufficiency of light and air 
to the wants of the foliage, and, probably, some other eauses ; have more 
influence on preventing an abundant production of roots than many woulcl 
be disposed to admit. But I can do no more in this paper, than thus briefly 
allude to them. The reader follow them up for himself, once fairly on the 
track. 

The result of this care for the healthy laxuriousness of the vine, will be 
fine, well ripened wood in the fall — such wood as can be made at any time 
to produce full crops of plump cheeked, chubby faced looking berries, with the 
rich, full colored hue which they should ever bear ; without caring a fig for 
the "atmosphere" outside, unless it brings with it the notorious Oidiunn 
Tuckeri, as they have odiously dubbed the French vine mildew. ^^ 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 857 

MANAGEMENT OF CIDER APPLE TREES. 

Clioico of the Situation and Soil for a Nursery. — The situation of a 
nursery should be sheltered from high winds, .but at the same time it should 
not be so near any plantation of large trees as to be in danger of its soil 
being invaded by their roots. If the soil at our disposal is argillaceous, 
compact, and generally sloping towards the south, that situation is the best 
of any ; but if the soil is light and dry, a level surface, with a northern ex- 
posure, is to be preferred. In strong land, having a flat surface, and a 
clayey or impervious subsoil, the trees become infested with lichens or moss; 
in sandy or gravelly soils they languish, and in many cases the extremities 
of the shoots die off every year ; whilst they are subject to chlorosis ( yeU 
lowness) in soils that are too calcareous, that is to say, containing much 
chalk or carbonate of lime. From what has been stated, it will appear that, 
the nature of the soil and aspect are not matters of indifference with the re- 
gard to the success of a nursery. When the trees fi'om a nursery are in- 
tended to be planted in its own neighbourhood, the fittest soil to establish it 
on is that which approaches nearest in its nature to that of the greater part 
of the ground in the locality, because the yjoung trees will not find any 
change in the elements of their nutrition when they are transplanted, and 
this greatly assists their taking root. For a seedling nursery, a soil rather 
light than strong is generally preferred ; but for a training nursery, land 
which has a greater degree of tenacity, or that contains a greater proportion 
of clay than of sand, is the most proper ; if it is not calcareous the addi- 
tion of marl would be beneficial. 

Having made choice of the situatidn, we must proceed to trench the whole 
of the ground. This operation should be performed at a dry time of the 
year, such as August, September, or October, in order to avoid spoiling the 
ground by working it when wet. The surface should be left rough, that the 
ground may be ameliorated by exposure to air and light and that it may be- 
come more friable. 

Fourteen to sixteen inches is a sufficient depth for the trenching of a seed 
nursery, because the plants do not remain long in it ; twenty inches would 
be a good mean for a training nursery, for if the trenching were very deep 
it would cause the trees to become tap-rooted, and they would not readily 
take root when transplanted. 

Whatever be the depth adopted in trenching, the different layers of earth 
should be mixed, in order to obtain a soil as nearly homogeneous as possible ; 
but if wo operate on pasture land the turf should be placed at the bottom of 
the trenches. Compost and manure should be employed with discretion 
when they arc judged necessary. Animal and vegetable manures, reduced 



S58 THE FLORIST AND 

to the state of a finely divided mould, or humus, suit the seedling nurse- 
ries perfectly well, because these moulds, being plentifully spread and well 
incorporated with the soil, to. the depth at which the seeds should be sown 
.and put forth their roots, facilitate, and even induce, quick germination 
.and a more satisfactory development. But a training nursery should not be 
thus treated. Manure, especially hot stable dung, should be only very 
sparingly applied, because nothing has a greater tendency to produce cank- 
er on young Apple trees than too rich, too highly manured, or too moist 
ground. 

Although there may be no advantage in raising the Apple trees ourselves 
which we intend to put into the nursery, and although we may often do bet- 
ter by purchasing the quantity of plants that is required, still we think it 
necessary to say a few words on the manner of sowing the seeds, because 
some persons have plants from vigorous trees, which are in various respects 
remarkable, and from which they hope to obtain good varieties, with the 
view of advantageously replacing those that become more and more diseased 
and unproductive. 

Preparation and Sowing of the Pi^js. — The pomace of Apples is taken 
and rubbed between the hands in a tub of water, so as to separate the pulp 
from the pips. After allowing the water to remain a short time to settle, 
the contents of the tub or other vessel are poured off, so as to get clear of 
the pomace and bad seed. The pips that are at the bottom of the vessel 
are the only ones that should be made use of. They should be well dried, 
and kept in a dry place till they are sown. The sowing should be made im- 
mediately the hard frosts are over, because the seed of the Apple, like that 
of the Pear, does not long retain its germinating power. 

The ground having been well prepared, divided, and suflBciently manured 
with decayed manure, drills are made about one inch in depth, and from 
seven to nine inches apart. ( The plough and harrow are not employed in 
these sowings, except when they are made on a very extensive scale, as in 
some communes of Rumois.) The seeds are then put in the drills, and are 
covered by a rake. If the ground is dry, it is made firmer with the roller 
or the back of a spade. 

We may also sow broadcast, but weeding is performed with greater diffi- 
culty ; and the stirring of the soil, which is so beneficial and easy in the 
rows, is nearly impossible in broadcast sowings. 

In whichever way the sowing has been made, the ground, if of small ex- 
tent, should be covered with decayed manure, or with fine litter, so as to 
keep the soil moist, and prevent the surface from drying and cracking. We 
may sometimes succeed by merely spreading the pomace upon the ground, to 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 3&9 



which it serves as a dressing, and forking it in, together with the pips itf 
Contains. 

When the young plants are some one or two inches high, the weakest are' 
thinned out, if possible, in the evening before rain ; but failing that, the 
ground should be watered, in order to consolidate it about the roots. 

The culture, during the growing season, consists in weeding and frequent 
stirring of the ground, in order to keep it loose. 

When- the plants are one year old they are chosen for the training nur- 
sery ; for Apple trees selected at that age are preferred to older ones. 

Transplantation and Choice of the Plants. In order to obtain the plants' 
with all, or nearly all, their roots, an open trench must be made. The' 
Strongest should not be pulled up by the hand, as is frequently the case, 
because a part of the roots would be broken and left in the earth. In gen- 
eral the plants should not be taken up until we are ready to plant. 

At the same age, the stoutest plant, not the tallest, is the best, that is, 
one which has the best roots and that has had the most air and light in the 
nursery, because not having been crowded and drawn up by its neighbours, 
such plants have thicker and stronger stems, their roots are also more nu- 
merous and spreading. This shows us that it is hiizardous to sow too thick- 
ly, as the plants produced would be slender and uprovided with lateral roots. 

The Training Nursery. — Time of planting, preparation of the roots. 
— Distance between the plants. — In light soils, as well as in those of moder- 
ate tenacity, plantin-g should be performed immediately after the leaves have 
fallen in November, or the beginning of December ; but in argillaceous soils 
which require to undergo the ameliorating cfl'ects of frost and thaw, it is con- 
sidered preferable to plant in February or March, as the e.xcess of wet in 
winter might prove injurious to the roots. 

The preparation or dressing of the roots consists in shortening them a 
little, and also in taking otf tlie ex'tremity of the tap root, if there is one. 

The distance between the plants should be the same every way ; but the 
necessity, of turning the soil to account, and maintaining an easy access be- 
tween the rows, as well for air and light as for the workmen, generally causes 
more space to be left between the rows than between the plants in the row. 

As the rearing of Apple trees, till fit for planting out, Usually occupies 
from eight to nine years, forty inches between the rows and from twenty to 
twenty-four inches between the plants in the rows, appear to be suflBcient. 
By this arrangement, air and light penetrate much more easily along than 
across the rows. In determining the direction of the rows, the nature of 
soil should also be considered, in light soils, where it is requisite that the 
trees shuuhl ])rotuct each other from drought and from tlie heat of the sun, 
the direction of the rows should be from east to west ; whilst in wet cold soils, 
the rows should run from north to south, in order that the noon-day sun 
may penetrate between them and warm the ground. 

3Iode of I'lanting. — Having traced the direction of the rows, we proceed 
to plant either with the spade or dibber. Planting with the dibber is only 
suited to plants having tap-roots. The spado is in every respect preferable; 
it allows us to lay the roots in their natural position, and to cover them with 
the finest of the earth. 

Unless the stem is very tall and slender, it is never shortened the same 
year that the transplantation takes place. In this case, the third of the 



360 THE FLORIST AND 



stem, or one half at the utmost, is cut off, in order that it may grow upright; 
but at the same time a sufficient number of buds is left to produce plenty of 
leaves, as these encourage the tree to take root by elaborating the sap for 
the production of numerous small roots. Gard. Chron. 



PERMANENCE OF VARIETIES. 

The species of plants, like those of animals, appear to be eternal, so far 
as anything mundane can deserve that name. There is not the smallest 
reason to suppose that the Olive of our days is different from that of Noal; 
the Asa dulcis stamped upon the coins of Gyrene still flourishes around the 
site of that ancient city ; and the Acorns figured among the sculptures of 
Nimrod seem to show that the same Oak now grows on the mountains of 
Kurdistan as was known there in the days of Sardanapalus. There is not 
the slightest evidence to show that any species of plant has become extinct 
during the present order of things. All species have continued to propa- 
gate themselves by seeds, without losing their specific peculiarities ; some 
appointed law has rendered them and their several natures eternal. 

It would seem moreover that, with the exception of annuals and others 
of limited existence, the lives of the individual plants born from such seed 
would be eternal also, if it were not for the many accidents to which they 
are exposed, and which eventually destroy them. Trees- and other plants 
of a perennial nature are renovated annually ; annually receding from the 
point which was originally formed, and which in the nature of things must 
perish in time. The condition of their existence is a perpetual renewal of 
youth. In the proper sense of the word decrepitude cannot overtake them. 
The Iris creeps along the mud, ever receding from the starting point, renews 
itself as it advances, and leaves its origins;! stem to die as its new shoots 
gain vigor ; in the course of centuries a single Iris might creep around the 
world itself, if it could only find mud in which to root. The Oak annually 
forms new living matter over that which was previously formed, the seat of 
life incessantly retreating from the seat of death.* When such a tree de- 
cays no injury is felt, because the centre which perishes is made good at 
the circumference, over which new life is perennially distributed. In the 
absence of accidents such a tree might have lived from the creation to this 
hour ; travellers have even believed that they had found in the forests of 
Brazil living trees that must have been born in the days of Homer. But 
here again inevitable accidents interfere, and the trees are prevented from 
being immortal. 

Species, then, are eternal ; and so would be the individuals sprung from 
their seeds, if it were not for accidental circumstances. 

But plants are multiplied otherwise than by seeds. The Hyacinth and 
the Garlic propagate naturally, not only by seeds, but also by the perpetual 
separation of their own limbs, known under the name of bulbs, their bulbs 
undergoing a similar natural process of dismemberment; and so on for ever. 
The Potato plant belongs to the same class. Another plant bends its 
branches to the ground-; the branches put forth roots, and as soon as these 
roots are established the connection between parent and oCFspring is broken, 
and a new plant springs into independent existence. Of this we find fa- 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 361 



miliar examples in the Strawberry and tiie 'Willow. Man turns this pro- 
perty to account by artificial processes uf multiplication ; one tree he pro- 
pagates by layers, another by cuttings planted in the ground. Going a 
step further he inserts a cutting of one individual upon the stem of some 
other individual of the same species, under tbe name of a bud or a scion, 
and thus obtains a vegetable twin. 

It is not contended, for there is nothing to show, that these artificial pro- 
ductions are more short-lived than either parent, provided the constitution 
of the two individuals is in perfect accordance. There is not the smallest 
evidence — it lias not been even conjectured — that if a seedling Apple tree 
isicut into two parts, and these parts are reunited by grafting, the duration 
of' the tree will be shorter than it would have been in the absence of the 
•operation. 

It is nevertheless believed by many that the races of some cultivated 
jdants have but a brief duration, provided the}' are multiplied otherwise 
than by seeds. No one indeed pretends that the Garlic of Ascalou has 
only a short life, although it has been thus propagated from the time when 
it bdre the name of Shummin, and fed the laborers at the Pyramids; nor 
<1(J we know tliat tlie bulb-bearing Lily has been supposed to have less iu- 
Jlerent vigor than if it \\ere multiplied by seeds instead of bulbs. It is 
only among certuin kinds of plants that exceptions to the great natural law 
tii vegetation are supposed to exist. It is thuught that although the wild 
i'otato possesses iudetinite vitality, yet that the varieties of it which are 
brought iut<j cultivation pass their lives circumscribed within very narrow 
limits ; and the same doctrine has been held concerning fruit trees. The 
j^reat advocate of this view, the late Mr. Andrew Kniglit, rested his case 
(ipon the disappearance of certain kinds of Apples and Pears, once to be 
found in the orchards of Herefordshire, but now no longer to be met with. 
This he ascribed to cultivated varieties being naturally short-lived, and to 
an impossibility of arresting their gradual decay by any process of dismem- 
berment ; and following out this theory he strongly urged the necessity of 
Jenewing vitality by continually raising. fresh varieties from seed. It is 
<lifEcult to comprehend what train of reasoning led to this speculation. We 
know that wild plants may be propagated by dismemberment for an indefi^- 
nite period ; we know that when sucli wild plants s[iring up from seed the' 
dismembering process still goes on and still without exhibiting symptoms of 
exhausted vitality ; and yet if a plant grows in a garden, and is brought 
under the direct control of man, the power is thought to be lost, or so nnicli 
impaired that indefinite multiplication no longer becomes possible. Carl" 
tliis be true V Most assureiUy the cases adduced m support of the doctrinij 
aro susceptible of another explanation, perfectly consistent with tiie geriftrul 
laws of vegetation. 

That renewal by seed will not restore what is called exhausted vitality, 
was sufficiently proved by the experiments with Potatoes after the blignt 
made its api>earance. We were assurcil by an ingenious writer in one of 
the daily [lapers that tiie eonstitutiomil power of the Potato was on tlVe de- 
cline ; in other words, that the lives of individuals was upproaeliing their 
end ; that the blight arose in consequence, and that a certain reihody vVould 
be the renewal of the extsting races by sowing seeds. Huildi'eds j'oiuoU 
46 



362 THE FLORIST AND 



eagerly in what proved to be the vain pursuit. A worthy armorer at So- 
lingen even published an elaborate piiinphlet in support of the idea. Nein 
mehr hungersnoth — no more famine — was his audacious motto — a prediction 
wofully falsified by the result, for the seedling Potatoes -were, if possible^ 
more diseased than their parents. 

So many persons, however, disregarding what we presume to think the 
preponderating weight of evidence to the contrary, still continue to look 
upon the question as one open to further discussioiry that a learned German 
Scientific Society has determined to make it the subject of further and more 
elaborate examination. 

A committee appointed under the DemidofF foufidatioa in Berlin, has just 
announced that a prize of SOL (200 tliakr.s) is oE^red for the best essay 
upon the duration of life in plants propagated otherv.-ise thim by seed. The' 
question to which competitors must address themselves may be thus freely 
translated : — " Is the life of an individual plant, in its wide.st sense, that is 
to sny, of a phint itself raised from seed and then propagated otherwise 
than by seed (by euttings, layers, bads, grafts, kc), unlimited in duration^ 
ami destructible only by accidental or external unfavorable circumstances, 
before the extinction of the species itself? or is the life of such an indivi- 
dual limited, and to a certain definite extent shorter than the duration of 
the species ?" 

Competitors .ire expected to- give, in addition to any unpublished cases, 
the fullest possible collection and examination of published facts relating to 
the degeneracy or total extinction of seedlings, preserved and propagated 
otherwise than by seed, and more particularly of seedling fruits cultivated 
in Europe, viz., Apples, Pears, Quinces, Medlars, Plums, Gherries, Apricots, 
Peaches, Almonds, Figs, Mulberries, the" different kinds of Orange, Olives^ 
Walnuts, Filberts, Grapes, Gooseberries, Currants, P-aspberries, and Straw- 
berries ; and the sources from which the facts are taken, must be stated. 
Attention must also be paid to the circumstances under which the degener- 
ation of the plants reported on occurred ; the climate and soil in which they 
grew, the treatment and care they received, so- far as these can affect the 
answer to be given ta the- question, and any evidence relating to them which 
can be found. 

It is announced that the essays for the prize may be written in Es^glish, 
French, German, Italian, or Latin, and must be delivered before the 1st of 
March, 1854, to Dr. Nees von Esendeck, the President of the Academy 
of Naturalists at Breslau. Each essay must have a motto prefixed, and in 
an accompanying envelope the name of the writer must be given. The re- 
sult of the award is to be made known in the Bonplandia nev/spaper of the 
17th June, 1851, and the successful essay will be printed in the Transac- 
tions of the Academy ISaturL« Curiosorum. Full particulars will be found 
in the Allgemeine G-urttnzeitung for the 50th July, of the preFcnt year. 

Since it is obvious that no special experiments can now be instituted for 
the purpose of testing this theory, the attention of the essayists will neces- 
sarily be confined to a diligent accumulation of evidence, and to the con- 
clusions which it renders necessary. We .da-re say the proposal will find 
respondents among men of leisure who have access to large libraries, and 
■we venture to liope that they will be able to settle so vexed a subject. We 
trust they will take care not to confound the duration of natural seedlings 
V'ith that of vegetable mules, which is a wholly different question. — G. CUrun. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 363 



New Brightox, Staten Island, ) 
November 14, 1853. / 
Mr. Hanson — 

Dear Sir: — I do not wish to enter tlie arena of public warfare now being 
so fiercely w;igO(l on the vexed strawberry question, but when I see so much 
assertion, without the least shadow of a scientific proof, being so strongly 
advocated by the firm of Longworth, Prince & Co., I cannot refrain from 
recording an example which has come under my own observation. Wliat a 
"mare's nest" have they discovered and what has it brought forth but 
"moonshine ?" It is a pitj^ that these gentlemen with all their experience 
and practice, should not have observed a little closer the action of nature's 
laws, and been more susceptible of conviction, instead of abiding so closely 
by the argument, "It is so, because it is." Had they made the same use of 
their brains as the immortal Linnieus did, they would have known before 
this, that a pistillate strawberry might be made uuder favorable influences 
to produce stamens, but — 

"A man convinced against his will, 
Is of the same opinion still." 
and it appears to be the case with them. 

However faulty and prejudiced the English character may be generally, 
there has been no cause for accusation in this matter ; and it ad<ls nothing 
to the credit of men who move in so respectable a position, to be retorting 
upon nationality when discussing matters relating to science. Their owmi 
vindictiveness proves their want of argument, and if their foundation was 
safe they would not be writing their own burlesque. 

It is to vegetable physiolcigy and experiment that wc must go for proof, 
and Mr. Meehan has done nothing more, neither did he in the beginning 
record anything but a simple explanation of the results of his own experi- 
ence and conviction, founded ujion the above basis, and my own observa- 
tions bring me to the same conclusion. In proof of these statements, allow 
me to record the progress in blossoming of a bed of strawberries for the 
last three years at this place. The variety was obtained from a reliable 
source for Ilovey's Seedling, but for the present purpose it matters not 
■what the kind is, I only wish to show that sexual fixedness is not so certain 
as our friends would have us believe, but under certain influences is likely 
to alter. During the season of ISoO, this bed of strawberries did not suf- 
fer from drought, nor much by scorching from the sun, and the season ufler, 
viz. 1851, tlie blossoms were nearly all hermaphrodite, during the sanio 
summer they were much injured by drought, the growth was more stunted, 
and the season after (185-!) they were all pistillate without exception, this 
same summer the growth was somewhat less injureil by <lry weather, and 
the last season (1853) there was at commencement of blooming, a more than 
equal share of hermaphrodite blossoms, as blossoming advanced the pistil- 
late became more numerous until at last nearly all were so, during this timo 
the weather became very scorching and they were purposely left unwatered. 
I had ocular demonstration of these various changes, which were watched 
with much interest. 

Now let us turn to a physiological view of this sanie subject. The first 
movement of vegetable action in spring is, merely a development of thoso 



364 THE FLORIST AND 



parts which were formed the fall previous, the various parts thus formed 
swell out and expand by the vital action of the plant, and the aid of heat, 
light, and moisture, and according as steady and healthy concentration ac- 
cumulated until all these parts were perfected previous to expansion, so 
■will be the perfectness in formation of each individual part, and vice versa. 
If we take the generality of flowers, those which are perfect contain both 
male and female organs in a healthy state, and the Strawherry comes under 
this division. We know that there are many exceptions to this rule, but 
in some of these there are often hermaphrodite flowers produced. As 
growth progresses these developed parts begin to act for themselves, true 
growth is formed, and fresh stores hiid up for future expansion. This after 
growth all tends towards a central point, as is proved by each individual 
leaf or flower bud. In the flower, which is nothing more than a bundle of 
leaves more highly concentrated, it is more conspicuous, we find the calyx 
encircling the corolla, which in its turn surrounds the stamens, the stamens 
enclose the germ, which contains the embryo seed, and which afterwards by 
the same action as the whole plant is endowed with, becomes a perfect bud 
only in a more highly organized state than those which form leaves; I mean 
here the true seed, not the receptacle which is nothing but the collected 
juices retained, instead of as in the case of leaves are returned to the struc- 
ture of the plant, thus adding to its bulk. A healthy and well stored 
growth produces all these parts in proper order and pei-fect ; but if the 
climate be too hot and dry for any individual family, this perfect action is 
interfered with and the consec^uence must be, a deterioration of some pr all 
of the parts, which will show itself in smaller calyx, petals, stamens, and 
pistils, if not entirely subdue, or render abortive some of them. This is 
clearly shown in the Strawberry, and particularly in the changeable exam- 
ple above given, for in the pistillate flowers there are smaller petals, and 
although the stamens are present, they are only rudimentary. This cen- 
tralizing principle is less likely to afl'ect the pistils than any other part of 
the flower, as it is the extreme poiijt towards which maturation tends, but it 
is possible to carry the thing so far as to render even the pistils defective, 
and persevering in raising seedlings from pistillate sorts alone, would be 
vei-y likely to bring this about. Our burning and fervid sun is properly 
speaking too hot, and the climate too dry for the strawberry, notwithstand- 
iiig the great crops that are often obtained. The fruit is comparatively 
small to that of Britain, where there is more moisture and less heat during 
the growing season ; these same circumstances account for the varieties 
raised there being almost without exception hermaphrodite. The crops 
there are greater if weight and bulk are taken into account, and not so 
acid as with us. A strawberry is considered of great size here if {ive or 
six inches in circumference, while a parallel there would be from seven to 
eight, and they are occasionally produced nine inches ; and they require no 
sugar to correct the sourness. Indeed (with the exception of a few of the 
best flavored varieties) such as are mostly grown here would only be con- 
sidered fit for boiling as a preserve. 

I do not wish to detract from the excellence of American Strawberries, 
as the difference in quq,lity is the result of climate ; neither would I con- 
tend that the British sorts prove better here than natives, if so good ; but I 



HORTICULTURAL* JOURNAL. 365 



do say that gentlemen of ability ought to discuss a scientific subject without 
attempting to ridicule honest investigation, 

Jlt'spectfully yours, 

Wm. Chorlton. 



James Gowen, Esq., the practical and scientific farmer of Mt. 
Airy in this county, lately made an address before the Mercer 
County Agricultural Society. He speaks from his own observation 
on the value of different kinds of stock — and is properly severe on 
humbugs. We copy his remarks on exliibitions. 

Agricultural Exhibitions have ever been with me a favorite expedient, 
whereby a laudable emulation and rivalry might be promoted among the til- 
lers of the soil ; and to serve aa a rallying point, where, in the presence of 
each other, they might learn to have more confidence in themselves, and by 
emulating the progress of others, snatch a spark of that spirit and enter- 
prise, so luminous now-a-days, in the track of the busy throng, that are 
pushing along and going a-head with rail road speed. It grieved me to per- 
ceive that the farmers, as a class, seemed regardless of the position, how- 
ever low or obscure, assigned to them; appearing ever content to labor un^ 
requited and unhonored ; complaining not, nor attempting to reverse the 
decree that fashion, folly and pretention had recorded to their prejudice. 
Such should not, I thought, be the condition of the farmer ; his calling or 
profession is in itself so intrinsic and independant, that it seems strange 
(tjnless there is something in the soil with which he deals that deadens, or in 
tl]p air he breathes, that bewilders his faculties), that he should not have the 
sense and spirit to stand more erect, and battle manfully for that lofty posi- 
tion, which is his rightful heritage? 

To the husbandman, under Providence, is committed the bounties of tho 
field and seasons, and upon his management depends, not only the wealth of 
the nation, but the daily sustenance of every man whether rich or poor, high 
or low. Plenty and scarcity, fulness and famine, in a great measure depend 
upon the foresight, skill and energy of the farmer; he holds the veritable 
cornucopia, and so long as it is found in condition of teeming fullness, pour- 
ing out the invigorating comforts of sustenance, so long does the human fa- 
mily wa.x strong, rejoicing in the enjoyment of health and vigor ! Let it 
give but a partiidjSupply, or none, feebleness and languor, famine and pest- 
ilence, brood over all and enshroud every living creature ! Is there a man 
so obtuse or insensible, wliethcr mechanic or manufacturer, merchant or pro- 
fessional man, as not to perceive how indispensible are the functions of the 
farmer ? Why should he not be held as ordinarily intelligent, with percep- 



366 THE FLORIST AND 

tions capable of penetrating the hidden operations of nature, so far as they 
lie within his sphere of action ; profiting by all that is deducible from, or 
observable in her teachings? And is it not a reproach to us, farmers, if 
we do not establish our claim to this high consideration, and prove that we 
are not the dull, unenlightened drudges we are supposed to be — good hut so 
far as material strength may serve, to toil, with other working animals of the 
field ! 

Agricultural exhibitions are precursors of improvement— they are emi- 
nently calculated to arrest the attention of the apathetic — ^to break in upon 
the dull monotony that pervades the locality where the fair is held. They 
are as interesting as they are instructive, and never fail, if properly con- 
ducted, of impressing a salutary and abiding influence upon the minds of all 
who have participated in their interesting display and innocent recreation. 
Within their enclosures are to be found the best specimens of farm stock, 
the choicest varieties of seeds, samples of the best crops, improved imple- 
ments of husbandry, specimens of household manufacture, butter, cheese and 
poultry ; all arranged for the inspection of the curious, and challenging 
competition. Who can look upon such a scene and not be struck with a 
deep sense of its utility, and what farmer, however enlightened, but may 
g,dd something to his stock of knowledge, or have his doubts removed as to 
the excellence of some breed of farm stock, or the capability of some imple- 
ment, which he had never used, for the work it was designed to execute ? 
And who can be insensible to the advantages of such an opportunity for an 
interchange of opinion upon the theory and practice of culture and hus- 
bandry ; upon soils, and the adaptation of crops and manures to each va- 
riety respectively ? These, with the friendly greetings, the revival of old 
acquaintanceship, and the formation of new friendships, give to the scene a 
holiday freshness — a dash of rural felicity, that compensates for many a 
long and solitary day of toil upon the farm. 



FARMERS AND RAILROADS. 

No wonder that Farmers dislike granting the right of way to Rail Roads. 
Mail Trains, Express Trains, Lightning Trains, fly through his grounds, 
smoking, steaming and screaming, as if in derision of him. Perhaps, an ac- 
commodation train comes along once a day, but it does not stop at his 
gate ; no ! no ! He must go to the station three miles off or more, and be 
there rain or shine to the minute, and ten to one at the very hour, when in- 
stead of leaving home he ought to be returning to it ; no great accomoda- 
tion to him truly. If there be a station or water tank on his farm is he 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 367 



better off? Not if he has an orchard. For Passengers and Brakemen, 
and Stokers, and Baggage-master, and Engineer and Conductor all agree 
on two points, 1st. That the Farmer's fruit is public property — 2d. That 
they are the public ! So they help themselves. If, because the switch 
tender was sleepy, or a cow was on the track, or the Engineer didn't see the 
signal, or the track had spread, or a rail was misplaced, or a screw was hose,' 
the train gets off the track, at midnight or in midwinter, the "nearest farm 
house" is entered as if it were an inn, and the farrrrer, "mine host." And 
if any of the patrons of his house or his orchard should forget to shut the 
gate or put up the bars, and thereby an unfortunate and confiding cow or 
two should stray on the track, aud become a prey to that benevolent 
machine, shaped and armed like the lower jaw of an alligator, and very pro- 
perly called a " cow catcher," — who cares whose choice Devon, or Ayrshire 
or Durham is impaled ? " The fellow ought to keep his fences up, and not 
endanger our lives and property," say the public. The engine snorts, and 
the groans and struggles of the creature's last agony are drowned in the noise 
of the passing train. 

The right of way to steam, smoke and noise. When the Farmer grants 
this he grants also the right of colonization to his worst foes the weeds. In 
the broad band right through his possessions these enemies entrench them- 
selves. Here a little fastness of the Iron-weed. There a camp of Canada 
Thistles. Yonder a citadel of May weeds. Further on a stockade of wild 
carrots, and discontented colonists they are too. Regarding neither picket, 
"Virginia," post and rail, or any other fence, and the thorniest hedge a3 
little. Perfect " filibusters" who " go it strong" for " extending the area of 
wecd-dom." All they need, as Decatur said of his countrymen is an oppor- 
tunity, and this comes along with every train. Mid the involucres of the 
Vernonia and the Carduus, on the receptacle of the Chrysanthemum and' 
among the umbels of the Daucus do these adventurers lie in ambush. The 
whistle of the locomotive is. the signal for the rising of these clans, nor were 
llodcrich's more prompt to the call of their chieftain. The Engineer is' 
more successful in "getting up a breeze" then cither Lopez or Kossuth and- 
away go the flying lugions some to the forest and orchard, others to the' 
lawn and garden. All who survive are sure to settle, "make a location" 
and ere long dispute with true squatter audacity, the Farmer's pre-emption' 
right. 

From Dr. Kennedy's address before the Montgomery County Agricuh 
tural Society. — Oat. 1S53. 



368 THE FLORIST AND 



GixciNNATi,' Nov. 13, 1853. 
Editor of the Florist. 

We diifer in onr views more than you suppose. Yoil speak of Mr. Down- 
ing's having a change of a pistillate to a staminate plant. This change wa^ 
in his bed of Hovey. To prove it he sent the plant to Boston, and Mr. 
Hovey and all the Horticultural Society pronounced it not the Ilovey. I 
say a new pistillate seedling may be raised, bearing a' few hermaphrodite 
blossoms, but I shall not believe in a clumge in the sexes by cultivation till 
I see it. If it can be made, Mr. Meehan will be entitled to the credit of 
discovering it. I do not say it is impossible. If true it has no bearing on 
the necessity of attention to tlie sexes in common culture. For twenty 
years, I kept beds of stamiriates and pistillafes one-huiidred yards dpart, to 
make' new beds from', — and never had a change. 

In your present number you say "no one has said that a full crop can hd 
produced without staminates being planted am'ong the pistilla'tes. I say" 
that one thousand acres of Hovey's seedlings or any other pistillate wilF, 
if separated from all others never bear a single perfect herry. Yoti say 
that the strawberry in its natural state is perfect in both organs. I say, 
that in their wild state, the same diiference in their sexual character exists. 
Such I know to be their character in New Jersey, and in our Western 
States. I say, that Linnseus knew nothing of the sexual character of the 
strawberry. One of his disciples made the discovery and informed him. 
Linnaeus told him to keep quiet as his plants failing to produce fruit was 
from frost, not a defect in the sexual organs. Mr. Keen was the next per- 
son to discover it. He raised a seedling that bore no fruit. On close ex- 
amination he could see no male organs that were perfect. He placed his' 
old seedling in the bed, and he had an abundant crop. He made the dis-' 
covery known to the London Horticultural Society ; it seems he was choked 
off, as the disciple of Linnoeus was, for no notice was taken of it. 

The Botanists of Europe for their present knowledge, are indebted to an 
illiterate German Gardener, once a resident of your eity,- and who here 
made a fortune by her knowledge. But for a chance remark of one of her 
sons the secret might have still been in her family. The persons name was 
Arbequit, for many years a strawberry grower at- the Neck ; and her neigh- 
bors informed me, that from the same space of ground, she grew five times 
the quantity of fruit that they did ; that when she thinned out her beds she 
threw her plants on the road. They gathered them up and planted them 
but never could from them- raise a single berry. 

I am myself anxious that Mr. Meehan should sustain his position. He has 
the genuine McAvoy's superior j it bears no resembance to any other kind ; let 
him effect the change to the satisfaction of Dr. Brinckle and Mr. Buist, in 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 369 

this variety and even Mr. Prince will become a convert, rambunxious* as 
you deem liim. But if Mr. Meelian shoulil, which I do not believe, throw 
Prince on his back, I fear you will have a greater difficulty to encounter, 
and have nothing but the doctrines of Science and Linnreus to sustain 3'ou 
against the judgment of the illiterate German woman, and the evidence 
given in our thousands acres of the Strawberry in our wild prairies when 
vou say " the Strawberry in it natural state has perfect flowers, is furnished 
with pistils and stamens ; chance seedlings, produce, under a Itigli state of 
cultivation, flowers in which the stamens arc abortive. Left to themselves 
they return to their natural condition of flowers with peifect parts' 

For facts are chiels that winna ding 
And dowua be disputed," 

even by science. Yours Truly, 

N. LONGWORTII. 

Our correspondent Mr. Longworth, has italicised his quotation from our 
I'cmarks in the last number. We are willing to re-iterate them, even in 
capitals, if he wishes, and will let them stand until disproved. We contend 
that if a pistillate plant, which is a monstrosity, be left to itself, it will en- 
deavor to perform the object of its existence, which is keproduction, and 
will develope the abortive stamens and thus become a perfect flower, which 
Mr. Longworth to the contrary notwithstanding, is its natural state. 



* We are a littlo in doubt about the spelling of this word; but we think it should be ram- 
bimctioics. 



CALENDAR OF OPERATIONS. 

Fruits. 
Strnwhcrries — Should now receive a final dressing up for the season, by 
cleaning between the rows and forking in a layer of manure. A covei'ing 
of short manure or tan baik will be necessary to preserve the more delicate 
and superior varieties. Wliere tree leaves arc plentiful they answer this 
purpose admirably, throwing a sprinkling of soil over them to prevent dis- 
placement by wiud. Tan bark has many advocates in strawberry cuiturri. 
As a specific manure we would not trust much to its eSficacy in any c»se,- but 
as a raulcher in summer, and to protect tender roots in winter, its eflicien- 
cy cannot be doubted. Plants in pots intended for an early crop should 
now be placed under cover. A glazed frame or the floor of a cotd gmpery 
would be the best situation for tliein, but any spare cover will do, so that 
they can be secured from wet and severe frost; opportunities should be em- 
braced in removing all dead and decaying foliage, surface stirring ami top 
dressing, preparatory to starting them into growth. 

47 



370 THE FLORIST AND 

Raspberries — require good culture to produce abundantly, prune out an' 
the old wood and thin out the present year's shoots to four or live of the' 
strongest canes, securing all nearly to stakes. An application of Tvood 
ashes, and yard manure to the roots will be a means of improving the qual- 
ity of the crops. It is a fruit well worthy all the care that superior culti- 
vation can bestow on it. A somewhat sheltered situation, and deep, rich 
soil, but not wet, is most suitable to them. 

Gooseberries — In pruning these, keep the center of the bushes well 
thinned out ; they fruit best on young wood, a proper supply of which 
should be retained, but do not shorten them unless vigorous growth is de- 
sired. Black currants should be treated in a similar manner, thinning out 
the younger wood, and preserve a wide spread bush in the fora of a cup, by 
keeping the centre clear of spray. A deep, rich, and moist soil is favor-' 
able for their healthy growth. A few cuttings of the young wood soould be 
stuck in some cool corner, to keep up a succession of young plants. 

Fiffs — will require protection; bend them do«3l, securing them with stout 
pegs, and cover them with leaves, evergreen boughs, &c., — they will stand- 
considerable frost, but in severe winters the young wood will be injured and 
n crop destroyed. The winter of 1851-52 killed many large plants that had' 
stood unprotected for years. A dry, rather poor soil favors this crop. 

Grapes in houses should now be pruned and painted over with a mixture 
of tobacco water and sulphur, mixed with clay to the consistency thin" 
jiaint. This will eradicate all iiisects and their eggs that may find a lodge- 
ment in the loose bark. Untie them from the rafters and lay them down in 
ii horizontal position along the inside front of the house. They can be pro- 
tected, if necessary, by a covering of straw, or leaves. The borders will 
also be benefitted by a layer of coarse manure, spread it on its surface — 
ieep the house open and well ventilated, as long as weather will permit. In 
making new borders the most particular care must he taken in securing 
effective drainage. Nothing is so opposed to successful grape culture as wet 
soil. The chemical constitution of the soil may be regarded as only of 
secondary importance--— we have seen good grapes grown in what was con- 
sidered very poor soil, but it was well drained. Trench the soil two feet 
deep, incorporating four or five inches of good manure. Broken bones and 
charcoal dust are valuable correctives of strong soils, and may be used freely 
in such cases Make a good substantial border, not by burying carcases of 
animals, but by draining and trenching a good free soil, the organic require- 
ments can be added from time to time, as may be found necessary and e6n- 
venient. 

Fruits — are plentiful in their season, but how to have them early arid 
keep them late should be a question with amateurs. The latter subject was 
alluded to in last months calender. Many kinds of fruits may be had three 
or four weeks in advance of their usual season of ripening by growing them 
in pots and boxes, without entailing much trouble or expense. Peaches, 
Nectarines, Cherries and Figs are easily forwarded in this manner. Com- 
mence now with young plants, in suitable sized pots that will just admit the 
roots, plunge them in the open air, and cover with rough litter or leaves, 
to keep frost from cracking the pots. Early in spring they may! be taken 
into a cool green house, or cold grapery, due attention must be given in 
syringing the tops, taking care not to overwater the roots until they com- 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 871 



Wience to grow. They can be sliifted into larger vessel* as they seem to re- 
quire it, but good crops can be had in comparatively small pots by supply- 
ing them with liquid stimulants while growing and ripening a crop. The 
roots being thus placed under complete control, there is little danger of ex- 
cessive wood growth, consequently they will be very productive. 

Figs sueceetl well in this way, a poor soil suits them best, but as they re- 
quire a good supply of water during growth, particular attention must be 
given to the drainage, that no stagnation of water take place in the soil. 
"The ripening of young wood can be hastened towards the end of summer 
fey a gradual withdrawal of water and exposure to the sun. S. B. 

DECEMBER. 

Flower Gardes and Pleasure Grounds. — This month is usually con- 
sidered as the most leisure one of the year to the gardener. But it is far 
from that. "Hours of Idleness" have no signification in his vocabulary. 
At this season, though perhaps called upon for less manual labor, his mind 
and reflective powers have to be taskeil more than at any other. In the de- 
partment under consideration, there is always food for reflection. Few 
Flower Gardens, especially in our country, are laid out in the first instance 
in the most perfect or tasteful manner. Every successive season will ex-' 
pose new beauties that were in the beginning overlooked. Many things 
must remain as they are, but much can be remedied, and often by a very 
small amount of labor or expense. In the alteration of the forms and 
shapes of flower beds, for example, great results can be easily accomplished. 
We have seen the mast tasteless, and disagreeable objects of the kind, re- 
tained year after J'ear, for no perceptible reason than that it was supposed 
to be "immutably" perfect on its fii-st conception. Apart from the pleas- 
ure which a nearer approach to the pure principles of taste gives in such 
cases, the very change itself will bo agreeable. Novelty often pleases, so 
long as the change is not from a beautiful to one decidedly less so ; and 
this species of novelty should receive as much afctention in connection with 
our grounds, as with the introduction of beautiful exotics to our greenhouses. 
The past season will have disclosed many imperfect features ; and the pre- 
sent could not be better employed, than in preparing those so as to be easi- 
ly and speedily acted on when the proper season arrives. In the formation 
of regular sets of flower beds, or parterres, much difference of opinion ex- 
ists as to the use of gravel or grass for the walks. If the beds are to con- 
tain flowers of many individual species, forming what is generally under- 
stood by the terra "botanical flower garden," gravel walks with box eilgings 
should be always employeil, as they alford the best facilities for exaniining 
each plant separately ; but where the flowers are to be grown in masses, 
and the effect is sought for in a distant view; the most pleasing results will 
flow from the bod appearing to be set in the grass, the green walks materially 
relieving the gaiety of the masses of blossom. In the proper forms or 
figures for flower beds, the same di3"erence of opinion is found. Some be- 
ing advocates of lines and angles, working them out into all kinds of shapes, 
triangular and hexangular ; others being equally hard upon curved lines 
and circles. It is seldom indeed that any effort built entirely on one or the 
other of these principles pleases, and the situation or circninslances siiould 



572 THE FLORIST AND 



determine the proportion ■vvliicli the one should bear to the other. If the 
beds have to be formed in a rectangular or regular piece of ground, they 
will always have the best effect if those on the outside hare linear outlines, 
the inner ones being made up of curves and portions of circles. If the 
ground be not formal, there is little danger of failure in an extensive em- 
ployment of curved lines. . 

Greenhouse. — In our earliest recollections of a greenhouse at midwin- 
ter, the Acaaia is inseparably connected. What have they done to be now 
so frequently neglected? A "greenhouse once we knew" in which over 
ninety species "waved their yellow hair," some one of them every month in 
the year, though for the most part in winter, and I have never yet seen a 
sight to equal it. They are of the easiest possible culture, will endure an 
extraordinary amount of neglect, being in fact the very donkies of the ve- 
getable kingdom. I trust again to see these valuable plants in high esteem. 
In our vicinity we have but A. pubescens, A. linearis, A. lovgifolia, A. 
affinis, A. dealbata, A. annata, A. verticillata, A. pulchella, A. Kermesina 
(a stove species) and one or two others. There are many other fine old 
things which we are sorry to see displaced by worthless novelties. I would 
go a "good long way" for a sight of a well grown o\d JEutaxia m7/Hifolia, or 
J'imelia decussata, and brave the charge of "old-fogyism" in stating my 
preference for them than for a host of P. sjicctabilis, Hendersoniis, Ver- 
sohaffeltiis, and so on. Soft wooded plants ure very apt to be infested with 
aphis at this season — repeated dosus of tobacco smoke will soon do for 
them. Some plants. Heliotropes for instance, often sufl'er in the operation. 
This is frequently caused by the absorption of moisture from the leaves, 
than from absolute injury from the smoke, and it is for the most part pre- 
vented by putting a small quantity of damp hay or moss over the burning 
tobacco, through which the smoke has to force its way. 

Hothouse.— It has become a grave study with many experienced horti- 
culturists whether something cannot be devised to obviate the necessity of 
siiutters for these structures. Were it a question of expense between the 
additional cost of fire without them, and their use, the former would have 
the advantage. It is a laborious task to put these on and off almost daily, 
besides their "wear and tear," breakage of glass, and other incidental in- 
conveniences. The best that can be said in their favor is that the heat they 
keep in is better for the health of the plants than that supplied by an addi- 
tional amount of fire. I think a "compromise" might be introduced in the 
shape of glass shutters. Now that the frame work can be made so cheaply 
by machinery, I think they might be made for the same price as those now 
iu use. When once put on they need not be again removed till spring 
There would probably be a shade less in the amount of light admitted by 
this mode, than by a single course of glass,' but yet, I think, more on the 
whole than is permitted by the present system. I tried the experiment my- 
self last winter on a very small scale, by a double glass in some side lights, 
expecting to find inconvenience from condensed moisture, &c., but finding 
none 1 think the idea worth more extensive trial. Gardeners will thank 
tlie man who will introduce a substitute for shutters having equal effect, 
i'or general directions for Hothouse management the details given last 
mouth will still be applicable ; as also those referring to the Vegetable 
Garden. T. J. 



HORTICU'LTUEAL JOURXAL. 373 



[cOXTIJfUED FROM LAST >-rSIBER.] 

From J. B. Baxter — A Pear labelled SieuUe, not true to name; very 
large, four and one-quarter inches long, three and one-half broad, and. 
■weighing fourteen ounces ; long, obovate, inclining to pyriform ; greenish 
yellow : stem one and a quarter inches long by three-sixteenths thicic, and 
half an inch thick near its junction with the fruit, where it is very fleshy, 
inserted obliquely on a nearly flat gurface considerably inclined ; calyx 
small, set in a deep, rather narrow, furrowed basin ; seed pale cinnamon, 
(the lightness of the color being probably omng to partial decay) two-fifths 
of an inch long, one-fifth wide, and one-eighth thick, long, accuminate, with 
an angle on one side of the blunt end ; flesh slightly granular,- buttery, 
melting ; flavor rich and delicious ; quality ''very good." This is pro- 
bably the Beurre Soule shown by ^Ir. Kobert Buist at our Annual Exhibi- 
tion in 1848, and which could not be recognized by our own Pomologists or 
by those of Boston as any known variety. The tree that produced these 
specimens, and several more with the same label were purchased by Mr. 
Buist from Thomas Landreth, who had imported them with a large collection 
of other kinds from France, through the late John B. Smith. But on ex- 
amining the invoice, no such name as Beurre Soule was to be found in it. 

The variety, however, being considered valuable, scions of it were wide^ 
]y disseminated; and some were senttoilr. Baxter. "When the remaining 
trees, under this name, in Mr. Buist's possession, fruited, they proved to be 
the Duchesse D'An^ouleme. Even the identity of the first tree with 
the Duchess may possibly be established by further investigation, although 
the specimens of the Beurre Soule exhibited in 1848 appeared to all of ua 
a separate and distinct variety. 

From Westfrn ^Teiv York, through J. B. Baxter — The Canandaigua ; 
two and a half inches long by two and a half broad ; roundish — turbinate in- 
clining to pyriform. largest in the middle ; skin smooth, thin, greenish yel- 
low ; stem broken off", inserted without depression ; set in an irregular fur- 
rowed basin ; flesh fine texture, buttery, melting and exceedingly juicy ; 
flavor pleasant with a delicate aroma; quality "very good." — These speci- 
mens difl'ered materially in size and form from those that were exhibited at 
the Second Session of the Congress of Fruit Growers, at Castle Garden, 
New York, in 1849. 

From Robert Bui»t—Bon Cretien de Vernois ; rather large, two and 
seven-eighths inches long by two and five-eighths broad ; obovate ; greenish 
yellow, with small greenish russet patches, and many cinnamon russet dots 
near the^ crown ; stem three-fourths of an inch long, and one-sixth thick, 
fleshy at its junction with the branch inserted in a small depression; calyx 
closed, set in a regular, rather deep basin ; flesh somewhat granular, juice 
abundant ; flesh pleasant, sprightly, with some astringency ; Leroy places 
it among the kitchen pears, but we consider it for the table at least "good." 

From C/ias. Kes.<>ler, of Reading. — The Bitter, a native apple of Exeter 
Township, Berks County; two and a half inches long by two and seven 
eighths broad ; roundish oblong ; red in stripes of various hues, with many 
large white dots ; stem short, and moderately stout, inserted in a deep nar- 
row cavity ; calyx medium, closed, set in a deep, rather wide basin ; seed 



374 THE FLORIST AND 



very short, plump, light cinnamon ; flesh tender ; flavor fine ; quality "very 
good." ' 

From William Knahb, Oley Township, Berks County, through Charles 
J^essler. — Fine specimens of the Yost and Yacht or Jagd apples, described 
'in our ad interim Report for December, 1852 ; both "very good" in quality, 
3.nd worthy of being widely disseminated. 

From 0. B. Lines, of New Haven. — White's Seedling, a native pear of 
Connecticut. Size medium, round-obovate ; greenish yellow, sometimes 
fussetted; stem rather long and slender, inserted somewhat obliquely into 
a small fleshy excrescence ; calyx open, segments short, set in a rather shal- 
low basin ; flesh of fine texture, buttery, juicy ; pleasant flavor ; quality 
■'•very good." 

From Son. B. V. French, of Braintree. — The Beurre Olairgeau. Size 
very large ; four inches long and three broad ; pyriform, larger on one side ; 
nearly covered with russet patches and dots, even on its brown cheek ; 
^tem an inch long, rather stout, fleshy at both terminations, inserted obliquely 
with little or no depression ; calyx open, segments short, basin narrow, very 
superficial, slightly furrowed. Not sufficiently mature for testing. 

From 3Ir. Eckei't, of Reading. — A large pear, three and three-eighth 
inches long by three and three-eighths broad ; roundish turbinate, bright 
yellow, with numerous small russet dots and a marbled carmine cheek ; 
stem seven-eighths of an inch long and one-sixth thick, inserted in a slight 
depression ; calyx medium, segments refiexed, set in a moderately deep 
basin ; seed large, dark brown, pyriform, plump, terminating suddenly in a 
long neck ; flesh somewhat coarse, buttery, melting ; flavor fine, with a 
delightful aroma ; quality "best ;" eaten October 16th. Tree young, vig- 
orous, very productive ; leaf large, broad, dark green ; branches tortuous ; 
phoots stout, dark brown. This we take to be Beurre Bid; and, if we are 
correct in our conjecture, it is, though not the largest, by far the fairest, 
most beautiful and delicious specimen of that variety we have ever seen ; 
indeed we have rarely met with the Beurre Deil more than simply "good" 
jn quality. 

From Joshua Pierce, of Washington, D. C. — Three varieties of pears, 
and one of persimmons. 

St. Michel Archange, true to name, of fine size, 'and, at least, "very 
good" in quality. 

Verte Longue Panache or Culotte Suisse, prized only for its curious 
Jongitudinal green and yellow stripes. 

A Kitchen Pear, without a name ; very large, three and three-quarter 
inches long by three and one quarter broad ; said to be fine for culinary 
purposes, and remarkable for its productiveness. 

Persimmons, [Biospyros virginiana.) of extraordinary size, measuring 
an inch and a half long, one and three-quarters broad, and five and a quart- 
er inches in circumference, and weighing an ounce and a half; form round- 
ish-pblate. Being pulled prematurely, they were not in eating condition, 
and had probably not acquired their appropriate color. We should be hap- 
py again to receive specimens of this variety, to test its quality, when it 
has been subjected to the ameliorating influences of frost. Six or seven 
years years ago, the Bon Jardinier informed us that two Horticulturists in 
France had been experimenting with the American Persimmon, with a view 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 375? 



to its improvement, and had arrived at encouraging results. One of them^ 
succeeded in raising a Seedling -wliicli "?a?v/c round fruit double tJie size 
of the original species, the flavor of which recalls that of a Mirahelle 
plum." The other originated a variety, which, in honor of a friend, he 
named '■'■ Plaqucminier Pierquiri," producing "fruit as large as a hen's 
egg, oval acumi)iafe, of a golden yelloiv color, and an agreeable flavor." 
Neither of these new kinds', so far as our information extends, has yet been 
imported into tliis country. 

The report of the Committee for awarding premiums for the objects at the' 
25th, Autumnal E.\hibition, were submitted and assented to. 



PENNSYLVANIA HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Odober 15, 1853. 

The Stated Meeting was held, as usual, this evening. 
' General Patterson, President, in the chair. 

The following premiums were awarded. 

Chrysanthemums — For the best six large, named varieties, to Thomas 
Fairley, foreman to Robert Buist , for the second best, to James Bisset, 
gardener to James Dundas ; for the best six pompones, to Thomas Fairley ; 
for the second best, to H. A. Dreer ; for the best specimen of a large variety,' 
to Thomas Meehan, gardener to Caleb Cope ; for the best specimen pom- 
pone variety, to Thomas Fairley. Special premiums of two dollars each, 
to J. F. Knorr's gardener, Adam Uber, James Bisset and Alexander Parker, 
for displays of Chrysanthemums. 

Plants shown for the first time — a premium of three dollars' to' Jandtes 
Bisset,, for Medinilla speciosa, and two dollars to Thomas Meehan, for Ca- 
lanthe veratrifolia. 

Bouquet Design — For the best, to Thomas Meehan. Basket of cut flowers 
•^For the best, to James Bisset ; for the second best, to Thomas Meehan. 

Pears — For the best ten specimens, the Duchesse d' Angouleme, to Isaac 
B. Baxter ; for the second best, the Passe Colmar, to the same. 

The Committee -cannot suffer the present occasion to pass without ex- 
pressing their highest appreciation of both of the above varieties, and regret 
that the cultivation of fruits so super-excellent is not more general. 

Special premium of three dollars to Wm. Johns, for a fine display of 
^apes, some six or seven varieties, all of which were in prime order. 

Celery — for the best six stalks, to James Jones, from Girard College 
garden ; for tlie second best, to the same. Broccoli — For the best five 
lieads, to Thomas Meehan. Brussels Sprouts — For the best six stalks, to 
Daniel McDcrmot, gardener to Mr. Sayers. For the best display by au 
amateur, to Thomas Meehan.- 



37& THE FLORIST AND 



AD INTERIM FRUIT REPORT, FOR NOVEMBER. 

Philadelphia, Nov. 14, 1853. 
To the President Penna. Hort. Society : — 

Sirice the October meeting of the Society, the following fruits have been 
forwarded to the Fruit Committee for examinntion : 

From P. H. Cassady, 20 Logan Square, through Robert Kilviugton, two 
varieties of Grapes. 

1. The Oasmtly — An accidental seedling white Grape, with native loaf, 
and dark purplish wood, that sprung up in j\lr. Gassaciy's yard in 1847, and 
fruited in 1852 for the first time. Bunch, of medium size, tolerably com- 
pact, and sometimes shouldered. Berry, below medium, five-eighths of an 
inch in diameter ; form round ; color, greenish white with occasionally a 
faint salmon tint, and thickly covered with white bloom; flesh, juicy with 
but little pulp ; flavor, pleasant ; quality "very good." 

2. The Kilvington. — This may prove a known native variety. It was 
purchased by Mr. Cassady, 7 years ago, before it had fruited, for the Isa- 
bella, and removed from Schuylkill Fourth and Chestnut Streets, to its 
present locality Jn Logan Square. Bunch, medium, compact. Berry, be- 
low medium., five-eighths of an inch in diameter ; form, round ; color, red, a 
shade deeper than the Catawba, with much bloom ; seed, unusually large ; 
flesh, contains some pulp, which is not tough, but half tender, and melting ; 
flavor, vinous and saccharine without any Catawba aroma; quality "best." 

From Robert Iredell, Norristown, through Mr. Jones. — A specimen of 
Duchesse d'Angouleme of enormous size, nearly five inches long by four and 
a quarter broad, and weighing twenty-five and a quarter ounces — exceeding 
in size any pear we have ever seen grown in this country. Notwithstanding 
its magnitude, we have never eaten a better flavored Duchesse — a variety by 
the way, which, when fully ripened, we regard in quality at least "very 
good." 

From Mr. Eckert, Reading — Additional specimens of the jjear mentioned 
in the last "Ad Interim Report" as being probably the Beurre Diel. These 
were even lai-ger than those previously received, and possessed a still more 
brilliant cheek, and equally fine flavor. 

From St. Louis County, 3Iissouri, through J. T. Thomas, Esq. — Ttvo 
Apples for their names. One we recognised as the Vandiver ; the other 
is probably an apple of Western origin, with which we ar^ unacquainted. 

From Thomas Thornily, Fallston, Beaver county, Pennsylvania — A large 
collection of Apples, exhibited at the State Fair at Pittsburgh, and sent to 
us by Mr. Thornily, at the request of some of our friends who saw them on 
that occasion. But before they came into our possession, which was not 
until the 14th of October, they had been exhibited at the Burlington Coun- 
ty Agricultural Fair at Mount Holly, and at the Fair of the Philadelphia 
Society for promoting Agriculture. Some of us noticed them at both of 
these Exhibitions, and were not a little surprised at the size and beauty of the 
specimens, and the great number of varieties embraced in the collection. Un- 
fortunately when we received them, the handsomest specimens had all disap- 
peared ; and the extensive collection had dwindled down to fourteen sound 
apples, and nine in a state of decay. We were therefore much disappointed 
in being prevented from giving to so choice a collection the minute exauiiua- 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 377 



tion it so richly raevitcil. Concerning it, however, we may remark generally, 
that it iiiflicated either a peculiar poioological adaptation in the soil and cli- 
mate of Beaver county, or extraordinary skill in fruit culture, on the part of 
Mr. Thornily — probably both. 

From P. R. Frcas, Enq., of the Gerraantown Telegraph — Large and beau- 
tiful specimensof two varieties of Pears. 

1. Vicar of WinkfieJd, or le Cure. The size, productiveness, and uniform 
bearing tendency of this variety fully entitle it to be ranked in quality "very 
good." 

2. Doyenne d'Uiver. — This name is given as a synonyme of the Easter 
Beurre by the London Horticultural Society, and of the Easter Bergamot 
by Andre Leroy, of Angers. The Easter Beurre is a Winter Pear, of the 
"best" quality, when jjroperly ripened, It must be confessed, however, that 
our knowledge of the pear ripening process, of the Winter varieties, is ex- 
ceedingly defective ; and on this account, it often happens that they fall far 
short of their intrinsic excellence, at their appropriate season of maturity. 

From Col. C/iarh'S M. Belt, of the District of Columbia — Specimens of 
Belt's Hjhrid Widiiut. The history and appearance of this unique and 
interesting hybrid present unequivocal evidence that it is a natural cross 
between the Butternut (Juglans cinerea,) and the English Walnut ( Juglans 
regia,) the latter being tlie maternal parent. It originated about twenty 
years ago at Chevy Chase, the residence of Col. Belt, near Washington, 
District of Columbia, fi-om an English Walnut planted by his brother, Capt. 
Wm. I. Belt, late of the United States Navy. Capt. Belt procured the nut 
from an English Walnut ti-ee in the garden of Mrs. Bowie, of Prince 
George's County, Maryland. Within a few hundred yards of IMrs. Bowie's 
residence, grew a number of Butternut trees, some of the pollen from the 
blossoms of which had no doubt been wafted by the wind, or conveyed b}'' in- 
sects to the English Walnut tree in the gar<len and occasioned hybridism. 
After the nut had sprouted, Col. Belt took it up and rc]danted it in the lo- 
cality it at present occupies. Tlie tree is a vigorous grower, and is repre- 
sented as being exceedingly ornamental. 1852 it fruited for the first time; 
and in September of the same year, specimens of the nuts, with the wood 
and foliage, were exhibited by Mr. Joshua Pierce, of Washington, at the 
meeting of the Annyicaii Pomologleal Society, in Phihadclphia. The nut, 
in its general appearance, diJers very materially from any others of tlie 
Juglans family: — size, largo, one and three-fourths inches lung, one and 
seven-twelfths wide, and one thick, exclusive of the remarkable carena, ele- 
vated a fourth of an incli above the surface and extending entirely around 
its longitudinal circumference ; form, ovate, ])ointed at its apex; exterior 
surface, deeply and boldly, but interruptedly and irregularly snleated, with--^ 
out having the continuous longitudinal furrows usually iiotieed in the But-"' 
ternut ; color, light brownish yellow ; kernel line. Mr. Pierce has sucfoed- 
ed in two instances in grafting this variety on the English Walnut. What 
has been the success of otiiers, in propagating it, to whom scions were sent, 
wc are not informed. It is extremely dillieult to gi-aft the \Valnut in any 
of the ordinary ways. Owing to the c.'ccitability of its buds, they are upt 

48 



378 THE FLORIST AND 



to push, and exhaust the organiiMe ftiatter of the scinr, before its uninn 
■with the stock can take place.- I'his 'usual cause of failure is obviated by 
■working, as recommended by the late President Knitrlit, with the base of 
the annual shoots, the buds of -n-liich are small and but little developed. 
Another successful mode, noticed in D'Albret's recent -woik on grafting, is 
to cleft-graft in the side of the young shoots, and is said to ans'wer well 
■whether performed in the solid or herbaceous state. In regard to the stock 
for Belt's Hybrid, vte -would suggest the Butternut for standards, and the 
Juglans prreparturiens for dwarfs. 

From J. B. G-arber, of Columbia, Peiuisylvania — Nine, varieties of Ap- 
ples, sent to 1dm from Georgia. These are the first apples viq have re- 
ceived that were grown in that state. ]\Iuch attention, we understand, is 
being paid at this time, by the Pomologists of Georgia, to the raising of late 
kinds of this fruit. Those that ripen with us in winter, become, when trans- 
ferred so far South, autumn varieties. This fact has induced them to turn 
their attention to the Southern Seedlings. AnA -ive learn, that they have 
already succeeded in originating a number of kinds, which promise to be 
far better keepers, than those which they had previously obtained from the 
North. We are so much pleased with the appearance of those sent to us by 
Mr. Garber, that we hope Mr. Bichard Peters, of Atlanta, or some of our 
other Georgia friends will furnish us, at the proper season, with other spe- 
cimens for examination. Although these we have received are not iti' a con- 
dition for testing, we deem thera sufficiently interesting to merit a fall ex- 
terior pomological description, especially as most of them are entirely Hew- 
to us. And if it should prove from our descriptions that we have not re- 
ceived the true varieties, we trust specimens that are genuine \yi'U be for- 
■warded to our Society. 

1. Limber Twig, or James River. — This variety has been cultivated to a 
considerable extent in Virginia, and some of the Western States. Size — 
full medium,, three inches long by three and three-sixteenths broad ; form, 
roundish oblong ; color, striped and marbled with pale red on a yellcwish 
ground, yellow around the crown, a good deal russeted about the base; stem 
three-fourths of an inch long by one-twelfth thick, inserted in a deep acu- 
minate, russeted cavity; calyx small, closed, set in a wide, shalloAV basin. 

2. Summerour. — Size large, three and one-eighth inches long, tliree and 
five-sixteentiis broad; form roundish oblate ; color a mottled grejish red, 
■with dark cvimson stripes, and containing large grey dots; stem five-eighths 
of an inch long and one-fifth thick, inserted in a deep, narrow, partially 
russeted cavity; calyx small, closed, set in a deep, ■wide, plaited basin. 

3. Berry. — Size, rather large, two and five-eighths inches by tliree and 
five-sixteenths; form, roundish-oblate; color, striped and mottled with crim- 
son on a greenish-yellow ground, with a number of green russet spots ; stem, 
one-half an inch long, one-tenth thick, inserted in a tolerably deep cavity ; 
calyx, rather large, set in a wide, shallow basin. 

4. 3Io)i,vtain Sprout. — Size, medium, two and three-fourths inches by 
two and seven-eighths; form, oblong-truncate; color, red, \>hh stripes of 
deeper hue, white dots numerous; stem, three eighths of an inch long one- 
eighth thick, inserted in a narrow cavity ; calyx medium, partially open, set 
in a wide, deep, sliglitly furrowed basin. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 379 



5. Camao's S'.oei'.t. — Size, below medium, tvvo and one-half inches long, 
by two and three-fourths broad ; form, roundish conical ; color, whitish 
green, clouded wit.h green-ruaset on the more exposed parts, and a faint 
browa blush; stem, (perhaps broken), one-fourth of an inch long, and one- 
eleventh thick, inserted in a narrow cavity ; calyx, large, closed, set in a 
wide, shallow basin. 

6. Nlckejack. — Size, large, two and three-fourths inches long, by three 
and seven-eighths broad ; form, oblate ; color, striped and mottled with red 
on a greenish ground, grey dots abundant; stem, five-eighths of an inch 
long and one-eighth thick, inserted in a wide, not very deep, russeted cavity; 
calyx, large, partially open, set in a wide, superficial basin ; core, under 
medium ; seed, small, light brown, ovate; flesh, tender, juicy ; flavor, fine, 
with an exceedingly delicious though delicate aroma ; quality "best." This 
variety we regard with especial favor ; and we feel assured it will become 
popular wherever known. It is said to be a native of North Carolina, and 
to have been found growing among the Cherokee Indians. 

1. Callaiaga. Size, above medium, two and three-fourths inches long, 
by three and one-fourth broad ; form, roundish, slightly tapering to the 
crown ; color, dull brown, faintly striped, on a greenish yellow russet 
ground ; stem, three-eighths of an inch long, and one eighth thick, inserted 
in an irregular, rather deep cavity; calyx, large, open, set in a deep, wide, 
obscurely furrowed basin. 

8. Cranherry. Size, meilium, two and five-eighths inches long, by three 
broad; form, roundish conical; color, brightly striped with carmine on the 
unexposed side, and of a deeper red on the part subjected to the full sola.r 
influence, many grey russet dots, large and sometimes stellate towards the 
base, smaller and more numerous near the crown ; stem, three-eighths of an 
inch long, and one-ninth thick, inserted in a narrow, acuminate, russoted 
cavity, calyx, small, closed, set in a wide, shallow basin, with four or five 
small fleshy elevations, at the bottom near the calyx. 

9. Dapper. Size, rather small, two and one-eighth inches long by two 
and three-fourths broad; form, roundish truncate; coloi-, whitish yt'lhiw, 
with several crimson specks, and faintly clouded and marbled with 3'cllow- 
ish green, with an obscure pale orange cheek ; stem, three-eighths of an 
inch long, and one-twelfth thick, inserted in a medium, acuminate cavity ; 
calyx, small, closed, set in a moderately wide, very deep basin. 

From Chas. Kesslcr, Esq., Reading. — A collection of fruit, embracing 
specimens of a Pear from Lower Heidelberg, Berks County Vm., and nine- 
teen varieties of Apples, eleven of which were grown in Berks County, and 
eight near Dixon, Illinois : 

1. Tlic Ilcidclhcrg Pear — which was supposed to be a foreign variety, 
we did not recognize till it was cut, when it at once became known to us as 
the Feaster. Under the name of Blecckcrs Meadow it is noticed in most 
of the horticultural works, but its merits have not been properly appi-e- 
ciated. And although admitted to be a native of Pennsylvania, there is no 
published record of its history, nor any information given in any work in 
regard to the particular locality of its origin. The Philadelphia Market 
has long been abundantly supplied with it, under the names of Sjdcv and 



80 THE FLORIST AND 



Spice Butter. Kot, however, until recenUj, have we been able to trace its 
history; for which we are cliieily inaebted to Mr. Mahlon Moon, of Mor- 
rlsville, Bacics County. This variety originated, about seventy years ago, 
with Aaron Feaeter, of Northampton Township, Bucks County. Having 
sprung up on a piece of ground used as a meadow, Mr. Feaster called it the 
meadotv Pear; subsequently it was named tlie Feaster. The original tree 
is still standing, and continues, at the age of three-score years and ten, to 
bear most abundantlj'. Some seasons, it has yielded five barrels of fruit, 
which was sold for forty dollars. Although rather coarse in texture, and 
somewhat gritty at the core, yet when properly house ripened, it is rich, 
melting, delicious, and in quality, "very good." Judging from the form 
and flavor, its parents are probably the Sechel and the Bergamot. Oc- 
tober is its period of maturity. 

2. Tlie Sepler — grown by Jlr. Hepler, of Reading. A native winter 
Apple described in the ad interim Report for April last. The present spe- 
cimens differ from those sent us last spring, in being larger, two and three- 
fourths inches, by three and one-fourth ; in possessing a short stem, three 
eighths long, by one eight thick, and in having a marbled red cheek with 
usually one or more white marks, as if the red coloring matter had been en- 
tirely rubbed off. Specimens not suOiciently mature for testings 

3. The JFornwalder, Fallenw alder, or FaUrnvater, — We have been in- 
formed by some of the old inhabifants of Reading, that this variety origi- 
nated with a Mr. Fornwald, of that place ; hence the name Fornwalder. 
In our notice of it in the March ad interim Report, we considered it of 
"good" quality. The specimens received by us this season, being remarka- 
bly fine, measuring more than a foot in circumference, have given us a still 
more favorable opinion of it. Indeed the uniformly large size, unblemished 
appearance and fair quality of the Fornwalder render it worthy of being 
more widely cultivated. 

4. The Rambo. Philadelphia was plentifully supplied, some years ago, 
with this apple, from the neighboring state of New Jersey. Now it has al- 
most entirely disappeared from our market. The specimens, however, sent 
by Mr. Kessler, clearly indicate that it still flourishes in the vicinity of 
Reading. 

5. Tlie Keim — grown on the premises of BIrs. Kessler. This native 
upple, of Berks County, we noticed in our February and March "ad inte- 
rim" Reports. The present specimens are larger and fairer than those pre- 
viously received, but have not yet reached their period. 

6. The Krouser — ^a native apple, noticed in our December and Feb- 
uary Reports. 

7. Unknoivn — grown near Dixon, Illinois. Size, very large, three and 
one-quarter inches long by four broad ; form, roundish, obscurely conical, 
somewhat compressed at the sides ;, color yellowish green, with a faint blush; 
stem, short, stout, half an inch long, by one-sixth thick, inserted in a wide, 
obtuse cavity ; calyx, open, set in a deep, rather narrow basin, slightly 
plaited. Not mature. 

8. Unkno'wn — grown near Dixon, Illinois. Size, very large, three inch- 
es long, by three and seven-eighths broad ; form, oblate ; color, brownish 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 381 



red, mottled with greyisli russet, and interspersed with numerous large 
grey dots with a russet point in the centre of each, yellowish green about 
the crown ; stem, short, scout, fleshy, five-eighths of an inch long, and three 
.quarters thick, inserted in a wide, shallow, russetted cavity, with a pro- 
minence on one side ; caJyj:, large, closed, set in a wide, rather shallow basin, 
pot mature. 

9. Unknoivn — grown near Dixon, Illinois. Size, large, two and seven 
sixteenths inches long, by three and three-sixteenths broad ; form, roundish 
oblate, somewhat angular; color, beautifully striped with carmine on a yel- 
lowish white ground ; stem, short, three-eighths of an inch long and one- 
tenth thick, set in a deep, moderately open cavity ; calyx, closed, set in a 
narrow, superficial basin. Not mature. 

10. Unknown — grown near Dixon, Illinois. Size, large, three inches 
long, by three and one-half broad ; form, oblong truncate ; color, brown, on 
greenish yellow ground, with a number of grey dots ; stem, half-inch long 
and one-eighth thick, inserted in a rather deep cavity ; calyx, medium, set 
in a deep, wide, furrowed basin. Not mature. 

1j. Unknoivn — grown near Dixon, Illinois. Size, large, two and seven 
eighths inches long, by three and three-eighths broad ; form, roundish con- 
ical ; color, striped and mottled with red, on a greenish yellow ground, stem, . 
short and slender, one-half inch long and one-eleventh thick, inserted in a 
deep, narrow cavity ; calyx, small, partially reflexcd, set in a narrow, 
moderately deep, plaited basin. If the quality of this and the four preceed- 
ing apples corresponds with the size and fine appearance of their exterior, 
they should be widely disseminated. Perhaps our corresponding member, 
Dr. Kennicott, or some of the Pomoiogists of Chicago, whence the trees 
were obtained, can inform us what the varieties are. 

12. Labeled Limber Twig — a small, pleasant, greenish yellow apple from 
Illinois, not true to name. 

13, and 14, also from Illinois, arc small and not prepossessing in ap- 
pearance. 

15. Vandiver — grown by Mrs. Kessler, of Reading. Specimens very 
fine. This variety is chiefly prized for its culinary properties. In regard 
to the orthography of its name, we would remark, that in Delaware, where 
it originated, there is no family with the cognomen Vandervere, but there 
are many of the inhabitants of Swedish descent, in that State, who write their 
name Vandiver. 

16, 17, IS, 19 and 20 — were gro^'n by David L. Wcnrich, of Reading. 
Most of these are sweet apples, of pleasant flavor. But their small size, 
unaccompanied by an attractive exterior, impairs their value. 

Objects Shown. 

Plants. — By Thomas Fairley, foreman to R. Buist : — Six Pompone Chyrsan- 
themums — -Cybele, perfection, La Nain|Bebe, Madam Chauvierii, Lartay, Veleda, 
and six large kinds — Emilie Theresa, Queen, Julia Langdale, Henri Hulrae, Mrs. 
Cope, and Salter's Annie ; specimen pompone — Cybele ; specimen plant — Hoya 
Cuiminghamii ; and 3G varieties Chrysanthemums. 



382 THE FLORIST AND 

By H. A. Dreer: — Pompone Chrysanthemums — La Fiance, Ninon de I'Enclos, 
Roi de Liliput, Bazaar, Mignonette, La Gitana, and Triomphe de Bordeaux. 

By Thomas Meehan, gardener to C. Cope : — For the first time — Calanthe vera- 
trifolia : Chrysanthemums, pompone specimens — La Nain Bebe, Cloth of Gold, 
perfection. Elegant, Mignonette, Sacramento; large kind, specimen — Grandis. 

By William Haas, gardener to J. F. Knorr: — Chrysanthemums, shown for the 
first time — Aramis, Ariadne, Atropos, Avocat tardif, Beauty Toulousain, Belot 
Defougere, Berryer, Caroline Gignoux, Chedeville, Comte de Chambord, Croustig- 
nac, Dame Blanche, Fontenay, Etoile de Matin, General Carrelet, Grand Sultan, 
Grazielle, Hendersonii, Jason, Jonquille, Junon, Justine, Tessier, Lais, La Rousse, 
La Vestale, Mad. Chauvierii, Mad. Henie, Mad. Jules d'Evry, Mad. Rousselon, 
Mad. Schmidt, M. J. Phiscopal, Perle d'Autorane, Rosini, Trianon, Sou. de 
Roquancourt — Astrolobe, Christophe Colomb, La Phar, Lingot d'Or, Mad. de 
Thury, Montaigne, I'oudre d'Or, Rantounett, Sapho, Triomphe du Nord — Cede 
Nulli, Constance, Corcardeau, Columbine, Etincelle, Jacques, Mad. Hec Jacquin 
— 52 varieties, and about 20 older varieties. 

By James Bisset, gardener to James Dundas: — A new plant — Medinilla spe- 
ciosa, and six large choice kinds, and a table of fine varieties. 

By Alexander Parker : — A large displav. 

Bouquets and Designs. — By Thomas Meehan : — A Design and Basket. 

By James Bisset : — A handsome Basket. 

Fruits. — By Isaac B. Baxter : — Pears — Duchesse d'Angouleme, Passe Colmar, 
D'Aremberg, St. Germain, and Napoleon. 

By Robert Buist : — Pears — Due de Bordeaux, and Monsieur le cure. 

By William Johns : — Grapes — six kinds. 

By C. V. Hagner : — Catawba Grapes. 

By N. A. Roe : — Bon Chretien Pears. 

Vegetables. — By Thomas Meehan, gardener to C, Cope : — Broccoli, Celery 
Brussels Sprouts, &c., &c., 

By James Jones, gardener at the Girard College : — Red and White Celery. 

By Daniel McDermot, gardener to Mr. Sayers : — Brussels Sprouts. 



Some of the Handsome Plants of China. — " Ah, you have come 
back!" "Are you?" " How did the plants get home?" "Were they 
much admired in England ?" were the questions which were rapidly put to 
me by the old nurseryman and his sons ; at the same time they brought a 
cbair, and asked me to sit down under the awning of the cottage. I told 
them that most of them had arrived safely in England, and that they had 
been greatly admired. This garden contains many of the beautiful plants 
introduced by the Horticultural Society of London, from 1843 to 1846. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 383 

Amongst some pots at the entrance there were fine plants, of the now well 
known Wchjela, the pretty Indigofera decora, ForsytJda viridissima and 
a fine white variety of Wistaria Sinensis. Round the sides of the ditch were 
many magnificient specimens of EdgeivortMa chrysantha, and Grardenia 
florida Fortiiniana, growing in the open ground. Some of the Gardenias 
were 4 feet high and 15 feet in circumference. AVhen covered with its large 
camellia-looking blossoms, it is extremely handsome, and at all times forms 
a pretty evergreen bush. In a bed in the middle of the garden the white 
variety of Platycodon grandiflorus was in full bloom, and near it a bed of 
Dielytra gpectabilis. Both these looked very handsome, particularly the 
latter; its large purse like blooms, of a clear red colour tipped with white^ 
and hanging down gracefully from a curved spike, and its mountain-like 
leaves, render it a most interesting plant, and one which will become w fa- 
vorite in English gardens. Several kinds of roses were growing in pots, 
and amongst them the new yellow, or salmon coloured, introduced by the 
Horticultural Society. This rose deserves more notice at home than it ha* 
yet had ; doubtless it will be more thought of when it is better known afld 
properly treated. It should be planted out at the foot of wall with a south- 
ern or western aspect, and allowed to scramble over it. It grows rapidly J 
the flowers are of a strong colour, and are produced in great profusion. Fine 
plants of Viburnum flicatum and V. macroeephalum, were also noticed, 
both in pots and also in the open ground. I also observed some young 
plants of the interesting palm tree ( Chamerops exceha ?), which I have al- 
ready noticed in the earlier pages of this work. It is perfectly hardy about 
Shanghae, and thrives there, unprotected, throughout the severest winter. 
There other palms, yet this was the only one that seemed hardy. Here 
were also some beautiful peach trees, with double flowers. Two of these 
have already been described hj Dr. Lindley, and named the double white, 
and double crimson peaches. Eut, fine as they undoubtedly are, there is a 
third, far more bcautifnl und striking than either of them. This produces 
large double whithc flowers, whic arc striped with red or crimson lines like 
a carnation. A tree of this variety, in full bloom, is one of the most beau- 
tiful objects that can be imagined. These double peaches seem to be par- 
ticularly well adapted for forcing, as they form their flower buds fully in 
autumn, and arc ready to burst into bloom with the first warm days m 
spring. A little artificial heat, therefore, will bring them into full flower 
about the new year, or any time from that period up to March. As spring 
flowers, they are highly prized by the Giiincsc. Itinerant gardeners carry 
them about the streets for sale in the northern Chinese towns. The flower 
buds were then just beginning to expand ; the buyer puts them into pots, 



384 THE FLORIST AND 



gives them a little water, and places them in his window or sitting room. In 
a day or two the buds burst, and the little tree is one mass of bloom. In 
this state all the three varieties are very beautiful ; but I think the carna- 
tion striped one is the handsomest of them all. In the centre of the South 
Garden there is the family tomb — a large mound of earth, covered ■with 
many pretty flowers. Here the old man's forefathers, for many generations, 
lie buried, and here he will sleep among the flowers beloved in his lifetime. 
This garden contains a good assortment of shrubs and trees which have been 
longer known than those I have enumerated. There are some beds of 
Reeve's Spirsea (;S'. Reevcsiana), a beautiful shrub ; the Chinese Juniper, 
Hibiscus syriacus. Wistaria swiensz.s, itf</e?"sira?«i(«s, plums, and the favor- 
ite La-mae ( ChimonantJius), with which Chinese ladies decorate their hair. 
I had now made the circuit of the garden, and came to the little wooden bridge, 
by which I entered, to the gardener's house. 

When I reached Chusan, in latitude 30° north, I found a remarkable 
change in the appearance of the vegetation. Tropical forms had entirely 
disappeared, or were rarely met with. Although the summers were as warm 
or even warmer than they were in the South, yet the winters ivere nearly as 
cold as those we have in England. At this place, and all over the provin- 
ces of Che-kiang and Kiang-nan, the Glycine seemed to be at home. It 
grew wild on every hill-side, scrambling about in the hedges by the foot- 
paths, and hanging over and dipping its leaves and flowers into the canals 
and mountain streams. But by far the most beautiful effect is produced 
when it attaches itself to the stems and branches of other trees. This is not 
unfrequent in nature, and is often copied by the Chinese, and introduced in- 
to their gardens. One can scarcely amagine anything more gorgeous or beau- 
tiful than a large plant of this kind, in full bloom. Its main and larger 
branches are entwined round every branch of the tree, and from them hun- 
dreds of small ones hang down until they nearly touch the ground. The 
whole of the branches are covered with flower buds, which a day or two of 
warm weather brings rapidly forward into bloom. To form an idea of the 
efiect produced by these thousands of long lilac racemes, one must imagine 
a floral cascade, or a weeping-willow covered with the flowers of the Glycine. 
There are some large specimens of this kind on the Island of Chusan ; one 
in particular was most striking. Not content with monopolizing one tree, it 
had scrambled over a whole clump, and formed a pretty harbour underneath. 
When I saw it last it was in full flower, and had a most charming appearance. 
The Chinese are fond of growing the Glycine on trellis-work, and forming 
long covered walks in the garden, or arbours and porticos in front of their 
doors. There is a remarkable specimen in the garden of a mandarin, at 
Ning-po. Growing in company with it is the fine new variety introduced 
lately by the Horticultural Society of London, and described in the Journal 
of the Society. In foliage and general habit the two kinds are nearly alike, 
but the new one bears long racemes of inire white flowers. The kind old 
gentleman to whom the garden belonged allowed me to make layers of this 
plant on the top of his house, and during the summer months, when I was 
travelling in other districts, attended tu them and watered them with his own 
hands. — Fortune s Journal to tie Tea Countries of China. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 385 

THE NILES PEAR. 

We are indebted to Wm. V. Pettit, Esq., of West Chestnut Street, in this 
city, for a specimen of the Pear wliich we figure in this number. It is a 
foreign Pear imported by the Hon. Mr. !Xiles of Connecticut — the name is 
lost, and it is now called the Niles — it is thought by some to be the Easter 
Beurre. A full description will be given in the next ad interim report of 
Penn. Hort. Society. 



Even Strawberries of the most distinct sorts, planted out and treated in 
the usual way for a few years, so degenerate and change that they cannot 
be identified by the best judges. W. M. T. in Gardener's Chronicle p. 565. 



Euphorbia Jacquixiflora. — If we take a restrospect of the plants that 
have been introduced into the stoves of Great Britain within some few years, 
not one has preference to the Euphorbia Jacquiniilora (or fulgens) : the 
length of time the flowers continue expanded, the elegant growth of the 
j.lant, if properly managed, and its very long spikes of rich orange-scarlet 
flowers, give it a decided pre-eminence among stove plants. This lovely 
plant is a native of Mexico, and was introduced into Germany a few years 
ago, through Baron Kerwinski, and from thence to Britain by Mr. Bunch. 

Cultivation. — Mix ec^aal quantities of loam, peat, and rotten cow-dung 
with a little sand. If cow-dung cannot be got, any very rotten manure will 
do. Cuttings will strike very freely in sand. After they are struck, pot 
them oif into sixty pots, and shift them regularly as the pots become full of 
roots. It is very necessary to stop the terminal shoots frequently, other- 
wise the plant will grow very tall and slender, and, as gardeners term it, be 
long-' .gged. When the pot is full of roots the plant will flower, even if it 
be small ; but it must be observed, that if cultivators desire to have large 
plants, they must shift them frequently until they wish them to display their 
beauteous flowers. It is a charming plant for winter and early spring bloom ; 
in fact, by proper treatment, a succession can be had all tbe year, and no- 
thing more lovely than spikes a' foot or more long of its sliowy brilliant 
blossom, each flower nearly the size of a sixpence. It does well in a hot-bed 
frame of moderate temperature, as well as in the stove. It may be kept 
during winter in the greenhouse, but must, during the season of rest, be kept 
nearly dry, and give water when you want again to promote its growth. — 
JUlor. Cabinet. 

49 



38 G THE FLORIST AND 

Leaves from my Chinese Note Book. — The wealthy amonst the Chi- 
nese generally select very beautiful spots on the hill sides for their tombs. 
Near Tse-kee, a walled town of considerable size, some fifteen miles to the 
northward of Ningpo, there are some pretty spots of this description. These 
tombs, apparently, are very ancient, for the trees which had been planted 
when they were first formed are now fully grown, and the tombs themselves 
in many instances, are overgrown with weeds and going fast to decay. 
Happening one day in June last to be wandering on one of these hill sides, 
a tree in the distance caught my eye, which appeared very curious and 
and striking. It was one of those Junipers (J. sphserica) which' grow to a 
considerable size in the north of China, and which the Chinese are fond of 
planting round their graves. But although a Juniper at the top and bottom, 
an evergreen tree with large glossy leaves (Photinia serrulata), formed the 
centre. On reaching the spot where it grew, the appearance presented was, 
if possible, more curious and interesting.. The Photinia came out from the 
trunk of the Juniper about fifteen feet from the ground, and appeared as if 
it had been grafted upon it ; indeed, some Chinese in a neighboring village, 
to whom the tree was well known, did not hesitate to express their belief that 
such had been the case, but I need scarcely say this was out of the question. 
Upon a close examination of the point of apparent union, I found that al- 
though the part between stock and graft, if I may use the expression, was 
completely filled up, yet there was no union such as we see in grafted trees. 
There could then be only one way of accounting for the appearance which 
these two trees presented, and which is pretty well shown in a drawing which 
I send, taken by a Chinese artist. The Photinia was no doubt rooted in the 
ground, and had twelve feet of its stem cased in the trunk of the Juniper. 
The apparent union of the trees was so complete, that nothing coulcl be seen 
of this arrangement ; but upon tapping the lower part of the trunk it sound- 
ed hollow, and was no doubt decayed in the centre, although healthy enough 
outside. 

Upon showing the sketch alluded to above to a learned Chinese at Ning' 
po, he, like the villagers, fully believed the Photinia had been grafted upon 
the Juniper; and further, he informed me it was a common thing in the 
country to graft the Yang-mae ( Myrica sp., a fine Chinese fruit tree) upon 
Pitius sinensis, and that by so doingthe fruit of the Yang-mae became much 
larger and finer in flavour. Having been engaged in procuring some Yang- 
mae trees, which the Government of India is anxious to introduce to the 
Himalaya, I was somewhat better informed upon the subject than the learned 
Chinaman. I told him the fine variety of Yang-mae was grafted upon the 
wild kind, which the Chinese call the San or hill variety (Myrica sapida) ; 
and further, I showed him some plin'^' vhich I had just purchased, but all 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL, 387 



was of no use, lie was " convinced against his will," and still firmly believes 
the Yang-mae is usually grafted on the Pine. R. F. — Gard. Citron. 



AOEKATUMS AND IIeLIOTHOPES FOR "WiNTEE BLOOMING. — The Suita,-^ 

bility of these plants for greenhouse decoration during the flowerless and 
dreary months of winter, does not appear to be so generally known as it 
should be. To grow them for this purpose, the cuttings should be rooted 
the same time as Chrysanthemums, viz, the middle of July, and potted into 
three inch pots ; and, about three weeks later, shifted into the pots in which 
they are intended to bloom. Loam of ordinary quality, with a little rotten 
dung and coarse sand, will be found quite good enough to grow them in. 
About a fortnight after their final shift, plunge the pots in a warm border, 
where they can remain till the middle of October. By this time they will 
have become fine bushy plants, well furnished with flowering shoots, and 
should be taken up, the pots washed, and the plants tied into shape, and re- 
moved to the conservatory or greenhouse, where they will continue in 
flower the whole of the winter. As the pots will be full of roots when in 
their winter [quarters, they must have a plentiful supply of water ; for if 
neglected in this respect they lose their leaves, and though they still retain 
their flowers, yet when denuded of their foliage they become unsightly. — ^ 
Ga,ni, Chron. 



WESTERN AGRICULTURAL EXCHANGES, 

Every one regretted the suspension of the most interesting of monthlies 
the Westei-n Horticultural Revieiv. We hope soon to see it announced 
that the health of Dr. Warder, its worthy editor, is suiBciently restored to 
resume his labors. 

The Ohio Cultivator, published at Columbus, 0. on the first and fifteenth 
of every month at $1 per annum, is full of useful practical matter. 

The Ohio Farmer — a weekly, edited by Mr. Thomas Brown, always comes 
to us with something interesting and instructive especially in matters relating 
to stock. 

The Farmer's Companion, edited by a corps of enthusiastic gentlemen 
of Detroit, Michigan, is published at the remarkably low price of 50 cts. a 
year. We recommend it to all engaged in agriculture, stock raising, &c. 

The Iowa Farmer. This is a new monthly, published at Burlington, 
Iowa, edited by Messrs. Grimes and Tallant. It bids fair to become one of 
the best papers in that section. 



388 THE FLORIST ANl) 

The Western Plowloy is the title of a paper published at Fort "Wayne, 
Ind., $1 a year. 

The Prairie F-armer, published at Chicago', Illinois, at $1 per annum, 
is one of the very best of our exchanges. As a useful farmer's paper we put 
it in the very first rank. The horticultural department is under the charge 
of Dr. J. A. Kennicott, -whose name is a sufficient guarantee for the accu- 
racy of that part of the work. 



Since -writing the above notices -we see that uAder the ne-w nanie of the 
Horticultural Review and Botanical magazine, Dr. Warder's paper -will re- 
appear on the first of January 1854. We are glad to know that so talented 
a fellow labourer has sufiiciently recovered his health. The Doctor will be 
assisted by Jas. W. Ward, Esq. The price of the Review is $3 per annum. 



The Farmer and Artiza^i, published at Portland, Me., is a monthly de- 
voted to the interests of the farmer and mechanic — besides articles on agri- 
culture, it contains notices and descriptions of inventions — price $1 per an- 
num. 



Our friends who remit their subscriptions for the coming volume, are re- 
quested to register their letters; — the address is H. C. Hanson — Office 
Florist, Philadelphia. 



A correspondent in Indiana, writes us, under date of December 4, that 
Pansies are in bloom with him in the open air. They are little affected by 
cold ; in a garden in this neighborhood, there was not a week in which they 
did not bloom during last winter. What may appear surprising, a large plant 
oi Abutilon sirza^wm, which had been bedded out, survived the winter ia 
the open ground. It was, of course, much cut down. 



HORTICULTURAL JOURNAL. 



891 



INDEX. 



Achimenes longiflora alba 




33 


culture of 




34 


Aeschynanthus pulcher 


61 


,129 


albidus 


94 


,115 


Ammonia on plants 143 


219 


,238 


Agricultural Exhibitions 




3G5 


Ageratums 




386 


Angroecum bilobum 




31 


Asimina grandiflora 




332 


Arborial Curiosity 




350 


Augusta Rose 


83 


,112 


Auricula 




197 


Azaleas 




329 


Arbutus andrachne 




46 


Azalea exquisita 




116 


Boronia serrulata 




32 


Bad coloured grapes, cause of 




131 


Bedding plants 




48 


Beloperone Amherstoe 






Bejaria racemosa 




332 


Botanical variation in a Nectarine flower 


74 


Book Notices 




123 


Bouvardia leiantha 




31 


Brazilian Vegetation 




66 


Brunsfelsia undulata 




338 


Begonia xanthina 




193 


cultiration of 




194 


Bignonia picta 




115 


Caladium bicolor 




147 


Calanthe Veratrifolia 




339 


Camellia, Mrs. Cope 




1 


A. J. Downing 




149 


cultivation of 




4 


Duca Visconti 




47 


Countess of EUesmere 




59 


Martmii 




59 


Calendar of Operations 24, 52, SS, US 


mo 


178 


281,24,1,279,299, 


338 


369 


Cinerarias 




60 


Chrysanthemums 




45 


Campanula Vidalii 




277 


Cantua bicolor 


60, 95 1 


Cattleya Forbesii 




174 


Chinese primroses 




207 


double 




209 


Chorozema 




78 


Chorlton's cold grapery 




124 


Chysis bractescens 




148 


Cider apple trees, management of 293, 


333 


357 


Cineraria 




100 


Cissus discolor 


255 


316 


Coultas Principles of Botany 




123 


Currants 




323 


Curculio 


142, 


314 


Cyrilla racemosa 




331 


Darlingtonia californira 




337 


Delphinium, Beauty of Charonne 




174 


Dendrobium nobile 




47 


densillorum 




273 


Dictyanthus Pavouii 




316 



Dipladenia splendens 278 

Dwarf pear 110 

Draining — Tile 176 

under 273 

Drying plants 150 

Elvaston castle 9 

Epacris Atleeana 84 

miniata 83 

Erica culture of 75 

Eriostemon buxifolius 84 

Eupatorium canescens 173 

Evergreens 57 

Flore des Serres 256 

Florist's (lowers 223 

Floriculture 59 

Klower gardens 146, 72 
Flowers cultivation of 

Fuchsia, the 175 

Franciscea eximia 33, 47 

Fruit trees 41 

Fruits Random notes on 219 

Farmers and Railroads 366 

Fuchsias, best 45 
Garden memoranda 46, 47, 84, 115, 223, 226 

Grape culture, stray thoughts on 355 

Gardenia Fortunii 49 

Gardoquia Hookerii 148 

Gelsemium nitidum 331 

Gomphrena Hoveyi 277 

Gardener's Society 160 

Gardening, window and yard 113 

German daisies 65 

Glazing without putty 155, 240, 285 

Gloxinias — new 174 
Grape European, cultivation of in America 296 

vines of N. America 104,137 

Grapes, cause of bad colored 131 

Green fly 48 

Halesia diptera 332 
Horticultural Societies 14, 61, 95,286 

Penna. 29,62,89,125,156,183 
219, 307, 316, 315, 373, 375 

Maryland 94, 127, 187, 318 



New York 
Berks Co. 
Genesee Valley 
Massachusetts 

Hoya imperialis 

Hovea celsii 

Handsome Chinese plants 

Houstonia rotundifolia 

Hypocyrta strlgillosa 

Heliotrope 

for winter 

Heath culture 

Indigenous plants 

Indigofera decora 

Ixora incarnata 

Jusiiiiiaini luiilillorum 

.Tatropha pandnro'fulia 



287, 303 
231 
255 
3i;) 
117 
32 
382 
332 

290 

384 

37, 39,81. S2 

114,281, .336 

277 

61 

51 

30 



392 



THE FLORIST AND 



Justicia bicolor 
Kalmia hirsuta 
KirtlancI, Dr. J. P. visit to 
Lantana lilacina 
Leschenaultia I'ormosa 
Lycaste Harnsonii 
Lycopodiiim ccEsium arboreaum 
Mandevilla Suaveoleiis 
Medinilla magniiica 
Jlignoiiette in winter 
Miltonia Clowesjana 
Magnolia acunninata 
Mylocarium iigustrinum 
National Agricultural Society 
New plants 

at Springbrook 30, 47, 60, 
1-73, ; 
Nectarine management of the 

flower, variation in a 
Nelumbium speciosum 
Opuntia brasiliensis 
PcEonia moutan in China 
Pansy the 

Pentapetes phctnicia 
Peristeria elata 
Phaius albus 

Philada. Bot. Association 
Pharbitis limbata 

culture of 
Physurus argenteus 
Pear, summer pruning of 

dwarf 

the Niles 
Plant a tree 
Polytechnic college 
Pimelia Verschaffeltii 
Phyllocactus crenatus 
Pinckneya pubens 
Pitcher Plant a new 
Plumbago Z?ylanica 
Premiums for plants 
Promencea stapclioides 
Pyxidanthera barbulata 
Pinus mitis 
Pacane nut 

new species of 
Pelargoniums 
Polygala cordata 
Polyanthus 



278 


Permanence of varieties 




360 


331 


Quercus heterophylla 




11-7 


- 321 


lyrata 




117 


1-18 


pedunculata 




117 


lb5 


macrocarpa 




117 


276 


alba 




117 


278 


Rhododendron Edgwortbii 




257 


isr) 


Gibsoniii 




173 


115, 317 


culture of 




258 


362 


Rhodostemma gardenioldes 




61 


339 


Rose, Augusta 




83, 112 


117 


Fortune's double yeMow 




151 


332 


King of the Prairies 




172 


64 


Marbree d'Enghien 




174 


44 


Souvenir dela Reine des Be 


ges 


287 


, 83, 147 


culture 133, 


163, 


209, 263 


276, 338 


Queen Victoria 




353 


167 


Salisburia adiantifolia 




117 


74 


Sarracenia, the 




291 


269 


Shade trees 




192 


46 


Saccolabium guttatum 




160 


203 


Blumei majus 




339 


19 


Stachytarpeta mutabilis 




277 


338 


State Agricultural School Convention 


' 93 


338 


Siphocampylos microstoma 




31 


174 


nitidum 




173 


64 


Strawberry controversy 214,217 


,241 


271,273 


277,316 


325, 


351, 


363, 368 


98 


perpfetual fruiting 




252 


148 


McAvoy's Extra red 




270 


130 


Southern plants worthy of cultivation 


331 


110 


Styrax granditiorum 332 — glabrum 


332 


385 


Stuartia malacodendron 




232 


225 


Tempi etonia glaiica 




84 


247 


Tetratheca hirsuta 




149 


149 


TropcEolum azureum 




83 


149 


Tile draining 




176 


331 


Underdraining 




273 


337 


Vaccinium arboreum 




332 


47 


Verbena Princesse Marianne 




289 


32,43 


Vegetable cell 




170 


278 


Vines of N. America, enumeration of 


104, 137 


265 


Vitis Labrusca 




106 


117 


tenuifolia 




108 


117 


aestivalis 




108 


353 


bracteata 






45 


vulpina 




109 


46 


Wearing out of the varieties of fruits 


51 


60 


Window and yard gardening 




113 



9 yk^jl^ 



PPHqh